All about a set of muscle mass. Part of 1
From this fundamental guide, dedicated to the issues of muscle growth, you will learn how to build muscle mass quickly and efficiently with effective training, proper nutrition and a nutritional program.
From this guide you will learn:
- On how to quickly build muscle through the best exercises and training programs.
This guide will provide you with the knowledge necessary for the fastest possible collection of muscle mass. You will learn how to correctly build a weekly training program, what exercises will be the ideal choice, how to make a diet in order to get the most out of every minute spent in the gym. And many many others.
Definitions and generally accepted terms
The proposed list of definitions and generally accepted terms is used in most materials on training programs and muscle mass.
- HypertrophyHypertrophy – increase the volume of muscle cells with the help of training with weights. There are two types of muscular hypertrophy: sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar.
Body types and bone width factor
There are three main types of physique: ectomorphic, mesomorphic and endomorphic.
Ectomorph. Ectomorph is a typical lean guy; he has a subtle body with small joints and poorly developed skeletal muscles. As a rule, the ectomorph has long and thin limbs with sinewy muscles. The shoulders are weak and narrow.
Characteristic features of the ectomorph:
Mesomorph. The mesomorph has large bones, developed muscles and naturally athletic build. Mesomorphic body type is ideal for bodybuilding. Such people easily gain weight and just as easily get rid of extra pounds. They are strong by nature, which is an excellent foundation for the development of muscles.
Characteristic features of the mesomorph:
The endomorph. Representatives endomorphic type – most people are plump, who quickly gain weight due to adipose tissue. As a rule, the endomorph is a small man with thick arms and legs, musculature is strong, especially the muscles of the anterior and posterior surface of the thigh. Endomorphs very easily give exercises for the legs, for example, squats.
Characteristic features of endomorph:
Combined versions of the constitution. Body types are not fixed discrete units. Most of us successfully combine features of the ectomorph and mesomorph, or mesomorph and ectomorph, and it occurs at every step.
Who are you – a beginner, middle peasant or professional?
On DailyFit.ru all training programs aimed at muscle growth are divided into three categories: for beginners, for those engaged with an average level of training and for professionals. To determine which training strategy is right for you, consider the following considerations:
Newbie. A beginner athlete, or a newcomer, has yet to gain a significant amount of muscle mass. Representatives of this category are just beginning to comprehend the wisdom of a quality training program and a relevant diet, and if not, then they waste the lion's share of training sessions and eventually remain at the broken trough.
Average level. Dealing with the average level of training, he filled the first bumps, passed the stage of the initial muscle building and became at least 5-7 kg heavier due to muscle mass. Bodybuilders with an average level of training already know how to train properly and competently eat to collect the most abundant harvest.
Professional. An experienced bodybuilder resting on his laurels: he reached the stage where the main goals are achieved, and the annual increase in muscle mass is negligible. Now he needs a creative approach to the training process and / or competent periodization. In a T-shirt the experienced bodybuilder looks very impressive, and people at first sight understand that this person really "rocks".
Until you learn to eat properly, you do not see massive and prominent muscles. Many bodybuilders pay great attention to the preparation of the training program and leave all the forces in the gym, but they have no idea how many calories and grams of protein they get daily. This is the way to nowhere!
To build muscle, you must follow your diet as carefully (if not more), as well as for the training program. Just the principles of "healthy eating" in this situation is not enough. A healthy diet, of course, is a good and useful thing, but the bodybuilder diet requires a more specific approach to the compilation of a daily diet:
1. Calories. The energy value of the diet should be constant, and the amount of calories should be enough for intense muscle growth. Malnutrition is one of the key obstacles to progress.
2. Protein. You should monitor the consumption of protein. Increasing the daily intake of protein against a background of strength training will help build muscle mass. The human body is in a state of constant "protein turnover": the muscle tissue is renewed continuously, the old cells are replaced with new ones, and for these processes to be productive, a positive nitrogen balance is needed.
3. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates play a key role in muscle growth. First, carbohydrates are a source of energy, and to work at the limit of possibilities, our body needs maximum energy reserves. Secondly, after training, we really need the release of insulin. Insulin is the most anabolic hormone in the human body, which facilitates the transport of nutrients from the bloodstream to muscle tissue. After training, your muscles desperately need energy and nutrients for regeneration and recovery, and this is the only time when simple carbohydrates have a positive effect on muscle growth.
4. Healthy fats. Low-fat diet can not always be called healthy. There are a billion reasons why the body needs healthy fats. Due to the shortage of healthy fats in the diet, sleep is disturbed, the cardiovascular system is suffering, recovery is slowing and the risk of overtraining syndrome increases. In short, to be in optimal physical form, you need to get a certain amount of fat – be sure to watch this.
How to learn to calculate the daily energy demand? First, determine your level of basic exchange (DOE). The level of basic metabolism is an excellent tool for calculating the daily energy requirement, depending on the intensity and duration of physical exertion. The tool is based on proven formulas that give accurate and reliable results. In our calculations we will use two formulas to determine the daily need for calories.
Define your DOE using the online calculator.
Restrained strategy. A restrained strategy of mass recruitment is recommended to those who believe that their weight is within normal limits. If you have chosen a low-key strategy, your energy need is determined by the formula:
Aggressive strategy. Is your weight below normal? Do you consider yourself a "hardgainer"? Then you need a more aggressive strategy. Choosing an aggressive schedule, you determine the daily energy requirement by the formula:
It may very well be that even with five hundred additional calories a person with a low body weight will face difficulties in gaining weight. In this case, add to the daily ration of 300 more calories and carefully monitor the results for the next month.
And remember, all these calculations are good only as a starting point. If you train with all your might and do not see the desired result, increase the calorie content of food, but do it gradually. Do not at one time increase the energy value of the diet by more than 300 calories.
As additional information, we recommend reading articles on the organization of nutrition, aimed at muscle growth:
How to eat people who are overweight?
To build muscle and at the same time get rid of fat is a very difficult task, and if you call things by their proper names, then for most people this mission is impossible. Therefore, in the presence of excess weight, we will go this way:
In any case, you must train for wear and adhere strictly to the nutrition plan.
At the beginning of the journey, people with excess weight, we recommend to concentrate on reducing the proportion of fat mass. A competent approach will create excellent conditions for the development of skeletal muscles, help get rid of excess weight and improve health. If your weight is slightly above the norm, start with:
Your task is to drop from 0,7-1 kg per week. This rate is considered optimal for the preservation, and perhaps a small set of muscle mass against a background of losing weight.
With a more rapid decrease in weight, the likelihood is that, together with fat, you will lose muscle tissue. In this case, add to the daily ration of 200-300 calories and closely monitor the dynamics for the next few weeks.
Conversely, if the weight decreases very slowly or does not stay at all, trim the caloric content of the daily diet by an additional 300 of calories and, again, monitor the dynamics over the next several weeks.
The daily need for protein is a topic for endless and very heated discussions. Ask the expert how much protein is needed for optimal muscle growth, and you will hear one of the answers:
- 150 gram per day. And more 150 gram you do not need under any circumstances.
Which approach is correct? Consider each option under the microscope.
150 gram per day. 150 grams of protein per day is a sensible idea, the only problem is that at the level of 150 grams, the upper limit is set, which makes classic hardgainers overfill their diet with carbohydrates.
For example, to gain weight, you need 4000 calories per day. Then, with the existing restriction of 150 grams of protein, you will have to eat something daily around 600 grams of carbohydrates. It is clear that limiting the intake of protein 150-grams per day in individuals with accelerated metabolism will result in an unbalanced diet.
Two grams per kilogram of weight. This method of counting is extremely popular, but it is not devoid of shortcomings either. Let me demonstrate this with examples.
- Bodybuilder A. Body weight 60 kg with growth of 170, see.
Using the proposed methodology of counting, we get that "bodybuilder A", – the skinny representative of the group, should eat the minimum amount of protein – about 120 grams per day. Meanwhile, this athlete should receive the greatest amount of protein: his weight is below the norm, and he has a huge potential for muscle growth, which will be realized as normal body weight is normalized.
"Bodybuilder B" is supposed to eat about 150 grams of protein a day, which looks quite reasonable. One problem is that if the "bodybuilder B" is a beginner, he has a huge potential, a unique opportunity to gain weight at an accelerated pace, and for this you need to get something about 180-200 gram of protein per day, otherwise you can miss the parts of the crop.
Finally, according to the proposed formula, "bodybuilder C" should receive about 250-260 grams of protein daily. Without superfluous words it is clear that the "bodybuilder C" is already overweight, and we force him to absorb protein in horse doses!
30 / 50 / 20 – proteins / carbohydrates / fats. Using the proposed proportions of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, we run the risk of stepping on the same rake as in the case of the methodology "2 grams per kilogram." But before we go directly to the calculations, let me explain the essence of this relationship.
- 30 – 30% of the daily caloric value you get due to protein. Each gram of protein is equivalent to 4 calories.
The rule "30 / 50 / 20" works well, but it loses relevance at extremely low and extremely high energy requirements. Here are two good examples:
- 1800 calories. In this example, the bodybuilder has a slow metabolism or is in the drying phase. Adhering to the principle of 30%, we must limit it to 135 grams of protein per day. Too little, especially for a person who wants to maintain muscle mass against a low calorie diet.
- 4000 calories. A variant of the program for mass gain, which is suitable for a young bodybuilder or a happy owner of accelerated metabolism. Adhering to the proposed principle, he will eat at least 300 grams of protein (not to mention 500 grams of carbohydrates) daily. Judging by the volumes, this will be a real nightmare for the digestive tract! Where it would be wiser to slightly shift the emphasis towards fat – this approach will allow you to gain the necessary amount of calories, without overloading the stomach with giant portions of proteins and carbohydrates.
In traveling to the realm of bodybuilding, you will find many formulas and recommendations for determining the daily requirement for protein. We propose this approach: instead of counting "grammes per kilogram", remember the simple rule:
Eat 30-40 grams of protein every 2,5-3 hours.
Adhering to this principle, you can vary the daily protein intake in the range from 150 to 240 grams. As a rule, 180-200 gram is enough for any bodybuilder in the natural, of course, if it is not thin, like a pencil, with an increase of more than two meters.
And please do not panic when mentioning 240 grams of protein. Up to the maximum values of the range, only hardgeiners with accelerated metabolism will get. You can rest assured that most of us will not need these 240 grams.
Due to fats, we need to cover about 20-30% of daily energy demand. The higher the demand, the closer to the "30" mark this percentage is selected. As you remember, one gram of fat is equivalent to 9 calories, which in comparison with carbohydrates and proteins makes fats the most concentrated source of energy.
If you need to increase the caloric intake, it is easiest to do just by increasing the proportion of fat in the daily diet.
Determine the need for carbohydrates
Determining the daily requirement for carbohydrates is quite simple. You already know your UBM, it remains to subtract from the energy requirement calories from protein and fat, and you will find out how many calories are left on carbohydrates.
Dividing this figure by 4, we get the number of grams of carbohydrates, which should be received daily. For example:
- Step 1 – DOE. Calculations show that you need to get 3000 calories daily for muscle growth.
Why do we work for mass, but get the accumulation of fats?
It's not uncommon to meet a bodybuilder who spent many months in the recruitment phase, and eventually found that most of the "achievements" come from fat. Why did this happen? There are two possible reasons for this:
- I did not practice well. Many tend to overestimate their efforts in training and do not fully understand what the required level of workload is. Progress is insignificant, the growth of power indicators is minimal, but the athlete does not even try to work at the limit of opportunities in every approach.
Why do we work for mass, but we trample on one place?
On the other side of the scale is a complete lack of muscle growth (and weight gain) against the backdrop of selfless work in the gym. We will notice, too quite typical situation. The reason is simple and simple – too poor diet.
The cause of chronic malnutrition is often the fear that working for weight will lead to excessive accumulation of fats. In fact, this happens very rarely. Even the aggressive schedule of the set does not fill with bodybuilders fat, which strictly adheres to the training program. Yes, some amount of fat will be recruited, but it will be kilograms, not tens of kilograms.
Comments on the aggressive mass gain schedule
The muscular growth of the bodybuilder in the straight is like a glass of water. The more mass you typed (the word was poured out of the glass), the less you will have to dial in the future. That's why newcomers should adhere to a more aggressive strategy, and athletes with an average level of training as the muscle mass should be transferred to a less aggressive program.
If the bodybuilder has already gained some basic amount of muscle mass, an aggressive strategy will only lead to a significant increase in the proportion of fat tissue. Conversely, a restrained recruitment strategy can significantly slow the progress of a beginner.
Also, it should be borne in mind that novice athletes often encounter what is commonly called "novice success". With properly formulated training program, the body weight increases rapidly, but progress slows down over time. Usually, if the bodybuilder starts to work on muscle growth against the background of a normal total mass, the following rule applies:
Summarizing these figures, we are not trying to establish the pace and limits of muscle growth once and for all, but we help set realistic plans and adequately assess the potential for muscle mass gaining. Obviously, if your potential is limited in a particular year, there is no point in adhering to an aggressive strategy.
Calorie and healthy foods
In the phase of mass gain, it is not always possible to compose a menu with an adequate number of calories. Below we list the products that are rich in calories and at the same tasty, useful and do not create a feeling of overflow of the stomach.
The diet of the bodybuilder should not be too complicated. The simplest approach to making a menu is to build a diet around three fundamental meals – breakfast, lunch and dinner. Between meals and late at night, you can use light snacks that will allow you to get more protein and nutrients that promote growth and recovery. When compiling a menu for basic meals and snacks, we will dance from the consumption of protein, and below we will talk more about it.
At first, the simplest example of an effective nutrition plan:
Next, a few rules that will help you fill this plan with content:
- We constantly return to the protein. Your goal is to get at least 30 grams of protein every 2,5-3 hours. The ideal solution for snacks is a whey protein cocktail, cheese, eggs or canned fish (tuna, for example).
Post-training meals. Eating after exercise is the most important item in the nutrition program. After exhausting high-intensity strength training, the body is on the verge of depleting the stocks of many key elements, including protein, glycogen (sugars used for energy production), amino acids, vital vitamins and microelements. The fastest replenishment of these stocks is of tremendous importance in terms of preventing catabolism (decomposition of muscle tissue), stimulation of anabolism (growth and restoration of muscles) and boosting protein synthesis.
In addition, to replenish muscle glycogen reserves and maximize the stimulation of insulin secretion (insulin spike), you can add digestible carbohydrates to this meal. The source of the latter can be glucose or waxy maize (waxy maize). For an optimal insulin spike, you will need about 70 grams of carbohydrates.
Number of meals. How many times a day do you need to harvest a rich harvest of muscle growth? It is difficult to answer unequivocally, because this is another topic for heated discussion, but we will give you some recommendations:
- Frequent meals work. Perhaps you will benefit from rare meals, but nutrition every 2,5-3 hours is the cornerstone of bodybuilding for several decades. There are reasons for this – this rule works, and it works very well.
Responding to criticism of frequent meals. From time to time, there are critical remarks about frequent meals, they say, there is no need for it. It should be noted that few of us eat 2-3 times a day, most intercept something between basic meals – even those who criticize frequent meals. In fact, it is difficult to find a person who does not use coffee breaks and goodies at least a couple of times a day.
The moral is that since you have something to eat between meals (and if you belong to the majority, then you snack), you should listen to the voice of reason and stop at the most nutritious and useful products, for example, on protein.
Alternative approaches to rationing
The following diets should be considered as non-traditional. Speaking unconventional, we do not mean ineffective, fashionable or bizarre. All these diets are known for a long time and are successfully used by representatives of the world of fitness and bodybuilding, but we recommend that you thoroughly study the theory before you try one of them. Some of the alternative approaches to nutrition are a true way of life and are not suitable for short-term experiments.
Paleo diet. The paleo diet is based on the use of products that prevailed in the human diet before the first agricultural revolution – the Neolithic revolution. It was then (about 10 000 years ago) a person moved from gathering and hunting to settled living and farming. Paleo diet apologists say that for most of their history, people did not consume foods such as refined sugars, cereals and high-glycemic carbohydrates.
The Warrior's Diet. Within the Warrior Diet, one basic meal is allowed, during which you get the lion's share of nutrients. For this meal, evening time is selected – a "window for dinner", which opens about 2 hours before going to bed. The main idea of the Warrior Diet is that for most of the day, while you are starving, the mechanisms responsible for survival are included. These mechanisms cause the body to burn fatty tissue, due to these mechanisms, your perception will become aggravated, and you will get rid of laziness, because the body will switch to the primitive state of finding a victim for sustenance.
Short-term fasting. At its core short-term starvation is much like the Warrior Diet. Short-term fasting involves the 16-hour window, during which you do not eat anything, but in the remaining 8 hours of feasting you should get a daily calorie rate. During this period, meals are fed before training, but the emphasis is on maximally abundant post-training meals.
Examples of simple and fast dishes
Dishes with which you will get acquainted in this section are simple and quick to prepare. The main emphasis is on simple, tasty and affordable ingredients. Lunch / dinner can be prepared in an hour, and the preparation of breakfast will take no more than 10 minutes. In addition, we will talk about simple options for snacks.
Quick and simple breakfast options
While the water boils or porridge prepares, slice the banana slices, add to the protein cocktail and whisk it all blender.
Buy frozen chopped spinach, add a half cup of spinach to the pan and about the same amount of grated cheese.
We break two eggs into a frying pan, add canned chicken, cheese and green chili pepper. Stir, fry and make a real burrito with two flat cakes from whole wheat. Season with spicy sauce to taste.
On Sundays, you can devote a little time to making a couple of dozens of mouth-watering pancakes, which are perfect for ham from turkey or meat sausages. If something remains, you will warm up the next day. Pancakes are recommended to serve with natural apple jam, and you can drink a lumberjack breakfast with a large glass of milk.
Two spoons of protein powder, ½ – ¾ cup oatmeal, 1 tablespoon peanut butter, ice and water. We mix all this in a blender, fill the glass and enjoy!
Fast and simple meals for lunch and dinner
We offer you recipes of five delicious dishes, which can be prepared in advance on Sundays. Everything will not take more than an hour for everything.
We need 2 glasses of grains of film and 4 glasses of water. Bring to a boil, then reduce the fire and cook until cooked (until the water boils). We remove the pan from the hotplate and let the kino infiltrate for about another five minutes. Next, add a generous portion of boiled chicken and hot sauce to taste. Mix, spread on plastic food containers.
We cook our favorite (and, of course, useful) spaghetti or other pasta. Drain the water, add the cans of tuna to the 4 spaghetti. We fill our dish with low-fat mayonnaise, sprinkle with grated cheese and black pepper to taste. Do not forget a jar of canned green peas and lay out the food on food containers.
5 large potatoes cut into slices or cubes, add a little olive oil and season it to taste. We put it on a frying pan and bake until the potatoes become soft. While the potatoes are being prepared, we take a kilogram of meat or turkey minced meat, lay it out on preforms, add salt and pepper to taste, fry. All! It remains to connect potatoes and meat and send the dish into plastic containers.
We take 250 g of salmon and mix with five egg whites. We form cakes and fry them in a frying pan (preferably without oil). To prepare an appetizing sandwich, we will have to take a wheat bun and a little onions. While the salmon is being cooked, boil 2-3 a packet of unpolished or wild rice, add a glass of frozen broccoli to the 2-3 rice. We spread salmon steaks and rice on different plastic containers.
Spread the natural peanut butter on whole grain bread, add a couple slices of banana and cover with a second slice of bread to make a real sandwich. Sandwiches lay out on containers for sandwiches. We eat sandwiches together with a protein cocktail, milk or cottage cheese.
You can add to your diet fresh or canned vegetables, as well as useful salads from vegetables, which perfectly match any of these dishes.
Delicacies, which we will talk about in this subsection, are classified as "intercept on the go" – they will take very little time to prepare them. Remember, the main goal of such a treat is to cover your daily need for protein. Snack without protein is a useless snack. Protein is the key to muscle growth and recovery, which helps prevent muscle loss even during weight loss.
Each portion of the string cheese contains approximately 6-7 g protein and only 60-70 calories (low-fat cheese, as a rule, contains 60 calories).
Always keep on hand (at work, in the car, in a sports bag) packing with protein bars. You never know what kind of surprises life is preparing for us; the need to "intercept on the go" can occur at any time.
Just stir in the blender and go! 200 gram of cottage cheese will provide you with 20-25 grams of protein, and 30 gram of almonds – 6 more grams of protein.
Save this fantastic treat for special occasions.
or any other berry
100 grams of curd contains approximately 13 grams of protein and only 111 calories. If you take 200 gram of cottage cheese and add a handful of strawberries or blueberries to them, you will get an amazing high-protein and low-calorie dish.
Only not "calories", but "kilocalories". I'm sick of this general illiteracy. It's a shame.
Very informative, I'll try to eat right