All about a set of muscle mass. Part of 2
Natural muscle growth: expectations and goals
The wide spread of sports pharmacology, in particular, steroid hormones, complicates the process of setting goals for bodybuilders straight people – it is difficult to understand what kind of result can really be expected? Fortunately, in recent years, data obtained in the course of fundamental research devoted to these issues have been published. The results of these experiments help the weightlifter, who is engaged without pharmacology, to set real goals and objectives.
A truly fundamental study was conducted by Dr. Casey Butt. In the period from 1947 to 2007, Dr. Butt studied the dynamics of changes in body weight and anthropometric indicators by the example of 300 successful weightlifters and bodybuilders who did not take pharmacological preparations. As a result of the titanic work, formulas were derived for determining the potential body weight for a given percentage of fat mass.
Over the years, the bodybuilder gets an additional advantage due to muscular maturity. Indeed, 23-year-old athlete very rarely looks as knocked down and sturdy as his 40-year-old colleague. Why is that? Studies show that due to constant work, muscle fibers become stronger and denser with age. Moreover, with age, denser and collagen fibers become denser, and their resistance to rupture also increases. (Recall collagen is an element of the intercellular matrix, which keeps the muscles together). The combination of these factors leads to a more pronounced muscularity.
The forecast for the main parameters of muscle development
What are the ideal proportions of a male figure? And in general, do they exist – the ideal proportions? Legend of bodybuilding Steve "Hercules" Reeves believed that there. In his book "Exemplary physique" Steve wrote about the ideal relationship between muscle and bone tissue. These proportions can be used to determine your personal ideal using a number of anthropometric indicators.
In his study, Dr. Casey Butt was able to suggest an algorithm for determining the potential of muscle development for the bodybuilder in the straight. Take your height, ankle and wrist circumference in centimeters, substitute values in the calculator of ideal body proportions, and you will get a real growth potential for the main muscle groups.
And here's how Dr. Butte recommends measuring the indicators for each muscle group. Measurement procedure:
- Chest – muscles are relaxed (not cut), hands along the trunk, the measuring tape passes through the axillary cavities
In all dimensions, the tape should fit snugly, but do not squeeze the muscles.
Sometimes the process of muscle growth seems to us something like a complex puzzle, which can be solved only by a narrow circle of lucky ones. In fact, this has nothing to do with reality. All you need is not to forget about the key factors of success.
What do we mean by constancy? On training days, you must be at the gym. Dot. Day after day, week after week, month after month, year after year. You will not make progress, skipping workouts every week. If you are unstable in training, everything else does not matter.
To create the perfect physique you will need the perfect tools. Correct exercises are the best tool. The most effective exercises are complex, basic, multi-joint movements and exercises with own weight.
The human body prefers to grow as a whole. Training of one target group can stimulate the growth of other muscle massifs. For this reason, it is very important to constantly work out all muscle groups. If you are aiming for the maximum volume, and even if you, as often happens, want to increase primarily the volume of the upper body, it is important not to neglect the exercises for the muscles of the legs.
You can be a ruthless monster that crushes all gym simulators, but without proper nutrition, you will not grow musculature. The bodybuilder diet is not just a "proper diet". Day after day, you must strictly control each calorie and every gram of protein that enters your body.
In the gym you need to constantly raise the bar, otherwise the muscles will not have an incentive for growth. Look for new exercises, pass to qualitatively new levels. The simplest and most effective method, which will suit both beginners and bodybuilders with an average level of training, is an increase in working weight. In addition, you can move forward by increasing the number of repetitions in each approach (it is not necessary to train every time to failure).
It is important to understand that the organism adapts to specific requirements and adapts to them very quickly. Therefore, if you work with the same number of repetitions for weeks and constant working weight, your progress will very soon slow down, or even stop altogether.
It is impossible to succeed without a balanced training program. For example, giving too much attention to the muscles of the chest, but not working with the muscles of the back, you will create an imbalance that can lead to injury. Overloading the muscles of the chest or hands and not working with the shoulder belt, you run the risk of getting a similar result.
A good training program is always balanced, it provides a comparable load for all muscle groups, incl. muscle antagonists, and a reasonable overall training volume. Chronic imbalance in the training process often leads to problems with the shoulder girdle, inflammation of the ligaments of the elbow joint and other common injuries that permanently knock you out of the saddle. Obviously, the more training you miss, the slower you progress.
The best bodybuilders in the world: what can we learn from them?
On the Internet you can find a huge collection of athletes' profiles of straight people and their training programs. And if you carefully study and systematize all information related to nutrition and the training process, you will be able to identify the following fundamental principles:
To succeed, you need to work hard. There are no shortest paths and simple solutions, there are no magic exercises and magic diets.
To succeed, you have to master the most difficult exercises. For the bodybuilder in the straight, three of the most important exercises are squats, deadlifts and a bench press.
To succeed, you must devote time to learning the correct technique of doing exercises. Work on technology never ends. As the working weight increases, the importance of the correct execution of all movements of the exercise increases.
To succeed, you need to forget about excuses and go to the gym. Headaches and muscle pains, stretching – it happens. In life, many things happen. Successful people do not seek excuses, they just do what leads to the achievement of the goal.
To succeed, you will have to become more familiar with your body. Listen to the sensations, find out what helps you to move towards the goal, and what does not. This applies to the training process, and diet.
To succeed, you have to work hard and eat right – this will be the key to success, and there are no magic techniques. If you train hard and competently eat, you will achieve muscle growth with almost any training program.
To succeed, you need to know what nutrients enter your body and in what quantities. At a minimum, you should strictly control protein intake and caloric intake. "Approximately" or "striving for a healthy diet" are too inaccurate methods. Take the situation under control and draw up a clear plan.
To succeed, your mind must be open to new information. Each week, read through a new article, devote time to studying the habits of people who have achieved their goal.
Acquaintance with muscular groups
Work on a set of muscle mass is directed at 12 major muscle groups:
It should be noted that from time to time you will meet in the training program exercises for the gluteal muscles, but isolated work with them is, rather, an exception to the rules.
Of the 12 listed muscle groups, 4 is considered to be the main, or basic, and most of the training programs are built around working with these muscles. The four main muscle groups are:
- Muscles of the back, including the muscles of the waist
Muscle-antagonists perform opposite functions. The most striking examples are:
Forearms, trapezius muscles and lumbar muscles
You probably noticed that in many training programs there are no exercises for the listed muscle groups. Why?
The forearm muscles constantly work during the retention of the neck, dumbbells or levers of the simulators. It's enough.
Trapeziums receive their share of the load during the usual deadlift, deadlift on the straight legs, press above the head and, to a certain extent, when performing various traction motions. And the muscles of the waist are well loaded in training programs, full of complex movements, such as squats or deadlifts. Therefore, isolated work with the muscles of the lower back can be counterproductive and threatens with overtraining syndrome. In many ways, this depends on the level of development of the lumbar muscles.
There are two types of exercises: basic and isolating. Basic exercises include the work of two or more joints and several muscle groups. And while performing isolating exercises, only one joint and one muscle group work.
As a rule, the most productive are the basic exercises with dumbbells and a barbell, but exercises with own weight and simulators in skillful hands also become very powerful weapons.
Gorgeous Seven: the most effective exercises!
Next, we will tell you which exercises contribute to maximum muscle growth.
Squats are the king and god of all strength training, not a single training program can do without squats. With the help of squats you not only pump up muscular legs, but also give a powerful impulse to the muscles of the upper body. This exercise is somewhat like gamma radiation: it penetrates everywhere and causes an unprecedented release of hormones, every repetition makes the muscles grow bigger, stronger and stronger. As a rule, an exercise with a bar is performed in a special rack for squats.
In terms of its effectiveness, the deadlift is second only to squats (it should be noted that it yields very little). The deadlift will fill you with bearish force and help build muscle piles. To perform the exercise you need a bar, and only the bar.
Push-ups on the uneven bars are often called squats for the upper body, and there is a good reason for that. With the help of push-ups, you work your shoulders and very heavily load the pectoral muscles and triceps. This is a wonderful basic exercise for creating a muscular torso and shoulder girdle. You can perform push-ups on parallel bars.
Even the most powerful and experienced bodybuilders find it difficult to pull even a few times. Pulling up is a magnificent exercise for the back and biceps, and it is this, and not the pull of the upper block, that should be taken as a basis.
Bench press – alpha and omega for the muscles of the torso, arms and shoulder girdle. There are several highly effective options for doing this exercise, including a barbell / dumbbell bench press on a horizontal bench, as well as a barbell / dumbbell press on an incline bench.
As in the case of bench press, there are a lot of effective options for press above your head. Practically any of them – sitting or standing, with dumbbells or with a bar, will be an excellent choice. You can also use Arnold's bench press in your training sessions and press from behind the head. Another popular version of the exercise is a bench shvung.
Thrust rod in the slope and dumbbell pull – great exercises for the muscles of the back. Old-style traction with a T-neck is also a worthy choice. And although a variety of simulators are considered less effective in terms of impact on the back muscles, traction on a low sitting block can be a very difficult and useful exercise.
All exercises can be considered as antagonistic movements within a certain plane. For example. Horizontal plane: chest press and traction towards the chest. Vertical plane: press above the head and pull up / pull the upper block down.
There are three main types of training program: programs for the whole body, top / bottom split, split for specific target groups. Let us consider them in more detail.
Exercise for the whole body is performed 2-3 times a week with interruptions at least one day and is aimed at working out all muscle groups through the use of complementary exercises.
In the pre-steroid era, training on the whole body was considered basic. For decades, it was successfully used by leading bodybuilders from Steve Reeves to Mr. Olympia Arnold Schwarzenegger. By the way, very few people know about this, but a considerable part of his luxurious muscles Arnold increased, inspired by the training program for the whole body of Rega Park.
How to make a program for the whole body
Having reached the training program, we are faced with an infinite number of options. We recommend not to complicate: first the body must get used to the basic power training, and only after that you can be interested in the methods of increasing the intensity of the training process. In this section, we will offer you several effective templates for beginners, with which you can create a training program without outside help.
Exercise for the whole body is done three times a week, but with at least one day of rest between classes. The most common option is training on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Of course, you are entitled to do it twice a week, for example, on Mondays and Thursdays. Two workouts a week is a balanced and effective approach, which will help people who are limited in time not to leave the race.
Basic training patterns for the whole body are built around three basic exercises: squats, presses and thrust.
Developing your own training scheme for the whole body, at the initial stage you can take as a basis the following pattern:
- Different types of squats: squats with dumbbells, squats with a bar, squats with weight, etc.
Always use basic exercises for squats, presses and pulls. These exercises should be the most exhausting part of the training program. Auxiliary exercises can be considered as a supplement to the main load, and, if necessary, as isolating movements.
Typically, training for the whole body involves varying the intensity of the load. The most common approach is the principle of TLC:
T is hard days. High-intensity training; your task is to work at the limit of possibilities, using mainly squats, basic presses and thrusts.
A – easy days. Your task is to work with less working weight or use simplified versions of squats, presses and pulls. For example, you can crouch, reducing the working weight by 20%, or you can use squats with weight.
C – average days. The task is to work with a high load, but not as intense as on a hard day. Instead of sit-ups, you can make a bench press, and instead of a bench press lying down – press dumbbells or press Arnold.
Try to alternately use all the options for bench press: starting with bench press options and ending with all types of bench press above the head; work with a barbell, dumbbells and simulators.
This split can be called the golden mean between full-body training and sophisticated multi-day split schemes. Split top / bottom is very popular in the realm of power bodybuilding, but with proper use it also perfectly suits for creating a muscular relief. In days dedicated to the upper body, you pay all attention to the shoulders, chest, arm and back muscles, and in the days of the lower body work with the legs, waist, abdominal press and deadlifts (various options).
Ideally, a top / bottom split requires four workouts per week, but you can do it three times, just alternating classes.
A split top / bottom scheme is designed for four lessons per week. Here is an example of what the standard schedule of an athlete who trains in this scheme looks like:
Of course, you can do it three times a week:
- The first week – top, bottom, top
In the days of the "top" we perform the following exercises:
- Exercises for the muscles of the chest. Bench press, dumbbell press on an incline bench, etc.
In days of "bottom" we pay attention to the following exercises:
- Squats / deadlift. Various variants of squats, deadlifts, etc.
Split-training for selected target groups
Nowadays such split is the most popular type of training program. As a rule, each lesson is built around one main muscle massif with parallel elaboration of small muscle groups. Split-training is a basic three-day split of "traction / press / foot exercises", and an extreme double six-day split.
With the advent of steroids, bodybuilders realized that they can train longer, more intensively and more efficiently, and recover much faster. So there were extremely complicated split-schemes, which only the tough professionals can. Of course, bodybuilders can also experiment with them, but the latter should still stick to the standard 3-4 daytime split and complicate their training program as necessary, rather than torture themselves with an 5-6 daytime split, when there is no need.
How to create a split-training for target groups
The division of the body into parts opens up a lot of opportunities for us. From now on, we can structure our training program as we please, and there are really infinitely many possibilities. Below we give examples of the most common split-circuits.
Pressures, traction and leg exercises are a three-day split, which looks like this:
- Day 1 – Thrust. Back, biceps, forearms and trapezium.
In this three-day split in one training session, we will work with the muscles-antagonists.
Four-day split for the main muscle groups
Another popular and common split, which provides separate training for pectoral muscles, back, shoulder girdle and legs. Since on the days of working with the chest and shoulder girdle we will partially use the same muscles (deltoid and triceps), these exercises should be divided into several days of rest.
It is important to understand that within the four-day split each muscular group is worked out once a week. Proceeding from this, one should also plan the days of rest.
Do not exercise your breasts the day after triceps and vice versa. Triceps are actively involved in the work during the presses used to study the pectoral muscles. By loading the triceps the day before the breast, you run the risk of fatigue, which will reduce the effectiveness of working with the pectoral muscles. Conversely, if you load the breast the day before the triceps, you drain the triceps in two consecutive grueling training sessions.
Do not train your back a day after working on your biceps. Biceps are actively involved in traction / pull-ups, which we use to affect the muscles of the back. If the day before you trained the biceps, his fatigue can reduce the effectiveness of working with the muscles of the back.
Do not do sit-ups and become cravings on consecutive trainings, since in these movements the same muscle groups participate. Both exercises are designed to work with the back surface of the body, which means that they stimulate the muscles of the lower back, the gluteus muscles, the longitudinal muscles of the back, the hamstrings, and the like. It is desirable that there are several days of rest between these exercises.
Do not focus on direct training trapezius muscles, because they work when performing deadlift, press above the head and other exercises for the shoulder girdle, for example, with the dilution of the hands. To create impressive trapezoidal muscles, you do not need accented training. In fact, there is enough deadlift and army press, and you can forget about exercises for trapezes.
Do not focus on accentuated training forearms. Like trapeziums, forearms are involved in many presses and pulls. Day in and day out, the muscles of the forearm hold the bar of the barbell and dumbbell, and this work is enough to stimulate quality muscle growth. You do not need a direct training of the muscles of the forearm.
Avoid overtraining of the posterior bundle of deltoid muscles. The rear deltas work hard on the day of the back, they are included in exercises for the front and middle beam of the deltoid muscles. If you carefully study traction movements for the muscles of the back, you will notice that the rear deltas are in the same harness as the upper fascicles of the latissimus muscles (they even intersect). A small additional load on the rear deltas is appropriate, but a massive attack with insulating exercises is completely useless – the impressive deltoid muscles you pump without them.
Avoid overtraining the front beam of the deltoid muscles. The front deltas work on wear during the movement movements for the chest and shoulder girdle. These bench movements will become the basis for training the front deltas. You can add one isolating exercise (for example, raising the arms forward) for the front deltas, and this will be sufficient for pumping the front beams of the deltoid muscles.
Include in the training program heavy exercises for the press. As a rule, we return day by day to the same movements and forget about the rule of increasing the load. Therefore, be sure to add exercises with weights and progressively increase your weight – only this way you can create powerful and attractive cubes of the abdominal press. Suitable exercises (but not only listed): lifting of the trunk with weights, reverse twisting and lifting of the legs with weights, twisting on the block.
Do not focus on the muscles of your hands. To train them at the limit of opportunities once a week is good. To load the muscles of the hands three times a week with thirty approaches is counterproductive. Large arms are created with the help of heavy traction and zhimovyh movements. Accentuated work on the biceps and triceps promotes muscle growth (this is obvious), but only if you do not kill the muscles with the number of performed approaches.
But your legs – train, and once again train! Otherwise, you will become another "hand on the chicken legs," which is afraid of leg exercises. Muscular legs are not just great looking, strong legs will increase your functional readiness and raise productivity, which in the end will allow you to jump higher, run faster and leave competitors far behind.
Do not abuse isolation exercises. Isolation movements can be included in the strength training program, but it must be understood that there is no point in making 5 approaches to extending the arm on the upper block if you do not work the triceps with heavy artillery from the basic bench movements.
Push-ups on the uneven bars and pull-ups
Do not underestimate the potential of push-ups and pull-ups. Among all the strength training exercises, only push-ups on the uneven bars have the right to be called "squats for the upper body." The reason for this is their enormous influence on muscle growth, because push-ups are a powerful stimulant of anabolic processes. And if it seems to you that it is too easy to press off, put the belt on and add burdens.
Do not abuse the exercises for the waist, because the load on it is so great. Several additional approaches will be appropriate, and excessive load is fraught with overtraining, weakening and stretching of the muscles, which in the future can lead to other injuries. Exercises for the waist should keep the muscles toned, no more, otherwise you just will not be able to straighten out and drop out of the cradle for a few days.
Factors affecting the frequency of training
Soreness after training and the ability of the muscles to recover are far from the only factors determining the frequency of the effect on the target muscle group. We will also have to take into account the workload that falls on the active joints and ligamentous apparatus (tendons and ligaments), the degree of fatigue of the central nervous system (CNS), and other equally significant factors.
If earlier you have never trained a muscle group more than once a week, but now you want to try a more aggressive strategy, do not run ahead of the engine and do not start with the maximum working weights. Give the body a few weeks to adapt to the new requirements of the training process.
Also note that the higher the working weight, the more time it will take to adapt to the increased frequency of training. Your body must prepare for the specific requirements of a new style of training. Remember that many advanced bodybuilders, who practice frequent effects on target muscles, constantly vary the intensity and volume of the training load. In some workouts, they use large weights and a small number of repetitions, while others take an average working weight and do it with 10-15 (and more) repetitions in the approach.
Analysis of the volume of training load
Many bodybuilders successfully train the target group two or even three times a week. Note that small muscle groups can actually be trained more often, and the main muscular arrays are allowed to work 2-3 times a week only if the total number of sets is strictly controlled.
What is meant by controlling the total number of sets? A typical mistake for beginners trying to train a muscle group several times a week is the desire to maintain the maximum amount of work done. This is a completely illiterate approach to the training process. Regardless of the frequency of impact on the target group, the same number of sets per week should be performed. For example:
Workout twice a week. Let's say that at the moment you are working the pectoral muscles once a week and in total doing 12 approaches. If you are going to switch to a double impact on this muscle group, DO NOT try to do two workouts per week with 12 approaches in each (so you will get 24 set). Instead, make 6 approaches on each workout so that the total number of sets remains the same – 12 per week.
Training three times a week. Let's say you train your biceps once a week and perform nine approaches. In the near future you are going to change the strategy and plan to work with the biceps three times a week to increase the frequency of exposure. In this case, you should NOT perform 9 approaches on each workout (in total get 27 sets per week). Instead, at each training session, make three sets of biceps and keep the number of sets unchanged-nine.
As you already understood, there is a rule according to which it is necessary to adhere to the invariable weekly number of sets for each target group. Now we will tell you how many approaches you need to perform on this or that group of muscles. If in doubt, start with the minimum number of sets, adding approaches only if the existing program is not efficient enough.
- From 9 to 15 approaches per week – the main muscle massifs. This group includes pectoral muscles, back, shoulders and quadriceps.
By training the target group twice a week, stick to the following number of approaches within one training session:
- From 4 to 8 approaches – the basic muscle groups: pectoral muscles, back, shoulders and quadriceps.
Training the target group three times a week, follow the following number of approaches in one training session:
- From 3 to 5 approaches – the basic muscle groups: pectoral muscles, back, shoulders and quadriceps.
A differentiated approach to the number of repetitions
There is no magic number of repetitions. Constantly grow over yourself and in each set to do the maximum possible number of repetitions – that's what is really important, much more important than the chosen strategy. However, it should be noted that adhering to certain rules when choosing the number of repetitions, you will be able to maximize the effectiveness of the training process.
The number of repetitions in the basic exercises. For most basic exercises, it is ideal from 5 to 12 repetitions in the approach.
The number of repetitions in isolation exercises. For isolating exercises, it is more appropriate to adhere to 10-15 repetitions in the set. In any approach with fewer repetitions it is necessary to use too much working weight, and in such a situation you will not notice how to start filonite.
The number of repetitions in leg exercises. Muscles of the legs respond well to a large amount of training load, and therefore do it safely on 20 repetitions in every approach.
Calf muscles and the number of repetitions. Calf muscles – this is some kind of Bermuda triangle, beyond the laws of physics. Some nature has endowed with powerful calf muscles, and they do not need to train them at all. Others were less fortunate, and it seems to them that all efforts to pump caviar are wasted. If you belong to the second category, you can and should experiment. First try 12-20 repetitions in the approach, if not working – without a shadow of a doubt switch to a very large weight with a small number of repetitions or minimize pauses between sets.
Variants of the number of repetitions. To stimulate maximum hypertrophy, you need to work on each muscle group by a different number of repetitions.
- Heavy sets. Option for basic exercises; 5-7 repeats in the approach.
A large number of repetitions – for drying? It is a myth. In the phase of work on the relief, the athlete should not resort to small scales and a large number of repetitions. Using light weight, we are as if telling the body that from now on it has no reason to keep the existing volume of muscle mass. In the relief period, continue to train as hard and with the same weights as during the period of intense muscle growth.
The importance of progress can not be overestimated. Constant advance is the magic elixir that turns a beginner into an experienced bodybuilder. To do this, you must constantly work at the limit of the possibilities, perform the maximum number of repetitions in each set and increase the working weight in a situation where the recommended number of repetitions is given without difficulty. But remember that if you really are not in shape – it's better to stop training. Also, do not train every time to failure. Work at the limit, and when you feel that in the next repetition of the muscles you will be denied, finish the approach.
Remember, your main goal is muscle growth. There is no need to get ahead of time and perform sets without stopping. Great pauses or, conversely, a shortening of rest between sets – these variations on the theme of the training process are suitable for an advanced bodybuilder, but in the initial stages there will be little sense from them.
Rest 90-120 seconds between approaches. Increase the rest to 3-5 minutes between approaches to heavy and exhausting basic exercises, such as deadlift or squats, and when performing isolating movements, shorten pauses to 60 seconds.
The key is to rest until you are completely ready for a new approach. This is especially important for beginners, who still feel some uncertainty under the rod bar.