All about a set of muscle mass. Part of 3
The best exercises for target groups
5 the most effective exercises for pectoral muscles
- Press the bar lying. King among all exercises for the upper body. Bench press is so popular that many singled out for him a separate training day – Monday of the bench press name.
5 the most effective exercises for the muscles of the back
- Deadlift. None of the exercises does not work out the muscles of the back, as does the deadlift. To hold a heavy barbell is a tremendous stress for the broadest muscles.
5 the most effective exercises for the shoulder girdle
- Army bench press. This exercise was the foundation of training for the muscles of the shoulder girdle for decades, it remains so in our days.
5 the most effective leg exercises
- Squats. The king and god of "muscle growth". That says it all.
5 most effective hand exercises
- Pulling back grip. Shocking exercise! Tightening with a back grip (palms facing the face) is a brutally effective effect on the biceps muscle, perhaps it is even more productive than lifting the bar to the biceps.
Prevention of injuries – a pledge of sports longevity
How to warm up properly? The warm-up before the power training consists of three stages:
- Mid-intensity cardio-operations. 5-10 minutes of aerobic training without extreme loads. Starting the training, we often feel stiffness, discomfort, some stiffness and even soreness. Our main task at this moment is to warm up, to a degree, to raise the body temperature, to stretch the stagnant joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons. Give five minutes to low-intensity and medium-intensive cardio loads, for example, fast walking on a treadmill. This warm-up stage should not burden the body – we will save energy for the forthcoming strength training.
Heavy basic exercises. Heavy basic exercises, for example, sit-ups, deadlifts, bench press lying and press above the head require colossal efforts of the whole organism. Before the working approach, we recommend making several warm-up sets.
Warm-up approaches should not overload the muscles or cause a feeling of fatigue. Their task is to prepare your mind, muscles, joints, tendons and central nervous system for upcoming working approaches.
If you get tired during warm-up sets, then you are depriving yourself of a part of the performance during the main approaches and deviating from the set course that leads to muscle growth.
Examples of warm-up sets. Here is an example of warm-up sets for bench press lying. In this example, the first working approach will be with a weight of 100 kg.
- The first warm-up approach. The weight of the neck is xNUMX-10 repetitions.
Isolating exercises. Most insulating exercises require no more than one warm-up approach, and some isolation exercises, such as lifting a torso with weight, you can proceed without heating sets.
Always listen to your body. Feel tight and tight? Make a couple of additional warm-ups.
Does the working weight suddenly seem too heavy? Consider this a warning. The habitual weight is felt as unrealistically difficult in those cases when the central nervous system is not ready to work at full capacity. In this situation, you have two options:
- Slightly lower working weight in this workout.
The role of the central nervous system
The central nervous system, or CNS, plays an important role in the processes of muscle growth. During warming up, you not only knead muscles and joints, but also shake the central nervous system.
When the CNS is toned, and all your attention is focused on the training process, and even very heavy weight becomes easier. This allows you to train at the limit of opportunities and achieve maximum results.
Do you notice that on certain days the usual weights turn into heavy ones? In this way, the CNS tells you that you are not ready for training or your thoughts are occupied by something else. A small warm-up with low weight will help wake the central nervous system and allow you to involve in the training process the maximum number of muscle fibers.
To achieve the ultimate activation of muscle fibers, do not jump over the warming sets and do not skip any warm-up weight.
There is a myth that you can master the technique of doing the exercise in several training sessions. If, with isolating movements, this can be true, in the case of heavy basic exercises, mastering the technical aspects of the training is a continuous and ongoing process.
Big working weights reveal all your shortcomings, and the more experienced a bodybuilder becomes, the clearer he becomes aware of the importance of working on technology. Proper exercise will save you from injury, improve training efficiency, reduce soreness and protect against stretching.
Never relax and do not think that in matters of technology you have reached perfection. While doing the exercise, record yourself on video, show this video to experienced powerlifters and listen to their criticism, advice and recommendations. It will not hurt reading articles and watching video lessons on the technical side of the training process.
What is unloading, and when is it needed?
Unloading, or an easy training day, is a workout during which you reduce the amount of workload or reduce the working weight to allow the body to recover from fatigue or minor damage. However, beginners often plan easy days, and even whole easy weeks, after one single not enough productive training session. It is not right.
Bad training happens. To include in the schedule an easy day / period is possible only after a series of unsuccessful trainings, when the athlete feels that he is really overtaxed or overtrained. During the unloading period, the bodybuilder copes with fatigue and at the same time continues to stay in good physical shape, which in the future will allow you to quickly return to productive training.
Do I need to practice during illness?
Although studies show that training against the background of malaise does not increase the duration of the period of the disease, you can give several arguments why during illness should avoid overexertion. The main reason, because of which it is worth refraining from intensive training during a malaise, is associated with a violation of the CNS.
When the CNS is not able to spread all 100%, it's hard for you to involve all the muscle fibers in the training process. The inevitable drop in power leads to the fact that the usual working weight is felt as superheavy, and this becomes an additional load on muscles, joints and connective tissue structures. All this, in turn, can result in trauma.
If you still decide to exercise during illness, listen to your body, use smaller working weights and drink more fluid.
The following are the main causes of injuries:
- Abundance of hard training.
Abundance of hard training. "Heavy workouts" is a relative term. In practice this means that in a week you do too many repetitions with a weight exceeding 90% of your one-time maximum. Using the table of Prilepin, you can calculate the optimal amount of load, the number of repetitions and approaches, depending on what percentage of a one-time maximum is your working weight. With a weight above 90%, it is not recommended to do more 4-10 repetitions in a week.
For most powerlifters, more than 4 repetitions per week with a weight exceeding 90% of a one-time maximum, this is a mad load. And if you constantly work with such intensity and often take weight above 90%, sooner or later you will become a victim of stretching or trauma that will force you to abandon this shocking strategy.
Frequent impact on target muscles. Frequent training is another path to injury. According to the recommendations, you should limit the weekly number of approaches to the target group:
- The basic muscle groups: from 9 to 16 approaches per week.
To the basic muscle groups we include the chest, back, shoulders and quadriceps. Small muscle groups include biceps, triceps, trapezium, abdominal muscles, hamstrings and calf muscles.
The definition of the training volume is not affected by the type of training program: regardless of whether you use a four-day split or full-body training, you must adhere to the recommended total number of approaches.
Improper exercise. Without superfluous words it is clear that the wrong technique combined with an abundance of hard training is a real explosive mixture. Do not think that your technique is perfect. Continually improve, consult more experienced powerlifters, follow their recommendations.
And listen to your body. Always listen to your body. Do not force yourself, if you started to work, and muscles, ligaments or joints behave as if there were no fuel left in the tanks.
Sports nutrition for muscle growth
The number of products on the market is so great that it is not difficult to get confused in this diversity. In this section, we will talk about the main groups of drugs for muscle growth, talk about their actions and how to use them correctly to get to the goals quickly.
Although sports nutrition is not a prerequisite for muscle growth, it will help you to achieve the desired result faster. During intensive training, you need all the necessary nutrients, and it is extremely difficult to receive them on time and in sufficient quantities at the expense of food alone. To maximize the potential for muscle growth, you will need both the right diet and sports nutrition.
The best-selling drugs for muscle growth
Protein. Muscle growth is impossible without protein, without this nutrient you will not achieve results exactly. Protein molecules consist of amino acids, which are the building blocks for the creation of muscle tissue. Protein powders and protein bars are a convenient source of high-quality protein.
There are two main types of protein powders: whey protein and casein (although, in fact, there are many more). Whey protein and casein should be used in a variety of situations:
- Whey protein is ideal for those who aspire to muscle growth. It is quickly digested in the digestive tract, has a wonderful amino acid profile, almost no fat and is characterized by high biological value. Whey protein will be an excellent choice in a situation where you need a fast source of quality protein – immediately after training or in the morning, immediately after awakening.
Creatine. Creatine is another fundamental drug for muscle mass gain. This is a natural metabolite of our body, which is present in small amounts in food. It's safe, and it's effective, especially if you use it for the first time.
With the participation of creatine, there is a resynthesis of ATP (the main source of energy for muscle contractions) and accelerates the formation of energy. Thanks to this you can do more repetitions, carry out more approaches and take a larger working weight – all this speeds up muscle growth.
Gainer. Gainers will help you to provide processes of muscle growth with energy and building material. For muscle growth and development, more energy is needed than for ordinary daily activity. One person will have enough and a slight increase in caloric intake, while the classic "hardgeyneram" for stimulating muscle growth will have to sharply raise the calorie content of the diet.
As a rule, in one portion of the geyner is contained from 400 to 1200 calories, presented in the form of proteins, complex carbohydrates and fats. Many apologists for an active lifestyle drink geyners in between main meals and thus maintain a high calorie daily diet.
Multivitamins. Perhaps, the multivitamin complex does not seem to be an obligatory preparation for muscle mass, but the correct multivitamins play a significant role in this process and, besides, contribute to strengthening the body. Deficiency of even one vitamin or mineral element becomes a serious obstacle to muscle growth.
A good multivitamin preparation is an integral part of a set of muscle mass, not to mention general health promotion. Athletes need more vitamins than the average inhabitant, but because the usual complex of pharmacies in this situation is not suitable.
Glutamine. L-glutamine is the most common amino acid of muscle tissue. Glutamine prevents disintegration of muscles (catabolism) and accelerates recovery, and the faster you recover, the more often and more intensively you can train! Also, glutamine is the main source of fuel for the immune system and helps prevent the development of many diseases. The more rarely you get sick, the less training you have to miss.
You can drink glutamine all year round, only, try not to take it at the same time with creatine, because these nutrients compete for the same receptors in the intestine. The optimal time for taking glutamine – before training and with the protein cocktail before bed.
Nitric oxide donators. Nitric oxide is a chemical compound that forms in our body and is used to transmit a signal from cell to cell. The fact that nitric oxide accelerates the blood flow makes this compound an extremely interesting tool for bodybuilding, as the acceleration of blood flow allows you to deliver more oxygen and more nutrients to the muscles, thereby helping them to increase in volume under the influence of stress factors. Athletes note a significant increase in pumping muscles with blood while using this category of products. In addition, as part of many nitric oxide preparations, you will find stimulants and energy, organically supplementing the formula of the pre-exercise drink.
Testosterone boosters. With age, the testosterone level in the male body decreases. Additional stimulation of the secretion of testosterone contributes to the effective collection of muscle mass, raises the mood, maintains a healthy sexual desire and has a mass of other beneficial effects. Testosterone boosters often contain such popular components as ZMA, Tribulus, etc.
BCAA и amino acids. Amino acids are the building material from which protein molecules are created. For bodybuilders, amino acids are the most important nutrient, as they significantly accelerate the recovery, growth and development of muscle tissue. The most effective and useful preparations of amino acids are BCAA – amino acids with branched chains. These essential amino acids include leucine, valine and isoleucine.
How to take creatine for maximum effect?
On average, in all cells of the human body, 120 grams of creatine, 95% of which are stored in skeletal muscles, are contained in total. As a rule, muscles can store more 30 or 40 gram of creatine up to a total of 150-160 grams. Of course, the volume of skeletal muscles strongly affects this indicator. We suggest you get acquainted with two approaches to reception (the so-called download) of creatine:
- Fast loading – assumes the intake of 20 grams of creatine per day for 5-7 days, followed by a transition to a maintenance dose of 5 or 10 grams. The standard single dose is 5 gram, preferably with non-acidic fruit juice or with glucose.
Both schemes are effective, and we recommend that you try both slow and fast downloads. Only in this way you will be able to understand which strategy is right for you.
Admission of creatine with carbohydrates / high-glycemic carbohydrates
According to the recommendations, creatine should be taken in 5 grams, washed down with non-acidic fruit juice, preferably grape juice. You can take creatine with high glycemic carbohydrates, for example glucose, as this increases the bioavailability of the nutrient and improves the absorption of creatine in the intestine. Highly glycemic carbohydrates, such as glucose, stimulate a sharp rise in the secretion of insulin, which greatly increases the absorption of creatine. 70 gram of carbohydrates is the optimal dose for achieving a quality insulin spike.
There is no convincing evidence that a certain time is ideally suited for the intake of creatine. However, it is logical and convenient to take creatine after training, because it is perfectly combined with waxy corn and whey protein. There is evidence that the intake of creatine in combination with carbohydrates and proteins in the proportion of 1: 1 significantly accelerates the absorption of the nutrient.
In the fast-loading phase, take creatine better according to the following scheme
- In the morning – 5 gram of creatine with grape juice.
And when slow loading, we recommend using the following algorithm:
- Before training – 5 gram of creatine with carbohydrates of wax corn.
What to expect from the pre-training complex?
Pre-training complexes fill you with energy, create a positive attitude and increase mental focus – all this is useful for overcoming an exhausting training session. If you have already tried the trustworthy pre-training complexes, you know the difference between training with them and without them. Among the obvious advantages are the inflow of energy and energy, the maximum concentration of attention, the increased intensity of training, the acceleration of blood flow and the growth of the volume of training load.
Quality pre-training complex necessarily contains beta-alanine, arginine and stimulants. Beta-alanine acts as a buffer of lactic acid, pushes the threshold of fatigue and helps to train longer and more effectively. Arginine increases the lumen of the blood vessels and accelerates the blood flow in the muscles, and stimulants (for example, caffeine) are responsible for energy, stamina and mental focus.
Nutrient intake before, during and after exercise
The nutrients your body receives before, during and after exercise have a tremendous impact on muscle energy, training intensity and recovery rates. In this chapter, we explain how to properly use nutrition and nutritional supplements to collect a rich harvest after each training session.
Pre-training meals. Consider that pre-training meals feeds your body with fuel for the upcoming training. At this point, you must create a continuous flow of energy to the muscles, which will help to train at the limit of possibilities from the first to the last minute.
This meal should include protein, slow carbohydrates and fats – a full, balanced composition of macronutrients. The ideal source of protein will be lean fish, lean meat or chicken, the correct carbohydrates you will find in unpolished rice, potatoes, pasta and oatmeal. By the way, carbohydrates – the most important element of this meal, as they act as a source of slowly releasing energy, which nourishes your strength training. Be sure to include 30-60 grams of the correct carbohydrates in this meal.
Eat preferably for 1-3 hours before training, depending on the characteristics of the metabolism. Holders of accelerated metabolism should be fed for 1-1,5 hours before the start of the session.
Power during exercise. To slow catabolism and maximize the stimulation of muscle growth, we will need amino acids. Taking amino acid preparations during the training session increases energy generation, prevents the breakdown of muscle tissue (catabolism), and accelerates recovery.
During training, it is recommended to use a quality product based on BCAA, for example, Scivation Xtend or VPX's Power Shock.
Post-training meals. Nutrition after exercise is the most important element of the daily diet, and you can not argue with this. After a ruthless strength training in the body, the supplies of many vital nutrients are depleted, incl. protein, vitamins, amino acids, mineral elements and glycogen (carbohydrate energy source). The most rapid replenishment of these stocks is of enormous importance in terms of preventing catabolism (muscle decay), boosting anabolism (repair and growth of skeletal muscles) and stimulating the synthesis of muscle protein.
At a minimum, at this point you should drink a good portion of whey protein. It is extremely important to use whey protein after training, since this is the fastest source of protein. The intake of the post-training protein cocktail triggers the processes of protein synthesis and the restoration of muscle tissue.
It will not be superfluous to take additional nutrients, for example, creatine and glutamine. You can safely include in the post-training cocktail for 5 grams each.
Do not forget about glycogen and insulin soldering – to stimulate the secretion of insulin and replenish glycogen stores in post-training cocktail you can add digestible carbohydrates. Excellent choice will be glucose and wax corn. Approximately 70 gram of carbohydrates is sufficient to stimulate an adequate insulin spike.
To summarize: the ideal post-training cocktail should consist of 30-40 grams of whey protein, 70 grams of carbohydrates, 5 grams of creatine and 5 grams of glutamine. And as a minimum, you must take 30-40 grams of whey protein on water.
Post-training meal. Eating after training is the final stage of post-training nutrition. Like food before exercise, this meal should necessarily include protein, carbohydrates and healthy fats. As a source of protein, you should choose low-fat meat / fish / poultry, and get carbohydrates from slowly digestible natural foods (whole grains and unprocessed cereals).
The basic methods of high-intensity training
Drop-sets. Time under load. Training rest-pause. In talking about training for mass recruitment, we often use these terms without further explanation. If the names of some techniques to increase the intensity of training put you in a blind alley, then you have come to the right place. In this chapter, we describe the main methods of increasing the complexity of training.
Methods of complicating the training program
Varying with tempo. The repetition rate can be represented in the form of three digits. Here are some examples of how you can vary the pace of the exercise:
Each digit is the time in seconds. The first digit indicates how many seconds you have to raise the working weight, i.e. to overcome the positive, concentric phase of the movement. The second digit is the time that you hold the weight at the top. The last digit is the time for which you return the projectile to its original position before the beginning of the next repetition. This is a negative, or eccentric phase of motion.
Pre-fatigue (exhaustion). Before us is a fairly common method of strength training, the essence of which is the pre-fatigue of the target muscles due to the insulating movement before the basic exercise for the same muscle group. The main goal of pre-fatigue is to achieve insignificant muscle fatigue with the help of an insulating exercise to force the muscles to work at the limit during the basic exercise. Very often, although not necessarily, pre-fatigue is used in the superset.
Post-exhaustion. Post-exhaustion is a kind of superset in which you do two consecutive exercises for one target group – the first is the basic exercise, the second is the isolating movement, and the pause between approaches is minimal. The main task of post-exhaustion is to weaken the muscle mass with a lot of weight, and then finally finish it off at the expense of an isolating exercise.
Superset. Superset – this is two exercises in a row without a pause between approaches. A superset can consist of an isolating and basic exercise for one target group, two basic exercises for one muscle group, or antagonistic exercises for muscle antagonists. Examples of muscle-antagonists are back and chest, quadriceps and hamstrings, abdominal and lumbar muscles.
Trieset. Triset – this is three different exercises in a row without a pause between approaches. The principle is the same as in the supertetwork, but one more exercise is added.
Drop-sets. The drop-set resembles a superset, because you make several successive approaches without rest between them. However, unlike the superset, in the drop-set you use one single exercise. The essence of this method is as follows: after reaching a muscle failure, you reduce the working weight and immediately do a few more repetitions. And so 3-4 times.
Drop-sets are convenient to do with dumbbells or on a simulator, but with the help of an insurer you can apply this principle to exercises with a bar, the only thing is to take care that the pancakes can be removed quickly and without extra effort. An excellent solution will be to use more small 2,5 and 5 kilogram pancakes instead of 15, 20 and 25 kg.
Gigantic sets. A giant set is a machine-gun burst of four exercises without rest between approaches. As a rule, during a gigantic set we work with one target group, although we can also connect the principle of antagonism to alternately influence the opposite muscle groups. Since the amount of exercises in the giant set is really great, you have a unique opportunity to use isolating and basic exercises in various combinations.
Multiple sets. Multiple sets suggest a large number of approaches (usually from 5 to 10) to one exercise with the same number of repetitions and with a constant working weight. As a rule, the structure of a multiple set is such that you do not have time for a full rest between approaches. The purpose of the multiple set is to weaken the muscle by the effect of accumulating fatigue by repeatedly repeating the cycle from a small number of repetitions with a relatively short pause. When performing a multiple set, the first approaches often seem simple, but as fatigue accumulates, it becomes harder and harder to work.
Fiery sets. Fire sets are one exercise performed with a very large number of repetitions, usually 20-30 repetitions and even more. The fire set is often used in the final stage of training for pumping muscles with blood, burning leftovers of muscle glycogen and / or increasing strength endurance. In an isolated form, this technique can not be called a successful choice for muscle growth, but in reasonable quantities and in combination with a standard hypertrophy training, fire sets give excellent results.
Negative repetition (negatives). Negative repetitions involve a slow, controlled eccentric phase of movement. They are used to stimulate muscle growth and / or to train / prepare the central nervous system for work with a heavy load. The eccentric phase of movement is the return of weight to the starting position. In the normal situation, this movement is the preparation for the next repetition, but in the case of "negatives" we pay all attention to the return of weight, i. E. eccentric phase, and do not use the positive part of the exercise (forced repetitions are allowed).
Slow negatives. Unlike usual negative repetitions, slow negatives are integrated into the approach and are not limited to the final stage of the set against the background of muscle fatigue. In a slow negative, you perform a jumper / traction movement at the usual pace, and then very slowly make an eccentric movement. Typically, this phase of the movement lasts from 4 to 6 seconds.
Forced repetitions. Forced repetitions are performed only at the end of the approach, when you have reached the point of "failure", (ie when you are already unable to make a single repetition) and require the help of the insurer. Simply put, first you do as many repetitions as you can, and then the insurer helps you complete a few more repetitions after you reach a point where you can not lift the working weight at all without help.
Training rest-pause. Training rest-pause is based on long-term approaches with the maximum number of repetitions, followed by a very short rest, after which you return to the exercise and do a few more repetitions. Unlike multiple sets, interval training requires you to the maximum possible number of repetitions (before failure) before rest. In addition, the rest periods in the rest-pause training are usually very short and most often do not exceed 15-30 seconds.
The Doggcrapp system (DC-training), a very popular and effective technique for intensive muscle growth, is almost completely built around the rest-pause training.
When to use high-intensity training
We call the above methods advanced, complicated and high-intensive, because they should be addressed only after achieving certain basic results:
- Muscular growth. You have already gained more than a few pounds of muscle mass, and have a clear idea of how to build muscle without the techniques of high-intensity training.
Popular DailyFit training programs
In the DailyFit database you will find hundreds of effective exercises for any purpose and any muscle group. The following training programs can be considered the best of the best for muscle growth.