First, let’s see, is a diet really necessary for atrophic gastritis?
Such a disease as atrophic gastritis is a rather complicated pathology, since along with the inflammatory process there is atrophy of the mucous membrane and glandular tissues. The cells and tissues of the stomach gradually change their structure, up to complete or partial dying, which directly affects the digestive function: mucosal secretion, enzyme production, splitting and absorption of substances necessary for the body are disturbed. Over time, the stomach stops “taking” any food, and the percentage of nutrients that enter the body becomes unacceptably small. As a result, not only the digestive system suffers, but also all organs and systems of the organism without exception.
What can a diet do in this situation? Due to changes in nutrition, it is possible to facilitate the work of the damaged stomach, which allows the food to be absorbed and to supply the body with useful elements and vitamins. Moreover, the stomach becomes easier to work, which reduces pain and promotes faster passage of food masses through the gastrointestinal tract.
Types of diets for various types of disease
In this article, we will talk about what diet is most effective at atrophic gastritis, and in what situations it can be prescribed, and also will analyze possible options for menus and daily rations during the treatment of the disease.
Diet is a rational principle of nutrition, the purpose of which is to provide the body with all the necessary complex of microelements, vitamins, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, while not normalizing the activity of the entire digestive system.
For cooking dishes, a steamer is used, boiling in water and (less often) baking. The food should be as much as possible chopped, so that the digestive system does not experience additional mechanical stress. In addition, finely ground food stimulates the enzymatic activity of the stomach. Rubbing is subjected to all products that are used for cooking. It excludes food that can cause difficulties with digestion – it’s all fried, smoked, fatty, spicy, excessively salty or sour, cold or hot. This list should also include non-natural products, that is, those containing artificial colors, preservatives, sweeteners, flavor enhancers, stabilizers and emulsifiers.
Specialists dieticians are advised to eat very small portions, but often enough, about every 2-3 hours.
Further we will consider the main accents of dietary nutrition for various types of disease.
Diet in chronic atrophic gastritis
Chronic form of the disease is a long-term disease that requires long and patient treatment. The provoking factor in the development of the disease is an improper diet, the use of alcoholic beverages, frequent and illiterate medication. The role of proper nutrition in the chronic course of the disease is undeniable: atrophic changes in the walls of the stomach, proliferation of connective tissue elements where the glands are to be located – all this disrupts the natural production of hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes. The peristalsis of the digestive system is also upset.
With mucosal atrophy, any gastroenterologist will insist on following a diet. As a rule, a strict and sparing food is prescribed. Degenerative changes in the walls of the stomach most often decreases the production of hydrochloric acid, so the food used should contribute to its production, strengthen the enzymatic function of the digestive system. It is necessary to control the intake of all the necessary vitamins of other nutrients with food.
Diet with focal atrophic gastritis
Focal gastritis is characterized by the formation of zones of atrophy of the walls of the stomach. Speaking differently, in a stomach there are zones which cease to carry out the secretory function as the glandular tissue is partially replaced with an epithelium.
More often, with a focal form of the disease, a diet is prescribed. In addition, it is recommended to drink medicinal mineral water for 15-20 minutes before meals. This technique helps to stimulate the work of intact glands.
We recommend the use of herbal teas based on hips, plantain leaves, St. John’s wort, wormwood, etc., for half an hour before meals.
It is forbidden to drink alcohol, as well as food and food, which can damage the already suffering gastric mucosa. If such measures are not taken, then the treatment can last for a very long period, or do not bring any effect at all.
Diet with diffuse atrophic gastritis
The diagnosis of a diffuse form of the disease in most cases means that serious dystrophic problems in the stomach are not yet available. This is a kind of transitional form, when the mucosal lesions are still superficial, however, local sites of degeneration of glandular tissues are already observed. Symptoms of a disorder of the secretory function of glandular cells in this stage are already evident.
Dietary nutrition in diffuse lesions can be more effective than ever, however, if this condition is triggered, negative consequences are unavoidable.
The recommended diet provides a complete diet of the patient, activating the function of glands. Dishes are prepared necessarily in a boiled form, either stewed or baked, but should not be fried. Do not use too cold foods, as well as food with a rough texture (coarse-fiber).
Food can be quite diverse, with the use of meat and fish products. Dairy products, flour products are acceptable. Eggs are prepared in the form of steam omelettes or boiled.
Necessarily introduce in the diet a sufficient number of vegetables and fruits.
Atrophic gastritis with low acidity. Diet
Reduced acidity appears as a result of atrophic processes in the mucous tissues of the stomach. The degree of damage may depend on how large the area is in the damaged area. Deadly glandular cells lose the ability to produce an acid that helps the food to be processed and digested. In addition, the mucus, as well as the enzymes, due to which the process of assimilation of nutrients takes place, is also a deficiency.
Changing the diet is probably the most important stage in the treatment of gastritis with low acidity. The diet should include products that stimulate the production of gastric juice components. Among such products – lean meat, fish, acidified freshly squeezed juices, fruit and vegetable dishes. Prohibited dishes that can trigger the processes of fermentation in the digestive tract: fresh pastries, whole milk, etc. Food should be varied and satisfying. Nevertheless, overeating should be categorically excluded: patients with hypoacid atrophic gastritis eat a fractional method, that is, often in small portions. This allows the food to be absorbed completely, not burdening the stomach.
Diet with atrophic gastritis with high acidity
The development of atrophic gastritis with high acidity is directly related to nutrition, that is, this pathology appears against the background of malnutrition. This means that first of all the patient should make adjustments to his menu.
Actually, any gastritis involves the exclusion from eating spicy, fried and fatty foods. Do not forget about the bad habits, which must also be excluded – this is smoking and drinking alcohol.
The increased acidity of gastric juice should be reduced, and in the presence of inflammation with atrophy, as well as with periodic attacks of vomiting, it is important to stimulate the functioning of the remaining functioning glands.
Take food at least five times throughout the day. At an aggravation of process of a diet adhere not less than 3-х months.
Excluded from the diet are various damaging and acid-forming products: mushrooms, radish, fatty meats, fried dishes, citrus fruits, grapes, soda, coffee, dark bread, spicy seasonings, onions and garlic, mustard. You can not allow food to stay in the stomach for a long time: for this reason, you exclude hot and cold food, as well as heavy and plentiful food.
Recommended the use of low-fat fresh milk. Raw fruit is better to replace with boiled or steamed, as well as mashed potatoes or compotes. Welcome the use of porridge from rice, mango, oatmeal. All products are preferably ground, for example in a blender.
Diet with an atrophic gastritis with normal acidity
Patients with normal acidity of gastric juice feed on the principle of the course of the disease: with exacerbations, the diet becomes tougher, and in periods of remission – is weakened.
When the disease worsens, it is recommended to eat mainly the so-called “slimy” first dishes prepared with the addition of rice, barley groats. You can eat oatmeal on milk or water. To eat follows small doses, but often enough, while chewing a piece of food – this favors the normal function of the digestive organs.
An important point is the normalization of defecation. If the liquid stool predominates, it is recommended to drink freshly squeezed juices from pomegranate, cornelian, blueberry, black currant, pear. With persistent constipation, the emphasis is on the use of juices from carrots, apricots, beets with the addition of mashed vegetables. Also recommended are fermented milk products (fresh).
You should not eat sweets, goodies. It is recommended to drink green tea in the intervals between meals (but not during eating).
Diet with antral atrophic gastritis
Antral atrophic gastritis is accompanied by a lesion of the lower parts of the stomach located almost at the outlet of the organ, at the border with the 12-peritoneum. When antral gastritis often appears morning sickness, rapid satiety with heaviness in the abdomen and an unpleasant eructation.
The purpose of the diet is to reduce irritation and reflex excitability of the mucous tissues of the stomach. Stimulant-stimulating products are eliminated from the diet. Food is allowed, ground to a puree state, or liquid. As a rule, most of the diet consists of mashed cereals, cream soups, and dishes based on dairy products – curds, yoghurts, puddings.
Do not recommend dishes with a high content of fiber, so all vegetables and fruits are served only in processed form (boiled, baked, gelled, etc., but not raw).
Diet with atrophic hyperplastic gastritis
Atrophic hypertrophic gastritis is accompanied by the appearance of formations on the surface of the gastric mucosa – these can be cystic or polyposic lesions. The cause of the appearance of the disease is considered such factors as the use of alcohol, unnatural synthetic products, beriberi, allergic reactions to foods.
Nutritionists at the very beginning of the hyperplastic process prescribe diet food with the exception of the diet of all products that irritate the internal walls of the stomach. These are all fatty foods, pickles, muffins and products and flour, sour and sharp foods, raw fruits and vegetables. It is also necessary to abandon cigarettes and spirits.
Goals of changes in nutrition:
- stop hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa;
- restoration of motility and secretion of the stomach;
- normalization of bowel function;
- stabilization of the hemoglobin level in the blood.
If gastritis is chronic, then dietary intake is likely to have to adhere to throughout life.
Menu diet with atrophic gastritis
First day (Monday):
- I breakfast – semolina porridge, boiled egg, rose hip tea;
- II breakfast – apple souffle;
- lunch – vermicelli soup, boiled bacon with sour cream, apricot jelly;
- afternoon snack – cookies, tea;
- dinner – cottage cheese with yoghurt;
- before going to bed – a cup of yogurt.
Second day (Tuesday):
- I breakfast – porridge with apple and cinnamon, tea;
- II breakfast – a slice of homemade cheese;
- dinner – soup with meatballs, potato-meat puree, carrot juice;
- afternoon tea – half an apple baked with cottage cheese;
- dinner – cottage cheese with sour cream, tea with honey;
- before a dream – a cup of yogurt.
Third day (Wednesday):
- I breakfast – rice casserole, green tea;
- II breakfast – blueberries with honey;
- dinner – chicken soup, noodles with meat, compote of berries;
- afternoon tea – a mashed pear;
- dinner – a piece of boiled fish, jelly;
- before going to bed – yogurt.
Fourth day (Thursday):
- I breakfast – vermicelli with cheese, cocoa;
- II breakfast – apple pudding;
- dinner – rice soup, buckwheat cutlets with potatoes, compote;
- afternoon snack – marmalade, green tea;
- dinner – potato and fish casserole, tea;
- before going to bed – a cup of yogurt.
Fifth day (Friday):
- I breakfast – a portion of lazy vareniki with sour cream, tea;
- II breakfast – berry mousse;
- lunch – soup from fresh cabbage, steam chicken cutlet, tea with currant;
- mid-morning snack – carrots and apple salad with sour cream;
- dinner – milk sausage with rice, tea;
- before going to bed – tea with honey.
Sixth day (Saturday):
- I breakfast – scrambled eggs, tea with biscuits;
- II breakfast – puree from peach;
- dinner – cabbage-carrot soup, potato cutlets with meat sauce, compote;
- afternoon snack – marshmallow, cocoa;
- dinner – a piece of boiled tongue with potatoes, compote;
- before a dream – a cup of fresh yogurt.
The seventh day (Sunday):
- I breakfast – cheese casserole, tea;
- II breakfast – banana mousse;
- dinner – fish broth, baked chicken breast with cauliflower puree, tea;
- afternoon tea – jelly with biscuit;
- dinner – meatball with rice, strawberry tea;
- before going to bed – a glass of yogurt.
Diet recipes for atrophic gastritis
What is interesting and tasty can be prepared for the patient in order to diversify the boring and monotonous menu? There are many options: the main thing is to include imagination and try to think outside the box. We present to your attention a small selection of delicious and healthy dishes.
- Air steam cutlets. Ingredients: 1 kg potatoes, ½ kg boiled cauliflower, one carrot, one onion, one egg, breadcrumbs, salt.
Boiled cabbage we cut into cubes, we admit on sunflower oil with the crushed onions and carrots. We make mashed potatoes, mix it with cabbage, add egg and breadcrumbs. From the received “forcemeat” we make cutlets, sprinkle with breadcrumbs and prepare in a double boiler. Bon Appetit.
- Gentle jelly. Ingredients: a little vanilla sugar, 2 st. spoons of cocoa, sugar, two egg yolks, a glass of jam, 600 ml of sour cream, 3 st. spoons of gelatin, 3 glass of water, a little lemon juice. Gelatin is poured in cool water, left until swelling, after which we heat a little. We beat the yolks from ½ cup sugar to the splendor, add a little lemon juice, vanillin or vanilla sugar, mix. Add 200 ml of sour cream and a glass of gelatin, mix. In the prepared container pour the mixture and put it in the refrigerator. We leave until it freezes.
Prepare the next layer: mix 200 ml of sour cream with sugar (1-2 spoon), add a glass of crushed jam, a glass of gelatin, stir. Pour the mixture into the jelly already frozen in the refrigerator, again we hide it in the refrigerator.
The last layer: 200 ml of sour cream, ½ tbsp. sugar and cocoa mix, add the remaining gelatin. Add the mixture to our jelly in the form of a third layer and place it in the refrigerator until it is completely solidified. Before serving cut into portions and serve.
- Pate eggplant. Ingredients: eggplant, 2 bulbs, 2 eggs (boiled), salt and pepper, vegetable oil (about 40 g).
Eggplant bake whole. After the eggplant is ready, we remove the pulp with a spoon, we do not need skin. Onion is let in the skillet. In a blender, mix the eggplant flesh, boiled eggs, onion and grind. Solim and pepper to taste. Pate is ready – it can be spread on toast or toast.
- Monastic porridge. Ingredients: buckwheat 100 g, pearl bar 100 g, rice 100 g, couscous 100 g, three bulbs, 2-3 small carrots, eggplant, water, vegetable oil (about 60 g), greens, salt.
We cut the chopped onion, eggplant and carrot in a skillet in vegetable oil. In the pot we put washed buckwheat groats, on top of it the third part of the vegetables. The next layer is a washed barley and again a third of the vegetables. Next – couscous and the remaining vegetables. The last layer is washed rice. One liter of warm salted water is gently poured into the container, trying not to damage the layers. Top with sprinkled with herbs and cover with a lid. We put on a small fire or in the oven until the liquid is completely absorbed. Bon Appetit.
What can you eat with atrophic gastritis?
- Bread and flour products: wheat bread (I or II sorts), in the form of crackers or dried pieces, dry biscuit crusts, dry biscuits. Not more than 2-x once a week – pies with rice, apple, curd or meat filling, in a cooled form.
- The first dishes on the water, on a weak broth from fish products, vegetables or low-fat meat, with the addition of cereals, meatballs, potatoes. Vegetable soups without adding pickles and pickled products, soup-puree, cream soup.
- Meat products: dietary sausages, white meat without skin and fat layer, tongue, chopped meat, pates.
- Sea fish with a minimum amount of fat.
- Dairy products – fresh yogurt, cottage cheese, homemade cheese, small amounts of sour cream, cream and fresh skim milk.
- Vegetable oils.
- Eggs in the form of steam omelets or boiled.
- Vegetable dishes from pumpkin, potatoes, cabbage, zucchini, tomatoes, beets, carrots. Vegetable casseroles, stews, mashed potatoes, steam or baked cutlets from vegetables.
- Cereal dishes based on broth, water, milk (diluted in water). Kashi, puddings, pancakes and cutlets, casseroles, pilaf.
- Lean jelly, sturgeon caviar.
- Fruit-berry and fruit dishes: in puree or baked form, as well as jelly, smoothies, mousses, kissel, compote, jams, marmalade, honey.
- Tea made from wild rose fruit, freshly squeezed juices (with compulsory water dilution), tea with milk, cocoa.
- Greens (dill, coriander, parsley, etc.).
What can not be eaten with atrophic gastritis?
- Freshly baked bread, fresh pastries, buns, cakes, cream cake.
- The first dish is made from peas, beans. Okroshka, rassolnik, fat, rich, rich borsch.
- Meat products: smoked products, canned products (stew, canned), fat, fatty meat.
- Fatty fish, fish with bones, canned fish, salted and smoked fish.
- Dairy products: products with high fat content, undiluted milk.
- Margarine, vegetable-animal mixtures (spreads), animal fat.
- Raw vegetables, radish, garlic and onions, mushrooms, pickles and marinades, pickled vegetables.
- Bean cultures.
- Ketchup, mayonnaise, sauces and dressings, vinegar.
- Ice cream, chocolate, products with cream, nuts.
- Carbonated drinks, kvass, grape juice, alcohol.
The main recommendations for a diet can be the following:
- food should be taken in moderation, in small doses, at least 5-6 once a day, approximately every 2-3 hours;
- the ration should be based on well boiled “soft” cereals – oatmeal, buckwheat, rice;
- the presence of coarse fiber in foods and atrophic gastritis – incompatible concepts;
- per day, optimally use about 2800-3000 kilocalories;
- fasting, as well as overeating, are unacceptable;
- food should be served, on average, with a temperature of about + 50 ° C.
The food should be balanced:
- daily intake of proteins – 100 g (of which 60 g of animal origin and 40 g of plant origin);
- daily intake of fats – 100 g (mostly of vegetable origin);
- daily intake of carbohydrates – 400 g (mainly complex carbohydrates).
The proposed dietary nutrition at first glance may seem quite strict, however, this is not entirely true. Many patients eventually become so used to the new principles of eating that they no longer want to go back to eating fatty and smoked foods. Indeed, many of the subtleties of this diet are based on the principles of normal healthy eating – the exclusion of harmful foods, the maximum of useful and easily digestible foods. That is why a diet with atrophic gastritis helps not only to restore the mucosa of the digestive system, but also has a beneficial effect on the entire body as a whole.