Carbohydrates in foods, glycemic index
Isolate monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides.
Among monosaccharides, glucose and fructose are more common.
Disaccharides: maltose, sucrose, lactose.
Polysaccharides are compounds containing hundreds and thousands of monosaccharides.
Entering the body, the poly- and disaccharides split into monosaccharides.
On this basis the division of carbohydrates into simple (fast) and complex (slow) is based.
Simple are quickly absorbed in the intestine and in response receive the same rapid production of insulin.
Slow (complex polysaccharides) cause a gradual, as they split, the flow of sugar into the blood, and the same, slow, release of insulin.
At the rate of digestion of carbohydrates and the formation of insulin, the definition – the "glycemic index" of products is based.
The faster the rate of carbohydrate intake into the blood and the more sharp and high jump in insulin level occurs after the use of any product, the higher its glycemic index.
And, conversely, if the carbohydrate is complex and its intake is slow, then the insulin level in the blood rises gradually, and the glycemic index is small.
The incoming nutrients are distributed in the body as needed: a certain part goes to the needs of the cells, the other is stored in the form of glycogen in the muscles.
The last is the energy reserve.
This is the basis for building diets.
Consuming foods that contain a lot of carbohydrates can lead to obesity.
Below are the data on the content of this food substance in products belonging to different categories.
When compiling an individual diet, it should be taken into account that the amount of saccharides in the same product varies depending on the type of preparation.
So, in 100 g of raw carrots contain 10 g carbohydrates, among them 4,5 g – simple sugars, and 1,5 g – starch.
After cooking in 100 g carrots will already 6,5 g simple sugars and almost no starch.
The glycemic index will change dramatically: 35 – for raw and 80 – for boiled.
When heat treated, complex carbohydrates break down into constituents.
Therefore, the starch became less, and the amount of simple sugars increased.
From the position of a slimming person or with diabetes, raw carrots will be preferable, as it does not cause a jump in blood sugar and will last longer the feeling of satiety.
Carbohydrate content in foods
The data are given in 100 g of product according to the scheme: total carbohydrate / starch / fiber content (fiber) / simple sugars content
Cereals and pasta
- Buckwheat groats 71 / 59 / 10 / 2;
- Pearl barley 75 / 65 / 9 / less than 1;
- Rice groats 77 / 73 / 3 / 1;
- Wheatgrass 70 / 65 / 3 / 2;
- Semolina 74 / 68 / 4 / 2;
- Macaroni from whole wheat 75 / 66 / 8 / 1;
- Macaroni from wheat flour of the highest grade 80 / 68 / 10 / 2.
For comparison: during the preparation of cereals lost about 70% of complex carbohydrates.
For example, in buckwheat, semolina and millet porridge their 17 g (for 100 g of product), in pearl barley and rice – according to 25.
The content of carbohydrates in cooked pasta also falls by 3 times.
Vegetables, fruits, berries
- Fresh orange 10 / – / 2 / 8;
- Bananas raw 23 / 5 / 2 / 16;
- Eggplant crude 6 / – / 4 / 2;
- Peas green raw 14 / 3 / 5 / 6;
- Mushrooms champignons 3 / – / 3 / -;
- White cabbage 7 / – / 2 / 5 (glucose and fructose);
- Boiled potatoes 20 / 17 / 2 / 1;
- Baked potatoes 22 / 18 / 2 / 2;
- Carrots raw 10 / 2 / 3 / 5;
- Carrots boiled 8 / 1 / 3 / 4;
- Cucumber raw 4 / 1 / 1 / 2 (glucose and fructose);
- Cucumber salted 3 / – / 1 / 2;
- Strawberry fresh 10 / – / 2 / 8;
- Raisins without seeds 79 / 3 / 4 / 72 (glucose and fructose);
- Dates soft 75 / – / 7 / 68 (glucose and fructose);
- Candied fruits 83 / – / 2 / 81;
- Hips dry 71 / 6 / 23 / 42;
- Apples are raw 14 / – / 3 / 11;
- Dried apples 74 / 4 / 15 / 55;
- Apples canned 17 / – / 2 / 15.
If you did not know what calorie content of borscht on the meat broth, rather read the article about it.
- Peanuts raw 16 / 3 / 9 / 4;
- Peanuts roasted 15 / 1 / 9 / 5;
- Peas chopped raw 60 / 26 / 26 / 8;
- Peas chopped boiled 20 / 9 / 9 / 2;
- Beans are white raw 63 / 40 / 20 / 3.
- Yogurt skim 8 / – / – / 8;
- Yogurt bold (3,5%) 5 / – / – / 5;
- Egg raw – / – / – / -;
- The wine is dry 2 / – / 1,5 / 0,5;
- Wine sweet 10 / – / 2 / 8;
- Sour cream, 30% 3 / – / – / 3 (lactose);
- Milk, condensed with sugar 55 / – / – / 55 (sucrose and lactose);
- Cow's milk, 3,6% 5 / – / – / 5 (lactose);
- Butter, 81% 1 / – / – / 1.
As you can see, the content of carbohydrates in products of vegetable origin is higher than in other categories.
In this case, the largest number of them in cereals and legumes.
In the process of drying and baking, the content of saccharides of vegetables and fruits increases.
Here the greatest value of simple sugars is fructose, since it has a low glycemic index.
Therefore, when compiling a diet menu, one must take into account not only the glycemic index of the product, the amount of saccharides in it, but also what carbohydrates are included in the composition, and also the way food is processed.
We recommend that you view this in full and video and understand what the glycemic index is:
Yes, I also liked the article. About carrots did not know that the boiled GI more.
Very graphically and interestingly. In principle, a long time with this topic is familiar, but nevertheless refreshed knowledge and learned even something new. And in general I think that such things as healthy food should be covered in great detail in schools in high school (I had nothing like biology lessons, which in my opinion is very important).
Glycemic index is the ratio of proteins and carbohydrates in our body, and it also shows how the level of insulin changes after eating. Glycemic index is divided into low, medium and high indices. For example:
The magnitude of the glycemic index (GI) depends on how the product is processed, because in raw carrots there is one quantity, and it is welded another.
The glycemic index indicates how quickly or slowly carbohydrates enter the bloodstream, but they will flow anyway. So for those who want to lose weight, it is better to avoid a lot of carbohydrates, regardless of the index. But for diabetics, it is necessary to know that fast action insulin kept sugar at a better level.