DASH diet: an effective diet under high pressure
Hypertension is considered one of the most common diseases today. Not only elderly people suffer from increased pressure, but also young people. Particularly at risk are patients who are overweight. Extra pounds create an additional burden on the body and are one of the causes of unstable pressure. Therefore, to cope with hypertension, there is insufficient medical treatment. It is important to reduce weight to the recommended level and adhere to certain rules in food.
The most effective diet, developed by American scientists, is the DASH diet. It is suitable not only for patients with hypertension, but also for those who want to get rid of excess weight. The DASH diet is based on the frequent use of small portions, that is, on fractional meals. Due to this, it is possible to avoid rigid restrictions. A balanced diet in accordance with the DASH diet helps to correct the lipid profile, lower the level of cholesterol in the blood, and also prevent the increase in blood pressure. Patients who adhere to this diet are less susceptible to coronary heart disease, malignant tumors, strokes and diabetes mellitus. Pay attention to the diet DASH is and relatively healthy people who want to reduce weight and monitor the status of their body.
Basic principles of diet with DASH
The main goal of the DASH diet is to maintain a normal blood pressure level, which is achieved by weight reduction and control. To adhere to the principles of this food system is not difficult: it is enough to give preference to natural products, to avoid fatty and sweet food.
Of particular importance is the reduction in salt intake. The maximum permissible volume per day is half a teaspoon. In this case, you should consider both the salt contained in the products, and added to the ready-made meals. Reduce its amount should be gradual.
With a DASH diet, at least 6 portions of whole-grain foods are allowed per day. It can be a variety of cereals, pasta from durum wheat. However, portions should be small. For example, half a glass of porridge or cooked pasta. White bread must be replaced with whole grains, and for one meal eat no more than 40.
Vegetables and fruits are a source of vitamins and fast carbohydrates. In day they can be consumed by 4-5 servings. For one meal it is recommended to eat no more than one glass of green vegetables or one whole fruit. For all other vegetables, the portion should be reduced in half. The use of juices and dried fruits should also be limited.
In a balanced diet, there must be a sufficient amount of protein, which is necessary for the formation of new cells and tissues of the body. In addition, it performs a number of other important functions. The source of protein in accordance with the diet DASH can be any lean meat or fish, as well as chicken eggs. The total weight of these portions per day should be no more than 200 g. The source of protein is also dairy products. It can be milk, cottage cheese, kefir, natural yogurt or low-fat cheese. A portion of the liquid dairy product should not exceed 150 ml. The consumption of cheese should be limited to 50 g per day.
Along with proteins and carbohydrates, an important component of a balanced diet are fats. They enter the body with fish or meat. Patients who follow the DASH diet can afford a spoonful of vegetable or olive oil a day by filling a salad or a sandwich with a thin layer of butter for breakfast.
It is useful to include in the diet DASH oily fish, as well as fish oil in liquid form or in capsules. This will help you reduce blood pressure and reduce the risk of dangerous complications of hypertension (find out more in the article: the benefits of omega-3).
For many, the greatest problem is the need to abandon the sweet. As part of the DASH diet, you can consume these foods, but not more than 5 servings per week. And, they should be small: a few spoons of jam, jam or honey, a bit of bitter chocolate. Gradually the body will get used to a limited amount of sweet, and cope with the temptation will become easier. It is worth looking for an alternative to prohibited products. For example, replace sweets and cookies with dried fruits, natural jam, berries.
A day should drink no more than 2 L of liquid, this volume includes both pure water and other beverages. It is recommended to give up alcohol, but in some cases 1 portion per week is allowed: a glass of vodka, a glass of wine or a mug of beer.
On average, the calorie content of a daily diet is 2000 kcal. Typically, this amount of energy is enough to not feel hungry and get all the necessary elements and vitamins with food. Depending on lifestyle, weight, height and health status, the daily caloric value may vary, so it is worth consulting with the attending physician. DASH diet allows to achieve good results in weight reduction provided all its rules are observed. However, this will require a long period of time.
Recommended foods on the DASH diet
The daily diet of DASH includes the following products:
7-8 servings of cereals and cereals;
4-5 servings of vegetables;
4-5 servings of fruit;
2-3 servings of low-fat or low-fat dairy products;
2 or less portions of meat or fish products;
2,5 portion of fat;
4-5 portions of nuts, seeds or legumes;
5 servings of sweets per week, including 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of jelly or jam, 15 grams of chewy candy or a glass of lemonade.
Here are the approximate "sizes" of what we mean by one serving.
For bakery and grain products:
Half a large roll for a hot dog or a hamburger;
1 a small bun or cake (about 30 g);
30 g of flakes from ready-to-eat cereals are better not sweetened;
2-3 pcs. large crackers or 5-6 small;
Pete (size 10 centimeters, rye or wheat);
3 medium loaf, each about 12 centimeters long;
1 / 2 cups cooked porridge, rice or pasta;
2 dry salted bread sticks;
1 / 5 250-gram biscuit;
1 / 16 double-layer pie;
3 rice or corn cakes;
2 cups of "popcorn" (popcorn).
Attention: a cup is about 200-240 ml
Portion of fruit on a DASH diet:
One whole fruit (banana, orange, peach, apple or medium sized pear);
Fruit juice – 3 / 4 cup;
Mandarin or orange slices, in volume no more than 1 / 2 cup;
1 / 2 cups of any fresh fruit, chopped;
1 / 2 cups of canned fruit in its own juice;
Frozen fruits – 1 / 2 cups;
1 / 4 cups of dried fruits, which are considered more concentrated in nutrient content;
5 large or 7 medium-sized strawberry berries;
1,5 plum of medium size;
2 of medium-sized apricot;
1 / 8 fruit of medium size avocado (but keep in mind that it has a high fat content!);
1 / 2 cup of fruit salad (cooked without sugar and cream);
1 / 2 medium-sized mango;
1 / 4 medium papaya;
2 canned apricot (without syrup);
14 pieces of canned cherries (without syrup);
1,5 canned peach (without liquid).
1 canned pear (without syrup);
2,5 canned pineapple slices (without syrup);
3 canned plum (without syrup);
9 dried halves of apricots (dried apricots);
5 pieces prunes.
1 / 2 cups of vegetables, cooked or sliced raw;
1 a cup of leafy greens, such as lettuce or spinach, or an 1 cup of lettuce from green vegetables;
1 a medium-sized tomato or 2-3 of small tomatoes;
7-8 pieces of young carrots or celery (about 6 cm long);
3 inflorescences of broccoli cabbage or 1 / 3 medium-sized cucumber;
10 of medium-length green onions;
13 medium-sized radish;
9 pods of snow or sugar green peas;
6 lobules of summer zucchini (yellow or zucchini);
1 / 2 cups of lettuce from shredded cabbage or boiled potatoes;
1 / 2 cups of boiled leafy vegetables such as cabbage or spinach;
1 whole green or red bell pepper of medium size or 8 pepper rings;
2 small whole beets, about 5 cm in diameter;
4 head of medium-sized Brussels sprouts;
1 medium-sized corn cob;
7 medium size mushrooms;
1 whole bulb of medium size or 6 small onions;
1 is an entire turnip of medium size;
10 french fries (fried in deep-fried);
1 baked potato of medium size;
3 / 4 cups of sweet potatoes;
1 / 2 cups of tomato sauce to spaghetti;
1 / 4 cups of tomato paste;
1 / 2 cups of boiled beans (if they were not considered a meat dish);
3 / 4 cups of vegetable juice;
1 cup of pea soup;
1 a cup of vegetable soup.
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Meat and protein products in the DASH diet – no more than 2 portions per day. One serving can include:
55-85 grams of boiled lean beef, veal, lamb or lean pork (boneless);
55-85 g of cooked poultry meat, preferably chicken or turkey (without skin and bones);
55-85 grams of boiled fish (boneless). It is allowed and even recommended for heart strengthening the use of fatty varieties of sea fish or preparations of fish oil;
55-85 g of canned fish without sauce;
1 whole egg (yolk and protein) or 2 egg white;
1 / 4 cups of sunflower seeds or pumpkin;
1 / 3 cups of nuts: walnuts or peanuts;
1 / 2 cups of baked beans;
1 / 2 cups soy cheese tofu;
1-1,5 sausages (total weight – about 70 g);
6 shrimp of medium size;
1 / 4 cups of canned lobster or shrimp (without sauce);
4 Pacific oysters or 11 atlantic;
1 / 4 cups of canned salmon (without sauce);
1 / 3 cups of canned clams or crab meat (without sauce).
For dairy products:
1 cup of milk or buttermilk;
1 cup kefir, yoghurt, acidophilus or any other fermented milk product;
45-50 g hard cheese;
55 g of processed cheese;
2 cups of pressed cottage cheese (there is less calcium in it than in hard cheese);
1 / 2 cups of skimmed milk powder;
1 / 2 cups of condensed milk without sugar;
1 a cup of frozen yogurt or 1,5 cups of frozen milk.
In accordance with the DASH diet, at least 2 portions of foods per day containing a sufficient amount of protein should be consumed. They are rich in fish, moreover, the use of even fatty varieties is allowed. For baking, you can take cod or trout. The fish fillets should be washed, greased with olive oil and spiced, and then cooked in an oven heated to 180 degrees in foil. The size of one serving is 80 g. Fatty varieties of fish in this case will become a source of not only protein, but also useful fats.
This dish is simple to prepare, but it has an original taste and contains foods rich in vitamins and nutrients. To prepare the salad, grind the green apple and lettuce, add a few walnuts, sunflower seeds and cranberries to them, and then add olive oil.
In this salad, along with vegetables, chicken is present, which makes it quite satisfying. Cooked chicken fillet and celery, sprinkle with lemon juice, add spices and green onions, and then season with olive oil or low-fat sour cream.
The author of the article: Diet Doctor, Kuzmina Vera Valerievna, specially for the site
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