The most common symptom of bowel disease is diarrhea – rapid (more than 3 times) emptying of the intestine with liquid or mucus stool. With diarrhea, the water content in the feces increases to 85%. This symptom is noted in acute intestinal infections, celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, gastroenteritis, chronic colitis, oncological diseases of the intestine. Acute diarrhea is observed in intestinal infections, and its duration is no more than 2-3 weeks. All other diseases proceed chronically with periods of exacerbations and remissions.
Diet in the disorder of the intestines and stomach significantly limits all possible irritants of the intestine: mechanical, chemical and thermal. Excluded are products that simulate the secretion of the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, pancreas, liver), enhance the processes of fermentation and putrefaction. The dishes are cooked or cooked steamed, served in a liquid, or grated form.
Very hot as well as cold dishes are excluded. There are no restrictions on salt (8-10 g), drinking regime 1,5-2 l in laziness. Eating is organized up to 5-6 once a day, in divided portions and only in a warm form. By reducing fats (up to 70 g) and carbohydrates (250 g), the diet has a lower energy value (2000 kcal). At the same time, the normal protein content (90 g) is maintained.
Nutrition with a disorder of the stomach (intestine) has a number of features:
- six meals a day, the basis of which is mashed, puree, mushy dishes, mucous soups, which excludes mechanical irritation of the intestine;
- the inclusion of products that weaken motor skills: the rich tannin (blueberries, bird cherries, tea, cacao, cocoa on the water), viscous substances (mucous soups, kissels, mashed cereals) and warm dishes. Also indifferent dishes from low-fat varieties of meat and poultry, boiled lean fish, stale wheat bread, croutons, freshly prepared cottage cheese are acceptable;
- boiled and steam cooking methods for all dishes;
- forbidden cold food, which increases intestinal peristalsis. Temperature of dishes 20-40 ° C (warm);
- Exclusion of products that enhance fermentation and putrefaction processes, also rich in essential oils (radish, turnip, radish, spinach, sorrel, garlic, onions, mushrooms).
In case of severe diarrhea in adults and children and with severe dyspeptic symptoms, 1-2 is prescribed for a “hungry” day. You can use 1,5-2 l liquid – it can be a strong slightly sweetened tea, broths of dogrose and herbs.
With chronic diseases that occur with diarrhea, as the severity of the process decreases (diarrhea, pain and dyspeptic syndromes), the patient is transferred to a full A diet that contains more proteins (100-110 g), fats and carbohydrates.
The list of allowed products is significantly expanded: you can eat vermicelli, noodles, vegetables include carrots, potatoes, cauliflower, zucchini, cream, sour cream and kefir, as well as sweet berries and fruits. This same therapeutic diet can be recommended to people after acute diarrhea for complete restoration of the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
After the cessation of diarrhea (in the phase of remission of a chronic disease), patients are prescribed a diet in which the dishes are used in unprocessed form, and vegetable fats are already included and the amount of butter and the amount of carbohydrates is increased. The list of products includes light buns, pies, dairy sausage, ham, cabbage, green peas, beets, oranges, grapes, mandarins, strawberries, watermelon, raspberries are allowed. This diet can restore the function of digestion.
Given the preponderance of dyspepsia (fermenting or putrefactive) with chronic diarrhea, a correction is introduced into the main diet. With fermentation dyspepsia, there is an increased formation of gases in the intestine (swelling, rumbling, uncontrolled, constant separation of fetid gases). There is a loss of appetite and abdominal pain, fast fatigue, mild diarrhea.
Fermentation dyspepsia is due to the prevalence of food rich in easily digestible carbohydrates, which suppress normal flora and promote the growth of aerobic microorganisms. There is a fermentation of sugars, the formation of water, gases and acetic acid.
To reduce fermentation:
- Reduce the amount of carbohydrates (200-250 g, and sometimes up to 150 g) – these are white porridge, sweet fruit mashed potatoes, starch jelly, dried fruits, sweets (jam, candies, cookies, honey), buns.
- Limit the supply of dietary fiber from bakery products with bran, whole grains, nuts, legumes, cabbage, dried fruits, raw vegetables and fruits. This restriction significantly reduces the rate of movement of intestinal contents.
- Sharply restrict (exclude) products that cause gas formation (bananas, grapes, sweet apples, legumes, all varieties of cabbage, milk, cucumbers, oats, turnips, drinks with gas).
- Exclude products with a high content of essential oils (radish, turnip, radish, sorrel, onions, garlic, spinach, mushrooms).
- Increase protein intake (120-130 g) per set of boiled meat, fish, protein omelets, buckwheat and oatmeal.
- Enter the broths of medicinal herbs, which suppress fermentation in the intestine (mint, chamomile, barberry, dogwood, cowberry, dog rose, strawberry leaf, calendula, sage). Decoctions begin to drink with 50 ml per day, and with good tolerability – up to 200 ml per day for 3-4 reception.
- You can use spices when preparing dishes (bay leaves, cloves, peppers).
- Putrefactive dyspepsia occurs with intoxication (weakness, headache), spasms and pains in the rectum. Flatulence not so pronounced, the exhaust gases are much less, but they are more fetid. The stool is liquid or mushy, with putrefactive odor, brown.
- Putrefactive dyspepsia is caused by prolonged use of protein products, which causes growth in the intestine of anaerobes and microbes that cause putrefactive processes.
To reduce putrefaction:
- Recommend a hunger for 1-2 days. You can drink tea and decoction of dogrose.
- Simple carbohydrates include 2 days, prescribe (exclude sweets, sweet crackers) from 5-th day of treatment – rice porridge on diluted milk.
- Required are sour-milk products and vegetable dishes. Yoghurts, ryazhenka, acidophilus and kefir are drunk on 100-150 ml up to 4 once a day.
- Restrict proteins (30-50 g), therefore, reduce consumption of meat, fish, cottage cheese, cheese, nuts, legumes, eggs, buckwheat, semolina and oatmeal.
- The amount of fats also decreases (25-30 g), and carbohydrates are increased (400-450 g).
- Increase the intake of dietary fiber, first introduced boiled, and then raw vegetables. Periodically, vegetarian days are prescribed.
- Suppress the growth of anaerobic flora Apricots, currants, mountain ash, cumin, cranberries, as well as infusions of melissa, pomegranate, wormwood, calgary, oak bark, cones of alder, thyme, oak leaves, sage, dandelion, plantain, so they are necessarily introduced into the patient’s diet.
In the process of aging, there is a violation of all functions of the gastrointestinal tract. In connection with this, with age, not only age constipationBut diarrhea, which is accompanied by dehydration, especially dangerous for this age category. In elderly people, the causes of diarrhea, other than those common to all ages (intestinal infection, poisoning, exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract), there may be serious diseasesmalignant tumor, diabetes, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease), which obliges you to see a doctor and find the right food. From the diet depends on health and life expectancy.
With diarrhea, the elderly people retain the general principles of nutrition, but it is necessary to pay great attention to the drinking regime. Usually, elderly people do not drink a lot of liquids, but in this case, the amount should be increased to 1,2-1,5 l – it can be a decoction of rose hips and herbs, compote of dried pears and quince, frozen dogwood and blueberries, kissels, kefir, sweet loose tea, still mineral water.
Often, indulgence can be caused by foods that were previously well tolerated (this is due to enzymatic deficiency), and with age, it is necessary to make a correction in the diet. The basis of it, even after the restoration of the stool, should be boiled low-fat soups, boiled fish and chicken meat, cereal casseroles, boiled porridges on water and with the addition of milk, curd – that is, dishes that are easily digested and do not irritate the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract.
Elderly people generally do not tolerate fresh vegetables, and after illness they can cause bloating and increase pain in the intestines, in this case, gradually injected puree from vegetables or stewed vegetables, vegetable casseroles, because the body must receive fiber. An alternative to fresh fruit can serve as baked or stewed (apples, pears). In short, the diet should be always sparing and completely excluded foods that are harmful to the elderly: fatty, fried and smoked food.
The large intestine is populated with “useful” bacteria, which inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes and participate in the digestion of food. Reception antibiotics can cause partial death of microflora, while pathogenic flora begins to actively multiply, causing a violation of bowel function, which is manifested diarrhea.
With diarrhea after antibiotics, which often begins several days after the beginning of their admission, in some cases (if diarrhea is not very pronounced), there is no need for special treatment. Normal microflora has the ability to self-repair, and after stopping the intake of antibiotics is quickly restored. As a rule, in such cases the feces do not contain impurities of blood, diarrhea is not accompanied by abdominal pain, temperature and deterioration of the condition.
Diarrhea is noted in 10% of patients receiving antibiotics, and in 1% of cases it is due to pseudomembranous colitis, which is associated with the activation of opportunistic enterobacteria Clostridium difficile. This is already a serious disease. Children are more often carriers of this toxigenic strain, but they have less frequent illness.
More often pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) develops in patients who take antibiotics for a long time and combine several in one scheme. The risk group includes persons older than 65 years who have gastrointestinal tract pathology or have undergone intestinal surgery. There is gradually increasing diarrhea up to 20 once a day. The feces may have a greenish color and an unpleasant odor. Over time, it becomes watery with mucus, sometimes with blood.
The basis of the diet with diarrhea make up mashed porridge from manna, rice (white), buckwheat and oatmeal, which are cooked on water or broth (fat-free). Butter is added in an amount of 5 g per serving, on the day before 50. Wheat bread, but dried or biscuit, is allowed. In the day you can use 200 g not very fried biscuits and a bit of unhealthy dry biscuits.
Soups are also prepared on low-fat fish or meat broth, adding allowed cereals, minimum vegetables, mashed meat, egg flakes, knels, meatballs.
From meat products are allowed: lean beef, chicken and turkey meat, veal, rabbit. Meat is additionally degreased, the birds remove tendons and skin. Meat is served in the form of boiled minced meat, steam cutlets or meatballs. Cutlets and meatballs can be stewed in a saucepan with water. In minced meat, when cooking cutlet, put boiled rice (instead of bread) or semolina. You can also cook pâté from boiled meat.
Low-fat varieties of fish are also prepared chopped (in the form of knels, cutlets, meatballs). They cook, too, in a couple or in the water. Of eggs that are allowed in the amount of 1-2 per day, a steam omelet, they are cooked soft-boiled or added to soups.
Perhaps the use of cottage cheese, but it must be fresh (non-acidic) and wiped, from it you can cook a steam souffle and casseroles. Vegetables are eaten only as an additive, rubbing them, in soups and in very small quantities.
Allowed astringent products: berry jelly from blueberries, mountain ash, thorn, dogwood, quince, bird cherry, persimmons, pears and fruit drinks from them, as well as mashed crude apples or apple purees. With good tolerance, you can use diluted (water 1: 1) fresh juices (only from non-acid berries). The exception is grape, apricot and plum juice, which increase peristalsis of the intestine and have a laxative effect.
Allowed herbal teas, broth of wild rose, cherry infusion, dried cornel, blueberries, tea (strong green and black), still water.