Diet after a heart attack
Arrangements for the organization of proper nutrition of the patient after a heart attack are the same part of the rehabilitation program as drug therapy, therapeutic gymnastics, control over the weight and mental state of the patient. Trying to organize the best care, the relatives of a sick person ask themselves: what does a diet after a heart attack involve-what do those who have recently been on the verge of life and death drink, drink, how not to provoke a relapse of the disease?
Basic principles of a diet after a heart attack
Diet for such a person should be as balanced as possible, contain a full set of nutrients for the speedy restoration of the heart muscle, and not contain too many calories, help to reduce excess weight. It is advisable to limit the intake of salt, fatty foods, excessive amounts of liquid.
Stages of the diet, depending on the rehabilitation period:
Lasts for a week after the attack. The patient eats at least 6 times, in small portions. Possible products – lean fish and beef, steam omelet, cereals, vegetable mashed soups, boiled chicken. Under strict prohibition of baking, smoked products, coffee, strong drinks, chocolate.
Lasts for the next 2-3 weeks after the first stage. Nutrition is fractional, at least 5 once a day, in small portions, in dishes there is no salt. The ration becomes more diverse, from it disappear the wiped dishes.
The period of scarring lasts from 4 a week after a heart attack for several months. Food remains limited in salt content (3-5 g per day), liquids (not more than a liter along with soup, tea and compote), and also low-calorie. In the diet of the patient add dried apricots, raisins, prunes and other dried fruits to replenish the reserves of potassium and magnesium in the body.
Catering after the rehabilitation period
The end of rehabilitation and scarring of the area of the heart muscle affected by the infarction does not mean that the patient can return to the way of life that he led before the attack. Since then, the patient is constantly at risk for relapse of the disease, and he must adhere to certain life rules.
Principles of nutrition after rehabilitation:
Eating lots of fresh, baked, boiled vegetables and fruits, cooked on a grill or steamed. It is not recommended vegetable or fruit preservation, as well as over-fried vegetables.
Attraction of high fiber foods in the menu to increase satiety with simple dishes, as well as to clean the walls of the intestine – bread from wholemeal, cereals, vegetables and fruits, except for very sweet.
Moderate consumption of proteins, for an optimal balance of nutrients, it is enough to eat for a day 350-400 g of cottage cheese, low-fat meat or fish.
Prohibited products for a patient after an infarction
Absolutely prohibited in a sparing diet dishes and drinks containing caffeine and alcohol. Instead of the usual coffee, it is better to switch to the use of chicory, under the ban, also fizzy drinks and cocktails. For the prevention of hypertension, it is recommended to switch to a salt-free diet or use dishes with a small amount of salt on the recommendation of a cardiologist. Replacement of common table salt – therapeutic salt with a high content of trace elements, mainly potassium and magnesium.
You can not include in your diet pastries using trans fats or hydrogenated products derived from vegetable oils. The consequences of their use are negative: on the walls of the vessels such fats leave deposits in the form of plaques, which leads to atherosclerosis and recurrence of myocardial infarction. They contain ready-made cakes and pastries, chips and confectionery products, as well as margarine and spreads, replacing some consumer categories with butter.
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Useful products after a heart attack
It is not at all necessary to invite a nutritionist to get an idea of what a diet is after a heart attack – what to eat and drink during the post-rehabilitation period. The range of useful foods and products is defined quite clearly, most importantly, adhere to the chosen line of conduct.
The composition of the diet after rehabilitation:
Meat – only lean types of meat products are used: chicken meat, rabbit meat, turkey, beef, game. Pork, goose, lamb, as well as ready-made meat semi-finished products and sausages are not recommended to be included in food.
Fats – it is recommended olive, corn, sunflower oils, and in a small amount of natural butter.
Dairy products – all types and grades of milk, kefir, sour cream, cheese should have a low percentage of fat.
Fish and seafood – all varieties of sea fish with white meat (flounder, cod), fatty fish (sardines, tuna, herring), fish of the salmon family (salmon, pink salmon, chum salmon) are useful.
Vegetables and fruits – practically all vegetables and fruits are allowed in fresh, baked and boiled form except sorrel, spinach, radish and radish.
Flour and confectionery products – it is recommended bread and baked goods from wholemeal flour, whole grain and unleavened bread from rye flour and flour with addition of bran. It is not useful to use cakes and confectionery products made of buttery dough cooked on saturated fats or cream.
Drinks – it is desirable that the beverages are unsweetened or contain a minimum amount of sugar (tea, chicory coffee, fruit juices, mineral water without gas).
Alcohol remains under strict prohibition until the end of the patient's life. This rule has no exceptions. Large weight increases the load on the heart muscle, causing it to work with stress. After consultation with a doctor, it is possible to arrange unloading days with light meals for patients who are overweight.
Grapefruit juice is extremely useful for the prevention and treatment of many conditions and diseases. It consists of microelements, vitamins A, B, P, C, carbohydrates and organic acids. The positive effect of grapefruit juice has its effect on liver function, normalization of blood pressure, excretion of stones, prevention of complications of osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus.
Grapefruit juice has one very important feature – it is very long removed from the body (during 2 days), actively affecting the activity of the liver. This feature affects the processing of the body's medicines, significantly changing their properties and the expected therapeutic effect.
The mechanism of action of grapefruit juice:
Juice activates the absorption of drugs through the walls of the intestine.
Part of the drug, previously passed through the digestive tract, is actively digested, causing accumulation in the tissues of the body of the active substance.
An excessive amount of inadequate medication causes an overdose and associated severe consequences.
The most other drugs are susceptible to this action of grapefruit juice for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies, antibiotics, hormones.
So, for example, the treatment of arrhythmia with pharmaceutical preparations against the background of the use of grapefruit juice or fruits of this fruit will not be effective. On the contrary, cardiac rhythm disturbances will only increase, which will inevitably lead to myocardial infarction.
Reducing the load on the heart muscle is the main goal of rehabilitation after myocardial infarction. An optimally composed diet will help you get all the nutrients necessary for a full life.
The author of the article: Diet Doctor, Kuzmina Vera Valerievna, specially for the site
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