Proper nutrition after a stroke of hemorrhagic type is an important component in the complex treatment of the patient, the first step in fighting the disease.
To help the cardiovascular system, reduce the load on it, avoid probable obstructions of the arteries, the patient will have to completely change the food system and get rid of harmful taste preferences.
This is a violation of cerebral circulation. Violation of the supply of blood to the brain region leads to the fact that his work is violated and there are side effects and complications.
Stroke is ischemic or hemorrhagic.
Ischemic stroke is diagnosed if one or more of the brain vessels are clogged.
With hemorrhagic stroke there is a rupture of the vessel, a hemorrhage and a hematoma occurs. The damaged area dies. This type of disease is considered more complex and dangerous than ischemic stroke.
Hemorrhagic cerebral abnormalities in the blood supply are due to hypertension.
Most of the disability of the population falls on this disease: almost 80% of patients who suffered a stroke remain disabled (for life), and almost 50% of patients die throughout the year. In terms of mortality, stroke is second only to heart disease.
The disease requires a fairly complex treatment in combination with a balanced diet. To overcome the consequences of the disease, a person needs, in addition to drug treatment, to adhere to a healthy diet, to maintain a diet.
How to eat immediately after a stroke
Most often after a stroke patients are prescribed a strict bed rest, and they spend in a lying position not one day, sometimes more than one week. At this time, the body overcomes the consequences of the disease, so the patient should be given a liquid and easily digestible food, when digesting which does not require a large expenditure of energy.
All products should be crushed to a thick, homogeneous mass. It is best in this case to prepare liquid cereals and spicy soups from vegetables, mashed potatoes, kissels or a soufflé of fruits. The serving volume should be small. Then the stomach will not stretch and will not complicate the work of blood vessels and heart. Instead of some fruits and vegetables, you can use ready-made complexes of vitamins.
To accelerate the recovery of blood vessels patients need vitamins and minerals. Therefore, natural juices, fruits and vegetables should undergo minimal processing.
To prevent the appearance of constipation, which often occurs in bedridden patients, the daily menu should include sour-milk products and beets, they have a laxative effect.
When the disease recedes, a person gets out of bed, starts walking, comes back to his usual lifestyle, it is necessary to eliminate all factors that can lead to a repetition of a stroke. Smokers need to give up cigarettes, and those who are overweight, lose weight. It is believed that of all the possible risks, more than a hereditary predisposition, is dangerous obesity.
Excessive body weight slows the access of blood to the brain, helps increase blood pressure. During walking in people with excessive weight, dyspnea occurs, heart rate increases. If the stroke has already been, then these symptoms pose a serious danger. Hence, for people with excess weight, a new feeding system after a hemorrhagic stroke is necessary, as medicines.
Patients, whose weight corresponds to the norm, must also switch to proper nutrition, so that the body does not have to spend energy on the assimilation of harmful products. The cause of a stroke is the rupture of the vessel or its blockage – it does not affect the dietary system during the recovery period. The main goal of nutrition after a stroke ischemic or hemorrhagic is the normalization of the heart and vascular system, reducing the possibility of another crisis. And this is necessary both for the patient, who suffered from the thrombus, and for the patients who suffered the hemorrhage.
Limitations in the use of products
Removal from the diet is oily. In fatty foods of animal origin contains cholesterol in large quantities, and this is the main enemy of the vessels. If you constantly consume fatty foods, then inside the vessels, on the walls, atherosclerotic plaques will start to appear, preventing the normal flow of blood.
After hemorrhagic stroke patients should remove red meat from the daily menu, refuse to cook food for fat, exclude from the menu sausages and smoked products, which contain a lot of hidden fat. Instead, enter the menu of poultry (without the skin), which will supply proteins for the restoration of the brain. Dairy products also contain animal fats. Therefore, fatty sour cream, cream, butter, condensed milk for feeding with hemorrhagic stroke is not suitable. They need to be replaced with sour-milk products: natural yoghurts, fermented milk, yogurt, kefir.
With their help, the state of microflora improves, food is better and more quickly absorbed. In an organism with food products, no more than 4 tablespoons of exceptionally vegetable fats should be ingested per day. These fats are considered useful: they help to remove bad cholesterol, the vessels become more elastic. The most useful vegetable oil: olive, corn, linseed, sunflower and others, which are used instead of mayonnaise for dressing salads.
Exclusion of salt. The impression that food becomes fresh without salt is deceptive. With a gradual decrease in the norm of salt in food, receptors begin to work differently, and the food acquires a taste. Vessels will become easier, because in their walls fluid will cease to accumulate, puffiness disappears, pressure normalizes, brain work will not be disturbed. In soups and second courses, salt can be replaced with parsley and dill, and in salads – juice of lemon or cranberries.
Replacement of foods high in carbohydrates. Confectionery and sweets contain fast carbohydrates. They are quickly absorbed and cause the release of insulin. In this case, the blood flows to the brain, the person feels a rapid heartbeat. Use after a stroke of such products does not bring benefits, but on the contrary, further weakens the body. But you do not need to refuse sugars completely. After all, they contain endorphins – special substances that create a good mood and a sense of happiness. Everyone can get a drop of good mood from useful products: honey, fruit or dried fruit. And in dried fruits contains potassium – an element that strengthens the vascular walls. Useful and bitter chocolate, but not every day and no more 1-2 pieces.
What should be in the ration necessarily
In addition to restrictions, the post-diets diet also requires the inclusion of products that must necessarily enter the menu: they contain substances that contribute to the rapid recovery of blood vessels and brain activity. These are products like:
- Vegetables (in particular, beets, spinach and cabbage), which affect the speed of biochemical processes in the body. Spinach still promotes weight loss.
- Blueberries and cranberries. These berries are strong antioxidants, removing free radicals from the body and destroying fat deposits on the walls of blood vessels.
- Bread with bran. This product contains vitamin B6, which reduces the likelihood of recurrence of the disease.
- Sea fish. Included in the fish polyunsaturated Omega-3 fatty acids also destroy atherosclerotic deposits on the walls of the vessels. In addition, the fish contains phosphorus, without which the brain can not work properly. The most useful salmon, unsalted herring, tuna. You can include seafood dishes in the menu, and shrimp and caviar is best avoided.
- Green tea, helping to reduce the effects of intoxication of the body, which appears due to the use of a large number of drugs.
- Clean water, which affects the processes of metabolism and blood thinning.
If a healthy diet becomes a habit, a stroke can be overcome.
In addition to dieting, you need to move a lot and not have bad habits.
If you are over forty and you do not remember when you last measured your pressure, it’s imprudent. Especially if you like fried, fatty foods, pickles different, smoked. The physiological norm of salt is 5 g per day. And many of this salt on 15-20 g per day is consumed, and then wonder where this pressure is increased.
The salt sharply delays water, which means it increases the volume of the circulating fluid and the load on the heart.
Many remain fans of the traditional “chicken and pork cracklings.” That’s why we are literally chased by hypertension, stroke. Or, in other words, apoplexy, a “brainstorm”. Often this means a sure death or months and years of miserable existence.
And it all begins with weakness, numbness in the hands, feet, especially on the one hand, sudden deterioration of vision: everything is blurred or darkens in the eyes (usually in one), objects begin to double. Dizziness or loss of balance is possible, difficulties arise in the pronunciation of words.
The brain is affected. It contains more than 10 billions of nerve cells, which continuously interact, defining each movement and sensation, each our thought. As soon as any part of the brain is deprived of food even for a few seconds, the death of nerve cells immediately begins. This phenomenon is called ischemia, or oxygen starvation.
If the stroke “strikes” in the left hemisphere, it becomes difficult to speak, the person utters only short phrases. If the site of the motor zone of the right hemisphere suffers, there is a paresis – restriction of the volume of movement of the limbs or paralysis – a complete lack of movements of the left arm and leg. If the “blow” falls on the left hemisphere, the right arm and leg are affected.
There are two types of stroke: hemorrhagic and ischemic
Hemorrhage in the brain due to rupture of the arteries. This “blow” often affects young energetic people. They may not even suspect that in the cerebral arteries they have small protrusions – aneurysms, thinning. These fissures are prone to rupture, especially under stress and increased pressure.
Initially, there is often unexplained severe headache, nausea, or fever for a short time. Man sharply loses consciousness. Help in this case can only surgery on the brain.
Characterized by cessation or a sharp decrease in blood circulation of individual parts of the brain. This may be associated with a thrombus of the main vessel, or with the closure of its atherosclerotic plaque. More often this “blow” beats people after 60 years.
To distinguish ischemic stroke from hemorrhage in the brain is possible only in the clinic, performing a puncture of the spinal cord and finding in the liquid traces of blood, which indirectly indicates a hemorrhage in the ventricles of the brain. And the tactics in treating the two species are completely different. That’s why doctors do not recommend giving such patients any medicines.
The second direction in preventing a stroke is diet. It is important to exclude increased intake of salt, fat. But fruits and vegetables with sunflower oil should be eaten more. And sweets, sweets with success can replace dates, dried apricots, sunflower seeds (especially pumpkin), raisins.
Often, eat fish, sea kale, and after a month you will feel how your vessels and joints will be cleaned. Perhaps in this way you can avoid a “blow” on the brain. Well, if it happened, it is important that the period of medical assistance does not exceed 6 hours. This is the so-called “bright window” – when you can still help.
If to you for 50, and pressure at you zashkalivaet for 150, do not think, what is it your working pressure. In recent years, medical opinion on this issue has changed. No matter how old you are, your pressure should not be higher than 140 at 90 mmHg. post. Accepting such available herbs as hawthorn (fruit), peony (roots), valerian, motherwort will calm the excited heart, strengthen the walls of the vessels.
Diet after hemorrhagic stroke in the first few days requires special attention, in some cases, resort to intravenous feeding, that is, the introduction of nutrients directly into the blood, as the patient is difficult to swallow. Feed the patient in small portions, with a small spoon, and drink from a tube, given that it is difficult for him to open his mouth and do any movement.
Against the backdrop of a painful swallowing, a person may refuse food altogether, but at that moment, support of relatives and work with a psychotherapist is necessary, since the condition can worsen, the psychotraumatic factor becomes entrenched, then dysphagia will be a permanent symptom. While there is work with the patient, the food is administered intravenously.
When the swallowing comes back to normal, and a person can eat himself, you can start feeding from liquid food. Diet after the stroke in the early days is limited to broths, ground vegetable soups, cream, tea and before meals must give the patient vitamins. Gradually, the food is diluted with grated vegetables, porridges, steam cutlets, meatballs, potato, pumpkin puree.
General principles of nutrition of patients with hemorrhagic stroke
- Diet after a stroke should be balanced, and the basis of nutrition are ground fruits, vegetables, cereals and lean meat, that is, those foods that are both nutritious, rich in vitamins and trace elements.
- In the medical diet should be present purple products, vegetables and fruits containing anthocyanidins, which reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and brain disorders.
- After a hemorrhagic stroke, it is useful to eat carrots, which was revealed by research, which involved about 90 000 people. The risk of stroke was lower at 70% in a group of people who ate carrots daily.
- Frequent eating of meat contributes to the appearance of hemorrhagic stroke.
- Harmful saturated fats and dairy products should be limited, like red meat, margarine, which increase the level of cholesterol and lead to the formation of fatty plaques.
- The diet should be supplemented with products such as broccoli, asparagus, fish, nuts, spinach, peas. They are sources of vitamins, and favorably affect the weakened body.
- The patient should eat more foods that contain potassium, because he prevents the increase in blood pressure and its sufficient number is the prevention of hemorrhagic, ischemic stroke.
The main risk factor for the appearance of cerebral disorders and pathologies of the circulatory system is elevated blood pressure, and sodium can contribute to this. This element should be limited, which can be achieved by excluding salt and refusing restaurant food.
It also excludes the use of harmful fats to reduce cholesterol. These are any fried foods, butter, milk and other foods and dishes in which oil is present.
Diet after a stroke should contain monounsaturated fats, which are in olives, soy. It is useful for patients to eat sea fish several times a week, but exclude herring and fatty fish.
Increases the amount of fiber in the diet, which automatically lowers cholesterol. To do this, you need to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, and monitor the amount of water you drink.
Restrictions and permitted products
The correct diet after a stroke is built taking into account the medicines prescribed by the doctor and the general condition of the patient.
- Most drugs that are prescribed after a hemorrhagic stroke interact with food.
- Salt is the number one enemy for people suffering from high blood pressure and having suffered a stroke, therefore it is worth reminding more than once that it is sharply limited. We must carefully choose ready meals in the supermarket, or ordering in a restaurant, specify the amount of salt.
- After a stroke in patients, constipation is often observed, so you need to unload the intestines and take easy-to-digest food. The products should promote peristalsis and contain a lot of fiber and organic acids.
- It is necessary to add dried fruits, prunes, dried apricots, honey, fresh vegetable and fruit juices, black bread, kefir to the diet.
- Strictly limited to the addition of spices in dishes, it is forbidden to drink coffee and strong tea, alcoholic and low alcoholic beverages often under absolute prohibition.
For constipation after a stroke, it is recommended to drink more mineral water and, if necessary, resort to laxatives and enemas.
When choosing a diet, you must strictly follow the limitations of the doctor who picks up the diet, taking into account not only the underlying ailment, but also the concomitant diseases. With the improvement of the patient’s condition, the diet can vary, but this is also done under the supervision of the attending physician. Together with the diet it is important to normalize the daily routine, limit physical activity, exclude stress factors that immediately affect a person’s well-being after a hemorrhagic stroke.
Causes, Symptoms and Features of Nutrition During Stroke ^
Violation of cerebral circulation arises due to overlapping thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque lumen of the vessel feeding the brain – ischemic stroke. Or there is a rupture of the vascular wall and a hemorrhage in the brain – a hemorrhagic stroke.
- Provocateur of ischemic disorders is atherosclerosis, rheumatic heart disease, a previous heart attack, heart surgery, myocarditis of infectious origin. Alcohol, smoking and stress also increase the risk of a stroke.
- The main culprit of hemorrhagic cerebral abnormalities in the blood supply is hypertension. The vessel does not withstand pressure, bursts and blood spills in the brain – as a result, the damaged area dies. This type of disturbance can also be provoked by narcotic drugs, an aneurysm of the cerebral artery or a tumor of the vessel.
Stroke is dangerous because at the first stages the symptoms are not pronounced and precious time (the first 6 hours) for rendering urgent help is hopelessly lost.
- In the beginning there is a giddiness, a numbness of a cheek and an arm or a hand; speech slightly changes, vision can appear.
- Then there is confusion, headache, convulsions, vomiting, neck stiffness, coma, disorientation and fever.
Treatment and recovery after a long-term attack. Correct nutrition plays an important role in the complex of therapeutic measures. The patient, who suffered this severe disease, needs a lot of energy to restore health, so his diet should be rich in vitamins, fiber, minerals and all nutrients necessary for life.
- Fatty grades of fish and meat, including sausages, semi-finished products, rich broths.
- Marinated, smoked, fried.
- Fatty dairy products.
- Fried potatoes, beans, radish, sorrel, mushrooms, spinach, grapes.
- Buns, the croup is not recommended.
- Strong tea, coffee, soda and very sweet drinks.
- Chocolate, ice cream, fondant, fatty creams.
- Boiled or baked chicken, turkey, veal, rabbit.
- All low-fat varieties, occasionally salmon, herring, tuna.
- Low-calorie dairy products, occasionally butter.
- Eggs, but no more than 1 per day.
- Cereals, sometimes white bread and pasta.
- Boiled, fresh and baked vegetables.
- Berries, dried fruits, fruits, except for banned.
- Jelly, puddings, jam, jam, jujube, honey.
- Herbal decoctions and rosehip, weak tea, unsweetened compotes and jelly, occasionally cocoa.
The use of these products in the menu is useful not only for people who have already had an attack of the disease, but also is a reliable prevention of this terrible disease. A diet consisting of these products is useful for blood vessels and heart, helps to reduce excess weight, which is the culprit of many health pathologies.
Diet after a stroke: an approximate menu and features ^
Even if it is possible to feed a patient without using a probe, chances are most likely that swallowing difficulties will occur anyway. Therefore, the food must be thoroughly crushed. By and large the diet should consist of broths, wiped first dishes, kissels, liquid cereals, vegetable and fruit purees, juices and dairy products.
Diet after hemorrhagic stroke
Diet after cerebral stroke requires mandatory restriction of salt and animal fat intake. These limitations have their justifications. Reducing the amount of salt helps to reduce pressure. Maintaining normal blood pressure is very important, especially with hemorrhagic stroke.
Increased pressure can cause not only a worsening of the condition, but lead to another hemorrhage. Therefore, a diet after a hemorrhagic stroke, in addition to limiting the amount of salt and animal fat, should contain a lot of potassium and magnesium. These trace elements are vital for normalizing the work of the heart and pressure.
Diet after ischemic stroke
Restriction in the diet of animal fats reduces the level of cholesterol, and cholesterol plaques are just the cause of the occurrence of ischemic circulatory disorders. And, although, with any kind of stroke, food is similar, a diet after an ischemic requires the most severe restriction of animal fats.
Diet after a stroke with diabetes mellitus
Has its own characteristics and nutrition after a seizure in diabetic patients. Since diabetes is characterized by damage to blood vessels and a violation of the water – salt balance, the stroke among those suffering is much more common. Such patients are characterized by the allocation of a large amount of urine.
This leads in the future to a thickening of the blood, which can provoke a repeated bleeding in the brain. It is extremely important, in addition to general requirements, to constantly replenish the water reserves in the body to avoid blood clotting.
The use of special nutrient mixtures significantly reduces the rehabilitation period, as they have a strictly balanced composition and take into account all the characteristics of the sick organism. This is especially important when the power can only be fed through the probe.
Special mixtures can also be used as a supplement to dietary nutrition. In this case, the daily calorie content of the diet can not exceed 2500 kcal. For example, the day menu might look like this:
- Breakfast – liquid oats or millet cereal with berries or dried fruit, banana and tea.
- Additional breakfast – low-calorie cottage cheese, mixed with yogurt, to the state of sour cream, a glass of freshly squeezed orange juice.
- Lunch – fish soup puree from pink salmon, cereals and vegetables. A glass of jelly.
- Afternoon snack – a salad of any vegetables, grated, seasoned with olive oil and citrus juice.
- Dinner – boiled buckwheat, with a sauce of fresh tomatoes and meatballs from chicken breast, steamed, compote.
- For 2 hours before sleep – a glass of skimmed yogurt.