The latest studies of scientists have revealed that a serious complication of coronary heart disease – myocardial infarction – is today increasingly affected by men not only at the age of sixty and older but also twenty and thirty-year-old representatives of the stronger sex. In order to restore vital functions after a heart attack, to resume optimal activity and reduce the risk of relapse, each of them needs to conduct the correct recovery of the body, the most important factor of which is the diet after myocardial infarction for men.
Only one exception from the diet of animal fats – the source of cholesterol, which causes the growth of plaques in the vessels and the progression of atherosclerosis – is not enough, although this is very important. What foods can be eaten in the acute period, in the first month after a heart attack, and how can you pamper yourself during rehabilitation?
Key points of the therapeutic diet
In the first days after the “heart rupture” (as it was mistakenly called in the old days of myocardial infarction), it is vitally important to follow the recommendations of the doctor on nutrition. Usually, during an acute period (during the first week), cardiologists advise six or even eight meals a day with mashed dishes (small portions). These can be liquid cereals or low-fat milk drinks, dietary mashed potatoes with a gentle consistency or other mashed vegetables, carrot juice enriched with a pair of spoons of olive oil (or any other vegetable).
Categorically during this period, salt is forbidden! The last meal for the patient, according to the advice of doctors, should be organized no later than three hours before bedtime. Scarring after a heart, the attack usually occurs in the first two to three weeks, so in the second stage (in the next seven to ten days of a subacute period), the patient’s relatives should prepare fresh chopped food six times a day.
This can be steam cutlets, meatballs from low-fat varieties of meat or fish; viscous buckwheat porridge or semolina casserole (without salt and sugar!), in which you can add a little honey; cauliflower, fresh carrot salad, boiled vegetables or baked potatoes and other unsalted dishes. You need to use them fractional, according to 5-6 once a day. In the third stage (from the beginning of the fourth week) during the scarring period, the diet after myocardial infarction for men includes a low-calorie menu that restricts the intake of sodium chloride (food or table salt) and liquids (no more than one liter per day).
At this time, doctors advise to feed the patient not only with vegetarian soups, but also with low-fat meat broth, steamed meat, boiled meat, stewed or boiled fish fillets, grated cottage cheese and lean unsalted cheese, ripe tomatoes and stewed vegetables (beet and carrots) ; boiled vermicelli, manna casserole with apples, buckwheat-curd pudding.
Diet Features: Purpose and Recommendations
Successful rehabilitation after myocardial infarction depends to a large extent on the therapeutic diet that excludes heavy food, which causes flatulence and requires digestion of large resources of the gastrointestinal tract.
In addition, this diet should prevent the risk of new foci of heart disease due to strengthening the body, improving blood supply to tissues, reducing excess body weight, reducing the load on the heart and restoring the performance of the muscle of the “main motor” of the human body.
The basic principles of the therapeutic diet of such patients are:
- a significant reduction in the consumption of fats (to a minimum), but the rejection of them by cardiologists is not welcome;
- the need to include in the menu a sufficient number of products with plant fibers, but avoiding the consumption of coarse fiber;
- a decrease in the content of fatty acids and salt;
- use of a limited amount of vegetable oils in cooking (excluding the frying process);
- The temperature of the ready meals before serving should be not very high and not too low.
Important! The diet after myocardial infarction for men involves the use of only boiled dishes, stews or steamed.
Please note that after suffering a heart attack, you must completely abandon bad habits (smoking and drinking any kind of alcoholic beverages)!
Caloric content and chemical composition of rations in three stages
The first menu of the diet after a heart attack contains an average of 1200 kcal (no more than 1300 kcal, but not less than 1100 units). The weight of the diet is approximately 1500-1700 g, includes 50 g protein, 35-40 g fat, 150 or 200 g of complex carbohydrates and not more than 0,8 L of liquid (but not less than 0,7 L).
Salt is prohibited. Nutrition after myocardial infarction for men provides in the second cycle of the menu of a therapeutic diet weighing 2000 g, which is calculated from the calculation of 1600-1800 kcal. It contains 65-70 g protein, 55-60 g fat, 235-250 g complex carbohydrates and about one liter of liquid (950-1000 ml). With the permission of the doctor, you can include in the diet no more than 3 g salt, adding it in grains to food.
The third diet is a set of foods weighing about 2300 g with a total caloric content of 2300 kcal. In the daily diet, there are about 90 g of proteins, 65-70 g of healthy fats, 310-320 g of carbohydrates and not less than a liter of liquid (up to 1,1 L). In this menu, cardiologists can allow the use of not more than 5 g salt, but you can not take sodium chloride without the knowledge of a doctor.
Menu: prohibited foods and dishes
It is known that, unlike women who have had a heart attack, which reduce the number of sweet dishes and carbohydrates, the diet after myocardial infarction for men is aimed at excluding products that raise the level of cholesterol in the blood: any type of sausage, fatty meat and offal (heart, liver , brain and kidneys), fat, fatty broths, fish caviar, cod liver oil, fish oil, smoked products, canned food and marinades, hard salted cheeses, egg yolks, butter, mayonnaise and spicy sauces, muffins and sweets, grapes and legumes.
In addition, it is necessary to remove coffee, tea, and cocoa from the diet (or significantly minimize their strength). Representatives of the stronger sex also cannot eat chocolate, mushrooms, spinach and sorrel, radish, radish and chips (including chips), sweet fizzy drinks and fast food. From the first day after the seizure, salt should be avoided.
Its ability to significantly increase blood pressure leads to an excessive load on the walls of the vessels, which entails an increased work of the heart and a worsening of the patient’s condition. In the post-infarction period, salt can provoke a relapse of the disease.
After a heart attack, men can eat foods with a moderate amount of cholesterol: sea fish, chicken and turkey meat (especially breast), rabbit and chicken, low-fat dairy products, egg white and vegetable oils. Of complex carbohydrates, the most useful are macaroni of solid varieties and cereals. From vegetables, you can choose cabbage and zucchini, beets and tomatoes, baked potatoes. Increasing the number of meals due to snacks, you need to include foods rich in nutrients, which strengthen the heart and blood vessels (potassium and magnesium).
This list includes avocado and dried apricots, prunes and bananas, raisins, apricots, grapes, melons, and watermelons.
Recommended men’s diet after myocardial infarction
The menu for every day for representatives of the strong half of humanity should include porridge for breakfast (preferably oatmeal or oatmeal). It will help to start the functioning of the digestive system and will saturate the person until lunch (second meal).
People who are overweight, such a breakfast will also speed up the metabolism, which is important in the fight against obesity. From vegetable oils, it is better for men to use olive oil, which helps to regulate the ratio of harmful and useful cholesterol in the blood due to the high concentration of phytosterols and relieving the body of low-density lipoproteins.
Favorably affect the work of the heart muscle are also natural antioxidants (polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega-3), which are contained in salmon, salmon, trout, mackerel, tuna, and sardines. However, it must be taken into account that this fish cannot be eaten in salt, fried or canned form.
It must be baked, boiled or stewed. Balanced nutrition after myocardial infarction for men is simply necessary, as it helps to restore health. In their diet must be present berries and fruits rich in polyphenols: chokeberry, cranberries, blueberries, and cranberries, as well as red grapes, apples, and grapefruit.
Polyphenols mimic the action of natural insulin, promote the absorption of sugars by the heart muscle, reduce blood pressure and act healthier not only on the cardiovascular system but also on the body as a whole.
Recipes for the first stage of recovery after a heart attack
At the initial stage of rehabilitation after a heart attack, doctors are advised to consume only dried bread from the flour of the highest (or first) grade. From it you can cut small cubes and send them to the oven, making homemade croutons (without salt).
The allowed number of them is no more than 50. Soups are cooked on vegetable broths, into which are added cereals (from permitted ones) and root vegetables. From animal fats in such soups, the presence of egg flakes is allowed. Curd pasta, which cardiologists are allowed to eat already in the first days after a heart attack, should be natural, without sugar and other additives.
The product is rubbed to a gentle consistency. Only with the permission of the doctor can you add fresh berries, raisins or pieces of apples. Porridge (oatmeal and buckwheat) is also whipped to a homogeneous state.
Air steam souffle from low-fat meat is prepared as follows: chop the bird’s breast (100 g) in small pieces and then grind in a blender, adding a little milk (40 ml) and egg white (1 pcs.). Instead of a dish, we season with your favorite spices and herbs.
The homogeneous mixture is poured into a baking dish, greased with olive oil, and cook the soufflé in the oven at a temperature of 200 degrees for 20-25 minutes.
Carrot salad – the richest source of vitamin A and antioxidants, it perfectly reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood. Root the root on a grater, adding a few mashed berries with sugar (currants or sea buckthorn), a pinch of chopped walnuts and season with assorted olive oil.
Recipes for the second and third stages
In the second cycle menu, when rehabilitation occurs after myocardial infarction, there are viscous or liquid porridges (usual oatmeal) in portions of 200 g, crumbly (buckwheat) – no more than 100 g, semolina casserole with fruit. Bread should be in the form of crackers or yesterday. Its daily amount is increased to 250. Soups are prepared from well-boiled vegetables and cereals.
Carrot and beetroot first dishes are grated. Borsch can be prepared only on lean meat, using a secondary broth. For its preparation, we put water and meat on the fire. After boiling, wait 2-3 minutes, drain the liquid and re-add water, then cook until the meat is ready. Steam cutlets and boiled meat with a piece at the second and third rations are also allowed.
Puddings can be prepared from carrots, cereals, apples and other fruits. Instead of salt, it is better to use tomato or lemon juice, sauces cooked on milk or vegetable broth. At the third stage of recovery after a heart attack, a man can be fed with boiled vermicelli with cottage cheese, curd-buckwheat pudding, casserole from apples and apples, various porridges (200 g).
When preparing a hearty dinner, it is best to use baked potatoes or any cereals as a garnish, and the main dish will be a boiled piece of meat or fish. The simplest and most affordable recipe: 100 g any preferred inhabitant of a water body (river or sea), 30 g milk (water), 2-3 gram of wheat flour, egg protein and 1 gram salt.
Boiled fish fillet grind blender, add milk and salt, whipped protein. You can attach half of the yolk to the mixture. We put the semi-finished product in a form greased with olive oil, and bake at a temperature of about 200 degrees. Ready dish before serving can be decorated with greens.
Apple puree: home dietary recipe
The classic composition of the fruit puree, which has been loved by many since childhood, includes, in addition to apples, high-calorie foods – sugar and condensed milk (or condensed cream). For people with normal body weight, eating a small number of goodies will not result in weight gain, and for obese patients, such a product is contraindicated.
At home, you can prepare both a classic and dietary version of your favorite dessert. Traditional puree can be obtained from two kilograms of peeled and seeded (core) any apples, one and a half to two tablespoons of sugar, 0,5 glass of water and half a jar of condensed milk or cream.
Slices of apples cook on low heat, gradually adding water as the liquid evaporates. The amount of water and the frequency of its filling are adjusted depending on the juiciness of the fruit and their degree of hardness. The boiled mass can be mashed by a convenient tool (mixer, blender), and then add the condensed milk and sugar to taste. It is especially necessary to stir the mass when it is put on fire again. The total cooking time is approximately 25-40 minutes.
The dietary version of the treat contains purified apples, which are cooked from the calculation: for each kilogram of fruit – about a third of a glass of water. Well cooked and crushed puree from apple slices again put on the fire, without adding sugar and other ingredients.
Bring to a boil and pour over the sterilized jars. Apple mashed potatoes can be eaten with both condensed milk and honey. Serve to the table in the form of a dessert or a delicious sauce.
In the first 48 hours, doctors are allowed to quench their thirst with a liquid of not more than 50 ml (a quarter cup) at a time.
Recommended drinks: alkaline mineral water (without gas), weak tea with the addition of a small amount of honey and lemon, fruit and fruit juices, necessarily diluted with water, broth of wild rose and liquid jelly, fruit berries (cranberries).
If you have extra pounds, the cardiologist first advises you to get rid of excess weight. To stabilize it against the background of the basic diet will be effective unloading days: apple (1,5-2 kg grated or baked apples); 500 g oatmeal in water and 800 ml of fresh fruit juice; 100 grams of rice porridge and 1 liter of unsweetened compote of dried fruits with the addition of lemon juice.
According to the majority of world-famous cardiologists, life after myocardial infarction in men should be firmly connected with the Mediterranean diet.
It helps to maintain the heart in a tone, contains all useful products, improves the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels, helps to reduce body weight, normalizes the cholesterol in the blood, significantly reduces the risk of problems with the cardiovascular system. Be healthy!