In a modern world full of stresses, worries and disturbed ecology, an increasing number of people face cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, arterial hypertension and simple constriction of the coronary vessels of the heart as a result of smoking is not the whole list of causes of heart attack. The risk factors for the development of this acute condition also include: age exceeding 45 years, violation of fat metabolism, lack of physical activity, diabetes mellitus and a previously small focal seizure. Being one of the main causes of disability in adults and causing a high mortality rate, myocardial infarction requires competent treatment and full rehabilitation.
The main directions of the rehabilitation program after a heart attack are:
- Physical activity;
- Reduction of excess weight;
- Continuous monitoring of blood glucose, blood pressure and blood cholesterol;
- Prevention of chronic fatigue and stressful conditions;
- Compliance with diet.
Diet after myocardial infarction: a gradual return to a full life
The main purpose of rehabilitation after a heart attack is to restore vital functions, possible activity and reduce the risk of a recurrence. That is why the diet after infarction and stenting involves the exclusion of fat from animal diets – cholesterol, which promotes the growth of plaques in the vessels and the progression of atherosclerosis.
For products rich in animal fats include: lard, poultry, fatty meat, liver and other offals, butter, sausages, cheese and fatty dairy products. Fighting overweight and reducing the caloric content of food are carried out due to the rejection of high-carbohydrate foods that are transformed as a result of metabolism in the fats harmful to the heart and blood vessels.
We are talking about all sweets, confectionery, white bread, ice cream, sweet fruit, sweet carbonated drinks and even vegetables with a high carbohydrate content. In addition, a diet with a heart attack should maximally limit the amount of salt present in the diet. To improve the taste of the food used, ordinary salt can be replaced with a low-sodium dietary salt, dill, parsley, or other herbs.
The following products should form the basis of the post-infarct diet diet:
- Vegetable oil;
- Sea kale, fish and seafood;
- Vegetables with high fiber content;
- Wholemeal products, black bread from wholemeal flour;
- Nuts, beans and soybeans;
- Non-sweet fruit;
- Low-fat dairy and lactic acid products;
- Lean meat and poultry.
The diet after a heart attack for men includes three stages:
- The first stage (the first week after the attack) – an acute period requiring six meals a day. Diet of this period should include: low-fat beef, sour-milk products, boiled fish or chicken, rusks, cereals, scrambled eggs, mashed vegetable soups. Taboo should be imposed on smoked products, baked goods, chocolate, hard cheeses, coffee and alcohol.
- The second stage (the second and third week after a heart attack) – the subacute period allows the use of already unprocessed dishes, but not completely salted. Fractional meals continue, 5 once a day in small portions.
- The third stage (the beginning of the fourth week) – the period of scarring, during which a low-calorie menu with a restriction of salt and liquid is prescribed (up to 1 liters per day). To saturate the body with potassium, the menu should contain raisins, dried apricots and prunes, and for the replenishment of iodine stocks, seafood and sea kale should be included in the diet.
Diet after myocardial infarction: tasty and useful recipes
For a variety of dietary menus in the diet of people who have had a heart attack, you can include the following dishes.
Carrots are a storehouse of vitamin A, contains a large amount of antioxidants and perfectly lowers the level of cholesterol in the blood. That is why dishes made from carrots must be included in the post-infarct menu. To make a salad, carrots must be grated, add the sea buckthorn or currant, waxed with sugar, and fill with walnuts and vegetable oil.
In a half-liter jar of warm boiled milk, a kefir mushroom is added and left for a day in a warm place. After 24 hours, the mushroom is removed from the milk and the thickened fermented milk is put in the refrigerator. In the prepared and cooled yogurt is added a tablespoon of currant rubbed with sugar or raspberries.
Beet, cut into small strips, stew in vegetable oil until half cooked, it adds onions, carrots and boiled beans, and brought to readiness. The dish turns out very tasty, useful and satisfying.
Such nutrition after a heart attack will help to maintain a sick heart, prevent relapse and restore health.