Diet and nutrition after stroke. Healthy food and foods to avoid. Menu
Diseases of the cardiovascular system are extremely common all over the world. The group of vascular diseases includes, among others, and stroke. This acute pathological condition, which requires the provision of emergency medical care. When the critical period is left behind, the rehabilitation period after the stroke comes. At this stage, an important role is played nutrition after stroke.
Stroke is an acute disorder of the cerebral circulation. The occurrence of stroke leads to factors such as cerebral artery atherosclerosis and hypertension. After a stroke, neither atherosclerosis nor hypertension disappears. So, there is a risk of repeated strokes on the background of existing diseases in the future. With these diseases, it is necessary to fight both with the help of medicines, and the diet.
After a stroke, it is very important for a person to lead a healthy lifestyle and to eat right. The diet has the following goals: to help the body recover from a stroke, and also to influence the existing diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension) in order to prevent the occurrence of repeated strokes.
People who have suffered a stroke, doctors attribute a therapeutic diet. This diet is widely used in various cardiovascular diseases.
Basic principles of the nutrition after stroke:
- Reduce the content of animal fat in food;
- Increase the content of vegetable fat;
- Reduce the use of easily digestible carbohydrates (white flour products, confectionery, potatoes, etc.) and give preference to complex carbohydrates (cereals, cereals, vegetables);
- Proteins need to be eaten in sufficient quantities;
- Limit salt intake;
- Limit the intake of cholesterol in the body;
- Limit the amount of liquid drunk a day before 1,5 l;
- Increase the content of vitamins B, C, E, potassium, magnesium in the diet;
- Food is prepared by boiling, steaming, avoiding roasting.
Foods to avoid after a stroke
When people hear the word “diet”, many people have an association with strict restrictions and tasteless dishes. Actually, the diet after a stroke should be high-grade and provide the physiological needs of the body. Nutrition after stroke does not require any strict restrictions. But for a speedy recovery after illness, it is worth listening to the recommendations of nutritionists.
The main enemy of a person who has suffered a stroke is cholesterol. It is the increased level of cholesterol in the blood that leads to the development of atherosclerosis and as a consequence of the onset of a stroke. As you know, cholesterol in large quantities is found in fatty foods of animal origin, namely in fatty meat and poultry (pork, lamb, duck), by-products, egg yolks, butter, fatty milk products and cheeses.
It is known that excessive intake of salt leads to an increase in blood pressure, which is highly undesirable in this case. Patients with a history of stroke should limit salt intake to 3 mg/day. And the food cannot be salted during cooking, but only you can sprinkle with salt already prepared meals.
The restriction of salt is not easy and the food seems tasteless. In fairness, it should be noted that soon the taste buds adapt to the lack of salt, and the food will again seem tasty and bring pleasure.
In addition, it is necessary to limit the use of such foods as:
- Easily assimilated carbohydrates (white flour products, confectionery products, potato consumption restriction);
- Filled broth;
- Fatty varieties of fish, caviar;
- Sorrel, spinach;
- Some milk products: sour cream, cream;
- Alcoholic beverages.
What can you eat after a stroke?
Nutrition after stroke should be high in calories and contain in the required amount of protein, fats, carbohydrates. As already mentioned above, it is necessary to provide the body with carbohydrates at the expense of complex hydrocarbons. Foods rich in complex carbohydrates are low-calorie, contain dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. In turn, dietary fibers (fiber, pectin) have at least a small but hypolipidemic effect, thus reducing the level of “harmful” lipids in the blood.
It would be a mistake to think that fats are an absolute evil, which must be avoided at all costs. In fact, fats contain fatty acids, which have a different effect on the body. Thus, saturated fatty acids, which are mainly found in animal fats, contribute to the increase of lipid levels in the blood. Unsaturated fatty acids contained in vegetable oils and fish oil, on the contrary, reduce the level of lipids in the blood. Nutrition after stroke should be rich in foods containing unsaturated fatty acids in large quantities. Doctors recommend consuming up to thirty grams per day of vegetable oil. It can be flaxseed, olive or even the most common sunflower oil.
A full restoration cannot be imagined without protein, which is insufficient quantity contained in meat. In the post-insult period, it is necessary to give preference to non-fat types of meat, namely: chicken, rabbit meat, beef, veal. At the same time, the skin is removed from the chicken before cooking.
It is extremely important that the diet in the post-stroke period is rich in essential minerals and vitamins. According to scientific research, people with hypertension who use a diet enriched with potassium, have a lower risk of having a stroke.
Doctors recommend enriching the diet with vitamins of group B, which are needed to restore the nervous tissue after a stroke. Vitamins of this group should be sought in cereals and bran, nuts, green vegetables, meat.
Also need to pay attention to vitamin E, which is an antioxidant. Scientists claim that vitamin E reduces painful post-stroke consequences. This vitamin is found in large quantities in vegetable oils, sea fish, and seafood, nuts, cereals.
Diet after a stroke cannot be called strict. A person observing a diet does not experience any discomfort, because he does not have to deprive himself of delicious food. It is easy to prepare different dishes, which will be both varied and useful.
The approximate menu for the day is as follows:
- 8.00 – oatmeal with added dried fruits, green tea;
- 11.00 – five-percent curd, compote of berries;
- 14.00 – low-fat soup with chicken, a portion of fresh vegetables, tea;
- 17.00 – steam omelet, a portion of fresh tomatoes;
- 20.00 – stewed lean fish, buckwheat porridge.
At night you can drink low-fat kefir. During the day, drink up to 1,5 liters of liquid (including soup, compote, tea).