As a result of the presence of a significant amount of carbohydrates in the daily portion, the body cells lose the necessary susceptibility to insulin. Diabetes 2 type diet and nutrition – in violation of the rules, the level of glucose in the blood circulation system reaches excessive marks and stays stable on them.
Treatment tables for diabetes allow you to establish a normative sensitivity to insulin, restore the ability to digest sugars.
Those who are ill should remember the need to follow certain rules:
- Most of the foods containing carbohydrates should be consumed at three o’clock in the afternoon.
- As desserts, the use of yoghurts and nuts is recommended – the processing of incoming fats slows the absorption of sugars.
- Food should occur at the same time – to normalize the metabolism, improve the functionality of the digestive tract.
- To create a saturation effect, reduce the rate of assimilation of simple sugars, fresh vegetables enriched with vegetable fiber are added to each dish.
- Sufficient intake of liquid in the body – not less than one and a half liters.
- Fractional meals during the day – up to six times. Small snacks for insulin dependent ones are allowed.
- Replacement of sugar with safe substitutes, only in the permitted quantities (observance of daily rates).
- Any food after physical and sports loads is undesirable.
- Ban on salt or a reasonable reduction in its volume in ready-made meals.
- Refusal of the easily digestible carbohydrates present in the diet.
- Exclusion of sweets from snacks – to avoid a sharp rise in the level of sugar in the circulatory system. A small amount is allowed for three meals a day.
- Use of dietary options for cooking.
- Limitation of alcoholic, low alcohol drinks, up to their elimination.
- Restriction or exclusion of complex carbohydrates.
- Reducing the use of animal fats.
- Reducing the total calorie content of dishes with the preservation of their energy value.
- The energy value of the diet should match the costs of the body – excess can cause weight gain.
The ability of any product to increase the quantitative values of glucose in the bloodstream, was called “hyperglycemic index.” The value is used in the formation of a daily diet for patients with diabetes mellitus 2 type, with complete dependence of the patient’s body on insulin. Any products have a glycemic index, the rate of increase of sugars depends on the height of the index after eating.
Glycemic index is subdivided:
- Elevated – more than 70 units;
- Averaged – from 45 to 60;
- Low – less than 45.
High and medium values are desirable to be excluded from food, the latter can be used in reasonable quantities. The main part of the diet is made up of a low glycemic index.
The measure, to limit the intake of carbohydrates into the body, is the “grain unit”. Its name comes from the “brick” of bread. 25 gram slice is equivalent to 1 bread unit (in total, it is half of the cut piece of bread).
Almost all food products contain carbohydrates in their composition – their quantity should strictly correspond to the dosages of injectable insulin. The concept of counting is accepted by international rules, it makes it possible to select the necessary amount of a medicine.
Features of the ideal diet for diabetic patients
To maintain the normative general state of the body in diabetes type 2, it is necessary to follow the rules:
- It is forbidden to starve;
- It is undesirable to make large breaks between meals;
- You can not refuse breakfast;
- The first to eat at the time of eating vegetables and only after them – protein foods (cottage cheese, meat);
- Served dishes should not be hot or cold;
- The last meal should take place no later than two hours before going to bed;
- With a negative reaction of the stomach to raw vegetables, it is recommended that they be baked;
- It is not recommended roasting, boning products in breadcrumbs, cooking them in batter, adding sauces;
- When making minced meat, the loaf is excluded, replacing oat flakes, vegetables;
- When carbohydrates are present in the portion (a significant amount), they are diluted with proteins or allowed fats – to reduce the rate of digestion and assimilation;
- Permitted drinks are used before meals, and not after it.
All food should be thoroughly chewed, you can not rush and swallow large pieces.
The disease allows the use of certain types of products in the daily menu:
- As a base for soups are used weakly concentrated meat, fish broths or cook them on vegetable broth. The first broth liquid merges and only the second begins cooking. The frequency of consumption in the diet should not exceed once in seven days.
- To the second dishes it is recommended to take fish with a small fat content – carp, pike, hake, perch or pollock. Of skim meat is preferable to chicken or turkey.
- Sour-milk or dairy products should be with a minimum number of animal fats – curd, yogurt, yogurt, kefir, fermented baked milk.
- Within a calendar week, it is allowed to consume no more than four proteins from chicken eggs – for an omelet cooked for a couple. Yolks with diabetes of 2 type are strictly prohibited.
- Porridges cooked from buckwheat, pearl barley, oatmeal are preferably used once a day.
- Bakery products in the daily diet do not exceed the norm of 300 grams, preference is given to whole grain, bran, rye products or baked from wheat second-grade flour.
- In the diet, enter the juicy vegetables – colored, white, Brussels sprouts, cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplant, legumes, kohlrabi, fresh greens.
- Vegetables, with a high content of sugars, starches (potatoes, carrots, beets) – are allowed once or twice a week, during periods of deterioration in general condition are excluded from nutrition.
- Fruits and berries should contain in their composition the maximum amount of ascorbic acid – oranges, grapefruits, lemons, cranberries, red or black currants.
- As a sweet treat, we recommend confectionery production, which purposefully produces products for diabetic patients, biscuits – dry biscuits.
- Because liquids are allowed broth hips, clean drinking water, fruit and berry fruit drinks for sweeteners, tomato, cucumber juice, green, herbal teas, skimmed milk, mineral water without gas.
The use of exceptionally tolerated products will avoid the sharp rise of glucose in the blood stream, relieve a stable increase in body weight. Ideal products that would not affect the weight and quantity of glucose, does not exist. Each has its own values of the level of harmfulness.
Diabetics often suffer from excess body weight associated with a slow metabolism, against a background of general dysfunction. In addition to the constant calculation of glucose, patients are encouraged to use calorie content tables. Each extra kilogram of weight adversely affects the work of the heart muscle, blood circulation.
Non-recommended diet products
Prohibited products are listed below:
- Fat of lamb, beef;
- Dishes with spicy spices;
- Glazed curd cheeses with a high level of fat;
- Yoghurts with flavoring fillers, stabilizers;
- Pasta made from wheat of the highest quality;
- Ice cream, including fruit ice;
- Rice, semolina;
- Buns, cakes, curds, cakes;
- Sweets of all kinds;
- Individual subspecies dried fruits;
- Cottage cheese with additives;
Any kind of alcoholic, low-alcohol products is under strict prohibition. All of the above food products have a high level of glycemic index, are able to increase the blood glucose readings to the maximum markers when used. Abuse of sweets harmful for a diabetic patient can provoke the development of a hyperglycemic coma.
With diabetes of the second type, the daily diet can be varied, tasty and, most importantly, useful. Each meal requires a preliminary intake of liquid – at least 250 ml at a time, bread – no more than 50 grams.
Dietitians presented a variety of nutrition options for diabetics, in which there is a general principle – the minimum volume of one portion is compensated for by frequent repetition of snacks throughout the day.
Therapeutic diet for type 2 diabetes should be prescribed by the treating specialist and a dietitian. They will take into account the general condition of the patient, will appreciate the weight of the body and the need to reduce weight. Diabetic patients should always remember about the dangers of high-calorie food and problems with excess body weight.