Diet for acute and chronic pancreatitis
Diet in pancreatitis, especially when chronic, to observe is very important. You should eat as much protein as possible and you need to reduce or completely eliminate fats and carbohydrates, especially sugar, which consists of carbohydrates on 99%, exclude fried foods and any products containing coarse fiber. It is advisable to start taking vitamins. There should be little, but often, that is, 5-6 times a day.
Pancreas is necessary to ensure normal functioning of the body: it is due to the digestive juice that it secrete in the lumen of the duodenum that the basic components of food products – proteins, fats and carbohydrates – are split. As a result of the digestion process occurring on this part of the digestive tract, simpler compounds are obtained, which enter the general bloodstream after absorption of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, nutrients, amino acids and vitamins necessary for the flow of metabolic processes in cells and for the construction of tissues, are formed from foods in the area of the duodenum and reach all organs and systems of the body.
In addition, the pancreas produces insulin, necessary for the normal course of carbohydrate metabolism, and lipokine, which prevents fatty degeneration of the liver.
The cause of pancreatitis is most often the abuse of fatty foods and alcoholic beverages. The disease can occur in both acute and chronic forms. Diet in pancreatitis depends on the features of the course of the pathological process: an acute period requires a more strict relationship to the diet and foods eaten.
In acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas, cardinal digestive disorders occur, including:
changes the pH of the medium of the small intestine to the acidic side, as a consequence of this the patient feels heartburn, burning in the intestine;
enzymes accumulate inside the gland, begin the process of self-digestion of tissues, causing severe pain in the abdominal region in the navel region, on the right;
toxic substances accumulate, self-poisoning of the organism takes place;
impaired insulin secretion, provokes sugar diabetes.
The pathogenesis of pancreatitis develops according to the type of acute or chronic inflammation. The principle of treatment of all forms of pancreatitis includes, according to indications:
drug substitution therapy, taking into account the nature of the inflammation, the patient's condition;
therapeutic dietary food.
Proper nutrition at the stages of rehabilitation of pancreatitis, especially after discharge from the hospital significantly increases the chances of complete recovery or stabilization of pathology.
It is in the home, often violated the principle of dietary nutrition. Meanwhile, it is important to follow the immutable rules of the medical diet. Especially since diets do not contain expensive products, cooking them is the simplest, including: grinding, boiling, steaming.
During an exacerbation of an attack of a pancreatitis, before arrival of an ambulance, it is supposed to apply cold compresses on a site of a pain, usually a pain with a substrate. During this period, it is allowed to drink mineral water (for example, Borjomi, Narzan). The daily volume of liquid to five or six glasses, with normal urination. Simple liquids suppress the release of pancreatic juice into the lumen of the duodenum, reduce the pain syndrome, and remove toxins from the body.
When a person falls ill in a medical institution, the patient will be assigned a dietary diet, developed by a dietitian.
Sets of products, names of diets, other information are approved by the order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No. 330 from 5 August 2003 г "About measures for the improvement of therapeutic nutrition in medical institutions of the Russian Federation" and the letter of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation from 07.04.2004 No. 2510 / 2877-04-32. These documents are valid at the time of writing.
For an illustration of principles of diets at a pancreatitis we have made extracts from the specified documents. Numbered diets, officially, in medical institutions are not used. With pancreatitis, diets with an abbreviation SHCHD and VBD are recommended.
In acute pancreatitis in the first two days the patient is prescribed a hunger. It is allowed to drink only a broth of dog rose or mineral water – one glass up to five times a day. On the third day, it is allowed to eat, but only low-calorie foods, excluding fats, salt and meals, which increase the secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the process of gassing in the intestine.
All the following days, while the patient is in the hospital, he must strictly adhere to the diet indicated by the doctor!
Stage of fading exacerbation of pancreatitis
Recommended diet, taking into account the mechanical and biochemical sparing of the intestinal mucosa.
This food includes:
physiological level of the main components of food – proteins, lipids, carbohydrates;
increased amount of fat and water-soluble vitamins;
a low content of substances that irritate the intestinal mucous membranes, including food seasonings;
It is forbidden to use spicy, salty, spicy, smoked.
Ways of cooking: steaming. Food is ground, wiped, small pieces of ready-made food are allowed. The temperature of food served on the table should not exceed 65 0 C. The recommended amount of meals is five to six per day.
The maintenance in a daily portion of the general protein 90 grams, animal origin 40 grams.
Containing in the daily portion of fats, 80 grams, vegetable 30 grams.
Carbohydrate content in a daily portion of 300 grams, easily assimilated 60 grams.
Energy value of 2480 kilocalories.
After the symptoms of acute pancreatitis subsided, it is better to switch to soups, use lean meats and fish, fresh cottage cheese, cereals and vegetables, as well as puddings. Products such as fruit juices, honey, jam, sugar – should be reduced or excluded from the diet. Before going to bed are useful laxative drinks: yogurt, yogurt, etc. It is important to completely abandon fatty foods, muffins, fried fish, fat, sour cream, salted and smoked dishes, marinades, onions, garlic, radishes, alcoholic beverages.
Recommended diet for pancreatitis in acute form should be observed from six months to a year. Practically one hundred percent the health of the patient depends on how strictly he adheres to the prescription of the doctor regarding the diet. It is important to remember that all errors in the diet are immediately reflected in the status of the pancreas.
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Chronic pancreatitis in remission
In this version, a different approach to feeding the patient. During this period, nutritionists recommend to include in the diet an increased protein content, the physiological rate of fat. More complex approach to carbohydrates. Diet at the stage of remission involves:
protein is allowed slightly above the physiological norm;
the norm for fats and complex carbohydrates in the form of cereals;
below the norm include in the diet of sugar, honey, jam, cakes, sweet buns, also below normal cooking salt.
In this version, it is prohibited to eat irritating mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. These products include vinegar, alcohol, other substances used as seasonings.
Dishes are prepared boiled, stewed, baked, steamed. It is allowed to serve food in a wipe, not wiped. Feeding at short intervals, in small portions 4-6 once a day. Food is served in a warm form. Its temperature is not more than sixty degrees Celsius.
The maintenance in a daily portion of the total protein 120 grams, including animal origin 50 grams.
The maintenance in a daily portion of fats 90 grams, vegetable fats 30 grams.
The maintenance in a daily portion of carbohydrates 350 grams, easily assimilated 40 grams.
Energy value of 2690 kilocalories.
Diet in pancreatitis, taking place in chronic form
Chronic pancreatic pancreatitis develops in most cases against the background of an acute disease. At the same time, it can be primary if the patient suffers from liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, duodenal pathology, cholelithiasis, allergies, atherosclerosis, alcohol abuse.
The diet with pancreatitis, which takes place in chronic form, is considered the main one in the treatment of this disease. In the remission phase, the number of calories contained in the daily diet should correspond to the physical load. It is recommended to take food up to six times a day, not forgetting about food, which is characterized by a laxative effect.
It is important to monitor the daily intake of protein. Since it is necessary for the normal course of recovery processes, it must be consumed in sufficient quantities – up to 130 grams per day, with only 30% protein should be plant origin.
In the diet of a patient suffering from chronic pancreatitis, it is necessary to include beef, veal, rabbit meat, chicken, turkey, low-fat pork. Prohibited: lamb, fat pork, as well as goose meat, ducks and game. If the patient is worried about frequent pain, meat dishes are cooked in chopped form or cooked for a couple, you can not bake dishes in the oven, fry and stew. Similarly, low-fat fish is prepared.
Meat and fish dishes with a low fat content help the patient avoid fatty liver degeneration, which is of great importance in chronic pancreatitis. A similar property is also found in homemade cottage cheese, but only if it is non-acidic and fresh, store cottage cheese is not recommended.
Milk in its pure form with chronic pancreatitis is often poorly tolerated, so it is better to add it to cereals, soups, jelly when cooking them. Even if the milk is tolerated well by the patients, they should not be abused, drinking only half a glass of warm milk per day in small sips. It is much more useful for people suffering from pancreatitis, fresh sour-milk products. Forbidden for exacerbation of the disease, cheese in the remission phase can be eaten in small amounts provided that you feel well. Cheese should be low-fat and not sharp. Whole eggs are excluded from the diet, at the same time, protein omelettes are cooked for steaming, meals with whipped proteins, in addition, eggs can be present as an additive in other dishes.
Proteins of vegetable origin can be represented by rice, yesterday's bread, breadcrumbs, semolina, oatmeal, buckwheat, pasta. Bean cultures should not be eaten with pancreatitis.
Fats in the diet should be no more than 70 grams, and 80% of them are animal fats, they should be eaten together with other dishes and food. It is better to put the oil in a ready dish just before eating, vegetable oil is acceptable only if it is well tolerated. Culinary fats, margarine, beef and pork fat are prohibited.
Carbohydrates in the daily diet should contain no more than 350 grams, they can be represented by sugar, honey, jam, syrup. From products rich in carbohydrates, biscuits, semolina, oatmeal, buckwheat, pearl barley, rice, pasta are allowed. Also, patients are allowed to eat potatoes, carrots, beetroot, pumpkin, zucchini, squash. Vegetable dishes should be cooked on steam or on water, you can eat vegetable steam pudding. Boiled vegetables should be eaten in a grated form with the addition of cereal broth.
Of fruits, non-acid varieties of apples are recommended: ripe fruits can be baked, wiped, cooked from them, compote, and a compote of dried fruits is also useful.
Of all the sauces, the best is considered a béchamel based on milk and flour, and the flour is not passaged, and the salt is added very little.
First course (soups from cereals, vegetables, can be on milk, meat from low-fat varieties of meat, fish, as well as sweet soups from fruit).
Main dishes (boiled beef meat, poultry, fish, omelet from chicken eggs).
Products containing cereals (porridge, pasta, white bread, black, vegetable oil).
Dairy, sour-milk products (milk 2,5%, dairy products, butter).
Berries, fruits, vegetables (ripe, sweet) in a raw, baked form, carrots, beets – boiled, like dressing soups, as side dishes and independent dishes.
Dessert (digestible carbohydrates in pancreatitis are limited, that is below the physiological norm, jam, honey, sugar).
Beverages (tea with milk, vegetable, fruit juices).
Specialized Products (a mixture of protein composite dry) Add fat and water-soluble vitamins.
It is also important not to overeat, cutting the daily amount of food to 2,5 kilograms, taking into account the drunk liquid. Food is often and in small portions.
Following all the rules of nutrition in pancreatitis can significantly improve the effectiveness of therapy in general.
The number of products must be calculated on the basis of the above normative documents.
Here is an approximate daily diet menu for pancreatitis:
The first meal (7: 00- 7: 30): boiled beef, oatmeal in milk, tea.
The second meal (9: 00-9: 30) omelet, baked apple, broth of wild rose.
The third meal (12: 00-13: 00): vegetable soup, beef soufflé, pasta, jelly from sweet berries, compote.
The fourth meal (16: 00-16: 30): cottage cheese and tea.
The fifth meal (20: 00-20: 30): souffle fish, tea.
As you can see, in a diet with pancreatic pancreatitis, all dishes are made from lean meat and fish – and then only in a boiled option. Fried foods are prohibited. You can eat dairy products with a minimum percentage of fat. From the liquid it is desirable to drink only natural juices and compotes and tea.
All kinds of alcohol, sweet (grape juice) and carbonated drinks, cocoa, coffee
Products of animal origin: offal, including the first category, meat and lard pork, fatty fish, all smoked products, spicy, fried, fast food based on extractives.
Vegetable products: legumes, mushrooms, spinach, sorrel, onions, bakery products based on buttery dough.
Desserts: chocolate, fatty creams.
Figs, grapes, bananas, dates.
Confectionery, chocolate, ice cream, jam.
Salo, cooking fats.
Hard boiled eggs, whole egg dishes, fried eggs
Is Goat Milk Permitted? This is a fairly fatty product, which is difficult to perceive pancreas. It is twice as fat as a cow. Peoples whose diet from time immemorial includes goat's milk are more adapted to the product. In unaccustomed organism milk can provoke upset stomach. The product should be included in the diet gradually, starting with small portions. If the body responds well (there is no nausea and vomiting, a normal stool), portions can be increased.
Is the matzoni allowed? This sour-milk product is allowed in pancreatitis. Before eating, you need to pay attention to the fat content of the milk from which it is made. Milk of high fat content is not recommended for use.
Are muffins, puff pastry, cakes allowed? At the stage of exacerbation, the listed products can not be. At the stage of remission, yeast baking is allowed in small amounts. The menu can include items made from puff pastry. As for gingerbread, the quality and quantity of glaze is important (if there are insulin disturbances, they should be minimally sweet). Inexpensive products are covered with a glaze made on palm or coconut oil, which is extremely harmful to the gland.
Is cinnamon allowed? Cinnamon is a seasoning, which can be bought in a specialized store or which is supplied by distributors. What is presented in hypermarkets in a packetized form is an inexpensive option, called cashier. With such an "analogue" are related myths about its health-improving effect in type 2 diabetes. This is not the work of the gland, but the response of insulin receptors in the tissues. There are no official confirmations to that. With regard to this cinnamon, it increases the production of digestive juice, which is undesirable in the event of an exacerbation of the disease. (See also: Benefits and harm of cinnamon)
Are offal products allowed? The heart, stomach and liver are not contraindications for pancreatitis, provided that the right preparation is made. Such products can be eaten in boiled or stewed form. Fried eating them is not recommended.
Is processed cheese, bread, chocolate, coffee allowed? Cream cheese should be the easiest, that is, without any seasonings and additives. Bread can be included in the menu. Chocolate is allowed in small quantities. Coffee is not recommended at any stage of the disease. As an option – you can drink coffee with milk and in small quantities.
Is rice, olive oil allowed? Rice is allowed. Olive oil can be filled with salads and other dishes.
Is brine allowed? At the stage of remission, a small amount of brine does not harm, but it should not be drunk in large amounts.
Is salted bacon allowed? Salo is hard for the liver and gall bladder. When it is used, the pancreas suffers again. Outside the stage of exacerbation, fat is allowed, however in small amounts (up to two slices a day up to two times a week).
The author of the article: Diet Doctor, Kuzmina Vera Valerievna, specially for the site
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There is a mass of medicinal plants that have a beneficial effect on the functional state of the pancreas and contribute to the improvement of its activity. Herbal medicine should be considered as an additional tool in complex medication.
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Most often, the treatment is done in a hospital. The sick person is prescribed pain medication, and a special system is developed to eliminate inflammation. When pancreatitis in the stomach sometimes accumulate air and liquid, which can cause attacks of severe vomiting. If there are such symptoms in the treatment.
Survived on a dropper of glucose. On the ninth day, forcibly pushed food scar scar forty. Appetite appeared on 15 day.
Very fond of delicacies. Gusses, ducks, salami European, smoked meat, beer, dry wine. Neither of which is now impossible.
Melon and watermelon (not mixing) you can eat only in the remission stage, in moderation!
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