Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels for a long time can proceed without any manifestations, but without treatment it leads to strokes or disturbances in the activity of those parts of the brain that receive inadequate nutrition and oxygen and a violation of the activity of the relevant organs or abilities of a person.
Atherosclerosis of mesenteric arteries. that is, feeding the intestines, causes disruption of the bowel and abdominal pain. Atherosclerosis of the vessels of the renal arteries disrupts the blood supply of the kidneys, leads to a stable, poorly treatable hypertension. Atherosclerosis of the arteries of the lower extremities causes intermittent claudication.
Atherosclerosis of the coronary (coronary) arteries of the heart leads to ischemic heart disease.
Features in nutrition depend on body weight. If there is an excess weight of the body, then it is necessary to reduce the calorie intake. To do this, in the hospital (and at home) the first dish is poured half a portion, reducing the amount of bread and sugar. There should be 6 once a day, so that there is no feeling of hunger. Food is prepared completely without salt, if necessary, it is dosed at a table-no more than 3 – 4 g salt per day. Dishes are prepared, mainly in water, for a couple, well boiling meat, fish, vegetables. Free liquid is limited to 700-900 ml.
The total amount of fat, including those contained in the products, for atherosclerosis and overweight should be about 60 g per day, of which 70% of plant and 30% of the animal.
The amount of proteins in atherosclerosis is not limited: 100 g protein per day, of which 60 is -70% of the animal. Animal proteins prevent the deposition of cholesterol in the walls of blood vessels. They are found in lean meats (beef, veal, turkey, lean pork), lean fish (cod, pike perch, perch, icefish, etc.), soaked herring, egg whites, milk, low-fat cottage cheese, lactic acid drinks, soya beans , peas, buckwheat, oats and wheat groats.
Animal fats in the diet are severely restricted. They exclude lamb, beef, pork and all other fats, foods rich in cholesterol: brains, liver, kidneys, egg yolks, caviar. However, you can not completely exclude products containing cholesterol, so 2 -3 times a week you can eat an 1 egg, a little caviar, a slice of the tongue. From animal fats a small amount of butter is allowed. You need to use vegetable fats – sunflower, corn, olive and other oils. They increase peristalsis of the intestine, remove excess cholesterol from the body. Unrefined vegetable oil is more useful: it contains more phosphatides necessary for the normalization of fat metabolism.
The total amount of carbohydrates should be about 250. Sugar, honey, jam, syrups, other sweets, white bread, cookies, cakes, cakes, cereals and rice are sharply limited, and many vegetables, fruits, berries, buckwheat and oatmeal are included. Bread is mainly rye, better with the addition of bran.
Main courses – vinaigrettes and salads with vegetable oil from cabbage, potatoes, soy, fresh cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkin, dill, parsley. In a small amount allowed beans, beans, peas, mushrooms, spinach. Soups are also vegetarian: borsch, beetroots, okroshki, cabbage soup, fruit. Grits, milk soups are allowed, and once a week – a weak meat broth (secondary or bone).
In the diet must necessarily be a lot vitamins. and it is desirable to receive them not from tablets, but from food. Vitamins normalize the metabolism, reduce the permeability of blood vessels, prevent the deposition of cholesterol in them. Especially important vitamins C, P, B6. PP, B12. They are found in vegetables, fruits, berries, wild rose broth, beer and baker’s yeast, wheat bran, soy flour. When atherosclerosis is harmful to vitamin D, and therefore, all products containing it – egg yolk, fish oil, liver, kidneys.
A diet high in calcium helps reduce blood cholesterol. Magnesium and copper ions have a slight hypocholesterolemic effect.
Very useful, especially in the winter-spring period, products of the sea. in which there is a lot of organic iodine, methionine, B vitamins and other compounds that interfere with the development of atherosclerosis. It can be fresh-frozen and dry sea kale, freshly frozen and in its own juicy scallop, mussels, squids, trepangs, shrimps, etc. They can be cooked either as separate dishes or as an additive to salads, vinaigrettes. It is recommended to eat Sea food 6 once a week. Sea kale can be eaten every other day. However, these products require caution in the presence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
It is forbidden fatty meat soups. Fat types of meat and fish, meat of internal organs, cream, fillings, creams, muffins, spicy, salty and fatty snacks, strong natural coffee, strong tea, cocoa, chocolate, alcoholic beverages in any form and quantity.
As soft drinks, loose tea, tea with milk, weak, better surrogate coffee, fruit, vegetable and berry juices, broth of wild rose, etc. “Hard” water helps to normalize the level of cholesterol in the blood. Therefore, the use of mineral waters in the complex treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis is fully justified.
From snacks are allowed low-fat ham. milk, dietary, diabetic and doctoral sausages, cheeses, various salads, vinaigrettes. Sauces on vegetable broth, on milk, gravy berry, sweet, fruit, vegetable.
In atherosclerosis, complicated by coronary disease and at the same time overweight, discharge days are shown: milk, kefir, curd, fruit, vegetable.
In the absence of hypertension, meat days are allowed – once in 3 – 10 days. Such days help to remove fluid from the body, reduce body weight, normalize blood pressure, improve general condition.
If atherosclerosis. complicated or uncomplicated, occurs against the background of normal body weight or even a weight deficit, the energy value of the diet should be slightly higher than usual, and amount to approximately 2800 – 3000 kcal. Protein in such a diet about 100 g, the amount of fat increases to 70 g, carbohydrates – 400 g. You can eat a whole batch of soup. The quantity of bread, sugar, on 10 г – butter increases. In other respects, the diet is the same.
- 1-th breakfast: buckwheat cereal crumbly, tea.
- 2 breakfast: an apple.
- Lunch: pearl barley soup with vegetables in vegetable oil, meat steamed bits, carrots stewed, compote.
- Afternoon snack: broth of wild rose.
- Dinner: vegetable salad with sea kale and vegetable oil, fish baked with sauce, and boiled potatoes, tea.
- At night: kefir.
Dietary recommendations of the European Heart Society and the European Society of Atherosclerosis
They were published in 2000 year. General principles:
the proportion of all fats in the total energy value of food should be 30% or less,
the proportion of animals (saturated) fats should not exceed 1 / 3 from the total amount of fat consumed,
Hypertonics and overweight people need to further reduce salt intake to 5 and less g / day and limit alcohol intake.
People with excessive body weight must limit the calorie content of food.
Why is it so important? atherosclerosis diet – Yes, because this disease is directly related to food.
In humans, disruptions of lipid metabolism occur and on the walls of the vessels the fat layers (the same cholesterol) are gradually deposited. From this, the vessels narrow, the blood supply deteriorates. Violated metabolic processes and it is understandable that patients with atherosclerosis more often than others suffer from obesity. There is good news – the disease can be defeated. And just here the diet at an atherosclerosis in a combination to physical exercises acts on the first place.
Diet for atherosclerosis of vessels
The diet for atherosclerosis excludes from the diet food that is rich in cholesterol, so that its blood level does not increase abruptly, and that the formation of cholesterol deposits arteries in the inner walls of the arteries does not begin. In order to cleanse the vessels from excess cholesterol, a diet for atherosclerosis of the veins is needed, vegan. It provides for the absence of products of animal origin in general. Then the body produces only its own cholesterol. And if you add a moderate physical load, the body absorbs atherosclerotic streaks in the vessels and plaques.
What can you eat with arteriosclerosis of blood vessels?
Here is an indicative list of foods recommended by dietitians for patients with atherosclerosis. This is a bird fillet, peeled from skin and fat, tender veal, rabbit, maybe even game. It is recommended to eat sea fish more often. Unlike other diets, a diet with atherosclerosis provides for the presence in the diet of fatty fish containing poly saturated fatty acids, which so beneficial effect on blood vessels. In addition, all fermented milk products (kefir, cottage cheese, yogurt, fermented baked milk, yoghurt) are allowed to be consumed. True milk is recommended to use only fat-free. In a week it is allowed to eat up to two eggs. The use of yolks should be strictly limited. Fruits and vegetables are allowed with a few exceptions – not grapes and dates. Cereals – can be any. A small amount of pasta is allowed. Bread from wholemeal flour – a small amount, a couple of thin slices a day. It is allowed to season the food with different dried herbs and spices to taste. Tea and just not strong.
What can not be eaten with arteriosclerosis of blood vessels?
At once we will agree – no animals and hydrogenated fats. The first contain cholesterol, while the latter contribute to its deposition on the walls of the vessels. Therefore, we exclude for the time of a diet such food products: fatty meat. It is those pieces where the fat is visible, where it is between the fibers. Butter is very, very little. Categorically you can not use margarines, and so-called spreads.
But the following products can be consumed, but with caution and in a very small amount: vegetable and olive oil (we recommend buying a salad dispenser), honey – you can have one teaspoon with unsweetened tea as a substitute for sweets. Lean meat – lean beef, lean ham, low-fat ground beef. You can eat cheese with a percentage of fat less than thirty (let’s be honest, it’s very hard to find such cheeses on the shelves, it’s mostly Italian ricotta). You can season the food with a small amount of soy sauce. From alcoholic beverages only red dry wine is allowed. With the rest (especially with strong spirits) you will need to part for the time of the diet.
What is the diet for arteriosclerosis of blood vessels?
Diet in arteriosclerosis of vessels implies a decrease in the daily caloric intake by about 10-15%, compared with the average daily norm. In case of atherosclerosis development against obesity, the number of calories per day consumed with food should not exceed 1500 – 2000 kcal. It is recommended 1-2 once a week to spend unloading days – to eat only apples, kefir or low-fat cottage cheese. The energy value of food can be reduced by carbohydrates and fats of animal origin – from the latter generally refuse from atherosclerosis of the vessels. Almost exclude from the diet cholesterol-containing foods – brains, liver, egg yolks, caviar, kidneys.
When dieting from atherosclerosis, patients should consume only unrefined oils as they are rich in poly saturated fatty acids, vitamin E, phospholipids. On the day of a diet from atherosclerosis, you need to consume up to 80 g of fat. Patients with atherosclerosis should abandon the sweet – severely restrict the consumption of sugar, honey, jam – in the body these products are converted to cholesterol and triglycerides. Carbohydrates in the day menu of a patient with atherosclerosis reach 300-400 a day. And salt at a diet from an atherosclerosis use no more than 8 of a day. The amount of proteins in a diet from atherosclerosis can be calculated – approximately 1, 4 per kilogram of body weight of the patient, most of them are proteins of animal origin. Enrichment of the diet is due to additional intake of patients with atherosclerosis ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, niacin and routine.
At least three times a day you need to drink such mineral water. From the calculation of 3,3 ml per 1 kg of human weight. It turns out to 900 ml. mineral water a day, drinking water thirty minutes before eating. The course of treatment with water lasts about six weeks.