The goal of the diet for colitis is to provide nutrition with digestion disturbed, that is, mechanical and chemical sparing of the digestive tract, reducing the inflammatory response.
The main task is to negate fermentation and putrefaction in the intestine and normalize its functions and functions of other organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
Diet in colitis has a reduced energy value (restriction of the consumption of fats and carbohydrates, but with a normal amount of protein), and equals 2170-2480Kcal.
- the protein content is 85-90gr, of which 60-65% are animals;
- fat content 70-80gr;
- carbohydrates 300-350 gr;
- table salt – 8-10gr.
The diet for colitis of any stage is fractional, 5-6 once a day and in small portions. Due to this principle of diet, the mechanical stress on the digestive tract decreases, and in particular on the intestine, and the food is easier to digest and assimilate. The last meal should be no later than 3 hours before bedtime.
Dishes should not be too cold or hot, so as not to irritate the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. The optimum food temperature is 15-60 ° C.
All dishes should be boiled, cooked steamed or baked, but without hard crust. In addition, the food is served rubbed or crushed. Thus, the intestine manages to split the foods to nutrients that are absorbed into the blood – this is achieved by mechanical shaking.
The amount of plant fiber in the diet in colitis is reduced, as it, firstly, does not stay in the intestine, that is, it increases the frequency of defecations (and colitis is usually accompanied by diarrhea), and, secondly, irritates the intestinal mucosa, which so inflamed.
The salt content of food in colitis is somewhat reduced, up to 10g. Too salty dishes irritate the digestive tract.
The use of free liquid must be at least 1,5-2l per day. Thus dilute hydrochloric acid in the stomach and make up for the volume of fluid lost with diarrhea.
From alcohol, especially during the exacerbation of the disease should be discarded. Alcohol has an irritating effect on the mucosa of the stomach and intestines, exacerbating inflammation in the large intestine, stimulating the production of pancreatic enzymes and the release of bile, which exacerbates the disease.
In the menu of therapeutic diet for colitis should not include those foods that cause fermentation and putrefaction in the intestines, stimulate gas formation and peristalsis.
These include both gross vegetable fiber and legumes. In addition, it is not recommended to use spices – they have an irritating effect on the digestive tract.
Fats, especially plant origin, also limit, as they interfere with the absorption of nutrients in the intestines and accelerate the processes of defecation, which is not good for diarrhea. The same applies to dairy products, especially with lactose intolerance.
Stimulants of bile secretion, secretions of pancreatic enzymes, for example, extractives, increase the load on the liver and worsen the flow of colitis.
List of Prohibited Colitis Products
- black bread, bread from wholemeal flour or wholemeal, baking;
- rich meat and fish broths;
- pasta, beans, peas, lentils, beans;
- fatty varieties of meat and poultry, especially fried foods;
- pickles, marinades, smoked products;
- canned goods, caviar;
- fatty fish;
- mushrooms in any form;
- raw vegetables;
- fruit and berries in raw form, dried fruits, honey, jam;
- dairy products, whole milk;
- coffee and cocoa with milk;
- fast food, chips, crackers;
- eggs fried or hard-boiled;
- spices (mustard, pepper, vinegar, garlic and others);
- cereals: barley, barley, wheat, wheat, barley;
- fats, except butter.
The diet menu for colitis should include products that provide normal digestion, delaying defecation, allowing the intestines to quickly digest them.
This is bakery and dairy products with low acidity, and “fixing” products (coffee, cocoa), as well as containing a lot of vitamins.
In addition, it is necessary to ensure mechanical and chemical shining of the digestive tract, so all dishes should be wiped or finely chopped, and served in a warm form.
The list of allowed products includes:
- crackers from white bread, biscuits, biscuits;
- skimmed and diluted broths, soups with boiled cereals or chopped vegetables (potatoes, zucchini);
- low-fat varieties of meat and poultry and dishes from them (steamed chicken with rice, meatballs): veal, beef, rabbit, chicken without skin;
- Fish of low-fat varieties, boiled or steamed, baked;
- boiled porridge on the water (buckwheat, rice, oatmeal);
- eggs in the form of a protein omelet or soft-boiled;
- vegetables: potatoes, zucchini, cauliflower, pumpkin, carrots in the form of mashed potatoes, soufflé, casseroles or boiled;
- apples baked, in the form of mashed potatoes, without peel and red, broths from barberry, currants black, quince; pears, bananas;
- butter in a small amount;
- low-fat cottage cheese and non-acid sour cream;
- cheeses are mild and unsalted;
- bay leaves, vanillin, cinnamon, a little dill and parsley;
- chocolate, strong tea, coffee, diluted juices (excluding apricot, grape and plum);
- marmalade, pastille;
- jelly, jelly.
Necessity of dieting
Compliance with the diet in colitis normalizes the work of the large intestine and the entire digestive tract as a whole. Also, the treatment table with the disease will ensure the assimilation of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements, normalizes appearance and weight, and stimulates immunity.
Normal work of the gastrointestinal tract favorably affects the state of the psyche, eliminates emotional excitability, positively affects sleep.
In addition, if a diet is observed, all unpleasant sensations associated with colitis are stopped in the patient, abdominal pain disappears.
The consequences of non-compliance with the diet
If the diet is not complied with, colitis threatens with frequent exacerbations, constant discomfort in the abdomen and problems with the stool – this is at best, and at worst – it threatens to go into ulcerative colitis, complicated by intestinal bleeding and the development of peritonitis.
In addition, colitis causes a narrowing of the lumen of the large intestine due to strictures and scars.