Daily evacuation of the intestine (every day in the morning) is the norm, and deviations from this rule – constipation or coprostasis – a stool retention over 2-x days or regular hardship with emptying up to 100 d bowel movements. However, one can proceed from the general state of a person – if he does not experience discomfort in the absence of daily cleansing of the intestine, then the frequency of the chair once in 2 day can be considered normal. Nevertheless, it is worth trying different ways to normalize the intestine.
In the absence of diseases, constipation causes:
- The lack of raw vegetables and fruits, rough fiber (black bread and cereals), which deprives the body of pathogens. Animal fats and proteins do not cause the colon to “work” and lead to intestinal atony. Food sandwiches, hamburgers “on the run” and the lack of first courses in the diet is also of no small importance.
- Lack of fluid.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Regular containment of desires.
- Starvation. Defecation in the first days of fasting can be regular, and then intestinal activity is absent in one way or another. After fasting due to a prolonged delay of stool in the intestine, it becomes firm, and the peristalsis is sluggish, which leads to difficulty in emptying it.
- A change of scenery.
- Prolonged stress.
When starting treatment, you need to find out the cause of constipation and, first of all, try to eliminate it by feeding. If 2-3 day there is no stool, and the use of laxative products does not help, you need to cleanse the intestines by making an enema with an 1 liter volume. To prevent stool injury to the mucous membrane, add 2-3 st. l. vegetable oil. The water temperature should be roomy and not necessarily boiled. Then you need to start eating right.
Food is cooked in unmilled form, boiled or baked. Vegetables are recommended mainly in raw form and some of them are cooked. Eating 4-5 once a day. It is important to comply with the drinking regime – 1,5-2 L of liquid per day. This is due to the fact that when there is a lack of fluid in the sigmoid colon, water from the feces is absorbed and they become hard, which makes it difficult to pass them through the anal canal.
Nutrition for constipation in adults associated with intestinal atony is aimed at enhancing its peristalsis. Thus, a laxative diet includes products that eliminate constipation.
Diet with constipation in the elderly. Such products include:
- Rich in sugars – jam, cane sugar, syrups, honey, milk sugar, dextrose, mannitol, levulose, sweet dishes. They draw liquid into the intestines and dilute the stool.
- Containing salt – salted fish, salted vegetables, canned snacks.
- With a high content of organic acids – pickled and pickled vegetables, sour fruits and juices from them, sour-milk drinks, mors, which excite peristalsis.
- Rich in dietary fiber – bran, legumes, dried fruits, nuts, coarse bread, millet, barley, buckwheat, pearl barley, oatmeal, raw vegetables.
- Meat with a high content of connective tissue.
- Drinks containing carbon dioxide.
- Fats used on an empty stomach in large quantities (1-2 st.l), sour cream and cream (100 g and more), egg yolks.
- Cold dishes (150 C), used on an empty stomach or for lunch – okroshka, beetroot, cold gourmet dishes, as well as all cold drinks and ice cream. It is the difference in body temperature and the product taken is the main factor in stimulating peristalsis.
- Koumiss and kvass, which have a double effect: due to the content of organic acids and carbon dioxide.
- Fiber, bran and sea kale, prone to swelling in the intestines and attracting water.
- Sauerkraut is a source of organic acids and fiber.
In parallel with this, it is necessary to exclude products that delay the evacuation of the intestine: black coffee, strong tea, cocoa, chocolate, tender cheeses, cranberries, blueberries, dogwood, pomegranate, pears, mucilage soups, pasta, jelly, hot dishes, red wine. These are the general principles of nutrition in case of constipation in adults.
Constipation often occurs in pregnant women, especially in the second half, which is due to the fact that the intestine is squeezed by an enlarged uterus, the peristalsis becomes sluggish and its emptying becomes more difficult. Constipation is to some extent due to the psychological condition of the pregnant woman. Dietary recommendations do not differ from the main recommendations for atonic states of the intestine.
The diet includes:
- Courgettes, beets, fresh cabbage (in the absence of flatulence), carrots, pumpkins, cucumbers, tomatoes, apples, oranges, bread with bran, beetroots, cabbage soup.
- The relaxing effect is fresh kefir and kvass.
- Prunes are used in the form of infusion: 100 g pour 2 cups of boiling water and leave for 12 hours (at night). Over the next day, drink the infusion of 0,5 glass before each meal and eat plums, spread over several receptions.
Often there are constipation and flatulence at the same time.
Diet with constipation and bloating
Alimentary flatulence occurs with the use of foods with a high content of starch and raw fiber (legumes, potatoes, cabbage, radish, turnips, yeast baked goods, black bread, grapes, raisins, bananas), carbonated drinks, sweets, and therefore these products should be excluded when swelling from the diet. The intake of a large number of proteins of animal origin at night also causes flatulence. Undigested proteins cause rotting and gassing in the intestine.
- wheat dried bread;
- carrots, pumpkins, zucchini, beets, greens;
- low-fat meat;
- cereals (except millet and pearl barley);
- steam omelet;
- green tea, natural juices (orange, lemon, apple);
- dairy products;
- prunes, apricots, pomegranates.
The following rules for the use of products will help to significantly reduce the swelling.
- Before meals, drink 2 st. l. decoction of fennel seeds.
- Fractional and frequent meals, so as not to overload the organs of the digestive tract.
- Do not use simultaneously incompatible products – carbohydrates and proteins, as well as heterogeneous proteins. It is better if the dishes include a minimum set of products. Periodically arrange unloading mono-diet.
- Fruits should be consumed in 2 hours after the main meal.
- The use of vegetables and fruits in a thermally processed form. Such treatment of them contributes to the development of saprophyte intestinal flora.
- Do not abuse the condiments.
Diet with constipation in the elderly
In the process of aging, the motor function of the intestine changes. Peristalsis in the elderly is noticeably weakened, which leads to a persistent constipation, which is called senile.
The bowel is emptied not irregularly and not completely, the feces are retained in it, and since it contains harmful substances (indole, skatole), has a toxic effect and causes chronic intoxication. With constipation in the intestine, putrefactive bacteria multiply intensively, which cause increased gas production.
Inflating entails a high position of the diaphragm, which makes breathing difficult, displaces the heart and can cause pain in the heart. Reinforced straining during defecation promotes the formation of hernias, disrupts blood circulation in the brain and can lead to the development stroke. Therefore, elderly people must necessarily fight with constipation.
- It is very important to establish the correct diet. After all, when a person always eats at the same time, the entire system of regulation of the activity of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract becomes active, and this contributes to the normal and rapid passage of food and the resulting stool masses through the intestine.
- In nutrition include more vegetables, fruits – vegetable fiber is the best stimulator of the motor function of the intestine. Dietary fiber should be supplied in an amount of 20-35 g per day. For example, 0,5 cups of green peas contains 5 g of fibers, one apple – 3. It is necessary to eat 2-3 times per day in 1 st. l. brewed rye bran, adding to different dishes. Most of the fibers contain boiled beans, prunes, figs, corn flakes, raisins, oatmeal, pears and nuts. Increase the number of fibers gradually, so that there is no swelling.
- Strengthen peristalsis can be, drinking a glass of cold water on an empty stomach.
- You can drink on an empty stomach 1 st. l. vegetable oil. This causes the entry of bile into the lumen of the intestine and activates its contraction.
- Sea kale, which has a laxative effect, is very useful.
- Sugar is better to replace xylitol, which also relaxes. It can be added by 1-2 tsp. in tea or compote (morning and evening).
- An effective measure to combat constipation is physical activity: gymnastics involving the muscles of the abdominal wall and pelvic floor (bringing the legs to the stomach in a prone position, tilting from standing position and others), walking on 2-3 km per day, labor in the garden.
- Strengthen the motor function of the intestine will also help massage the abdomen – lie on your back and stroke your stomach with circular motions (clockwise) several times a day.
Guided by the principle: it is better to include a maximum of laxative products, and laxatives to take a minimum – only occasionally, no more than once a week. Constant reception of them disrupts intestinal microflora, digestion and absorption, can cause severe diarrhea, which further aggravate constipation. If the chair is not 2-3 day, it is better to put an enema, or try to put a glycerin candle that has a lax effect.
- The diet contains all vegetables: beets, carrots, lettuce, cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkin, zucchini, cauliflower, which can be used in raw, stewed and boiled. With good tolerance, dishes made from white cabbage and green peas are allowed, but in a cooked form.
- You can use vinaigrettes with vegetable oil, vegetable caviar, sea kale. It can be used dried (as a powder) or finely chopped in 1-3 tsp. a day, soaking in the water.
- Salads and canned products from sea kale are also recommended.
- The first dishes are prepared on a light and low-fat meat / fish broth. Proceeding from the fact that it is necessary to get more fiber, it is necessary to prepare predominantly vegetable first dishes (colds, borsch, soup, beetroot), as well as soups with the addition of pearl barley.
- Give preference to low-fat varieties of meat, chicken, turkey – they are easier to digest than fatty meat. Meat dishes are cooked or baked. The same applies to fish. Remember that any meat is indigestible product and its daily use can strengthen constipation. In this case, it is better to give preference to fish from protein products. Fish and meat should be prepared with a piece.
- From cereals buckwheat, pearl barley, millet, barley, wheat are prepared crumbly porridge, casseroles and cereals with a small amount of milk. Porridges should be crumbly (“kashi-smears”, and also mashed potatoes are excluded).
- Sour-milk drinks contain a lot of organic acids, so they are useful for constipation. You can use yogurt, yogurt, matzoni, kumis, acidophilic yogurt.
- Milk is allowed only in dishes. Enter fresh cottage cheese and dishes from it: puddings, casseroles with the addition of cereals, lazy vareniki, but in limited quantities and not often. Because products containing calcium, can strengthen.
- Cream is allowed, a quick cheese in small quantities and sour cream in dishes. Eggs can be consumed up to 2 pieces per day and cook them in the form of steam omelettes, omelets with vegetables and soft-boiled.
- In an unlimited number in the diet must be present fresh sweet fruits and berries, soaked dried fruit and as an additive to dishes or kefir (dried apricots, prunes, apricots, figs).
- From sweets allowed jam, honey, pastille, marmalade.
- Bread is allowed wheat, but from flour 2-th grade, cereal, doctoral, and with good portability can and rye. All bread products should be yesterday’s baking. It is possible in limited quantities and seldom to eat uncomfortable cookies and dry biscuit.
- Soft tea, carbonated fruit and berry drinks and mineral water with gas are allowed (in the absence of swelling and eructation), coffee substitutes, bran broth, rose hips infusion, plum juice, potato, apricot, carrot, beet, tomato.
* The data are on 100 g of product
Totally or partially limited products
- Chocolate and any products with cream are not allowed. It is necessary to exclude bread from flour of higher grades, as well as pastry from yeast dough and puff pastry.
- The dishes containing tannins are excluded: they are quesules from quince, pears, bird cherries, blueberries, dogwood, strong tea, cocoa and coffee.
- Dishes with a viscous consistency and slowly moving along the intestines are mucous soups, mashed potatoes, mashed porridges and kissels.
- Difficult to digest and long stay in the stomach are fatty meats (duck, goose) and fish, canned food, smoked meat, hard-boiled eggs. They must be excluded from the diet.
- Sharp dishes, sauces, horseradish and mustard strongly irritate the mucous and disrupt the function of the whole gastrointestinal tract.
- Limit the products that initially cause constipation – rice, semolina, noodles, sago, vermicelli, potatoes, as well as legumes that can be poorly tolerated.
* The data are on 100 g of product
Menu with locks (Power mode)
The correct nutrition menu should include 25-30 g of dietary fiber daily. Bread of rye bran is allowed 150 g, and wheat bread 200 g, butter 10 g and sugar 40 g. Do not forget about taking on an empty stomach with honey, juices with pulp, dried fruit compote, prunes or broth. At night, use prunes and yogurt with the addition of 1 art. l. bran. Taking extra bran, do not forget about observing the drinking regime, otherwise they can have the opposite effect.
With chronic intestinal obstruction, nutrition, first of all, is aimed at regulating the stool, unloading the intestine by eliminating hard-to-digest food. The main requirement is to limit the amount of food, avoiding overeating. Food intake is fractional, in small portions every 2 hours.
The second task of the diet is elimination of fermentation and putrefactive processes, therefore products that cause gas formation (pea, raw cabbage, legumes, whole milk, carbonated drinks) are excluded.
A moderate mechanical sham is envisaged. Chemical irritants should be excluded completely (sharp spices, burning spices). In the period of exacerbation, mechanical shaking should be maximum (Diets №4 or №4B). Fats and simple carbohydrates are limited. The norm of carbohydrates is 250 g (40-45 g make up simple sugars), fats 60-70 g, protein 70-80 g (60% animal origin).
Vegetables and fruits should be consumed in moderate amounts and in boiled form, since excess fiber can cause flatulence. The meat must be ground, it is necessary to include sour-milk products and observe the drinking regime. Allowed to use prunes, figs, dried apricots. Cottage cheese in view of the high content of calcium can cause constipation, so you need to use it carefully. Pasta are excluded, and of cereals – pearl, millet and barley.