Chronic gastritis is considered as a disease in which there are inflammatory and dystrophic changes in the gastric mucosa. Most often, it develops due to inaccuracies in the diet, the transfer of bile acids into the stomach, the presence Helicobacter pylori, alcohol abuse.
Its main forms include superficial and atrophic. The latter is associated with gland atrophy (dystrophic changes) and a decrease in their number. Prolonged persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction, as a result of chronic inflammation, the mass of active glandular tissue decreases. Thus, atrophic gastritis is a consequence of a long-standing chronic gastritis. With this form, the secretion of gastric mucus and the secretion of gastric juice are disturbed. The malfunctioning of the mucosa affects the digestion and digestion of proteins, fats, vitamins.
The deposition of food, its partial digestion (the processes of protein decomposition under the action of of hydrochloric acid), partial absorption and carrying food further to the intestines are the main functions of the stomach. With atrophic gastritis, these functions are violated. Reduced acidity and deterioration of digestion affect the condition of patients. They have an impaired appetite, nausea, burp, a constant feeling of heaviness in the stomach, an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth and bloating. The pain syndrome is associated with gastric distension due to a violation of the evacuation of the food lump.
The pains are dull and aching, somewhat worse after eating. Over time, there are symptoms of excessive bacterial growth of the pathological flora of the intestine. This is due to a violation of the bactericidal function of hydrochloric acid. Patients may have unstable stools, intolerance to dairy products and constant rumbling in the abdomen. Frequent diarrhea lead to weight loss and development anemia.
The number of secretory glands decreases with time and partial replacement with intestinal epithelium occurs, epithelial dysplasiaand metaplasia of the base glands. A true precancerous change is epithelial dysplasia and these patients are at risk for developing stomach cancer.
That is why treatment and constant observation is so important when atrophic gastritis. In chronic gastritis, proper nutrition and diet are also important. Frequent fractional nourishment at approximately the same hours establishes rhythmic activity of the digestive system. It is important not to allow long breaks and to eat at least 4 once a day.
Diet with an atrophic gastritis with a low acidity provides for moderate stimulation of the secretory function of the stomach, is aimed at reducing fermentation processes in the intestine and is prescribed for a long period. Its characteristic feature is that it includes foods that are food stimulants for the separation of gastric juice.
The task of dietary treatment by “spurting” is to strengthen the function of the mucosa in the production of gastric juice. To this end, the diet includes herring, meat, fish and rich vegetable broths. And for cooking dishes are used except cooking and baking – quenching, and frying (without breading), which increases the production of gastric juice. On the other hand – atrophic gastritis dictates the use of mechanical shading of the mucous membrane, so the food is given mainly crushed. Nevertheless, for a long time (more than 1,5-2 months) to use shredded food is not necessary. As the state of health improves, changes in the diet are made in consultation with the doctor.
Diet with stomach gastritis with low acidity is rich in extractives that contribute to a good appetite. It includes a variety of products, vitamins and is physiologically complete. In addition to the main protein dishes, it is allowed to:
- snacks (herring, forshmak, tomato salads, luncheon dishes with broths, salads from boiled vegetables with fish, meat or eggs);
- sauces on meat broths, which improve the taste of main dishes;
- stewed vegetables, vegetable caviar;
- Sour milk drinks and hard cheese;
- mature fruits, additions of oranges and lemons to tea and compotes;
- diluted vegetable and fruit juices (lemon and cabbage), coffee and cocoa, tea.
In this diet is limited to coarse fiber, whole milk, spicy dishes and spices.
When the exacerbation of the diet is the same, but the dishes are cooked in a boiled form or steamed and rubbed.
With gastritis with reduced acidity, products with choleretic action are prescribed: beet and beet juice, vegetable oils, lemons, melons, watermelon, turmeric, avocado, fresh greens, dandelion root, hips. In the complex treatment of chronic gastritis with low acidity, “bitterness” is used: yarrow, common wormwood, centipedes, birch buds, plantain leaves.
Diet for gastritis with low acidity includes:
- The first dishes on low-fat meat / fish / mushroom broth, with good tolerance, you can eat borsch, and cabbage soup with cabbage, rassolnik with finely chopped or grated vegetables with brine. In all the first courses, vegetables should be finely chopped or ground.
- Low-fat meat and poultry (beef, lamb, pork, chicken, turkey). Meat is chosen without fascia, skin and tendons and cooked, stewed and baked dishes are prepared from it. From chopped meat you can make cutlets, zrazy, knels, crochets.
- Fish lump, as well as cutlets, meatballs, knels. Dishes are prepared from hake, cod, pink salmon, icefish, pike, pollock or blue whiting.
- Sauces based on broths for second courses, sauce dishes based on broth.
- Potato, pumpkin, carrot, squash, beet puree, cauliflower puree, vegetable soufflé, stewed vegetables, green peas. In the dish you can add dill and parsley, salads from boiled vegetables with the addition of meat or fish. You can enter salads from fresh tomatoes.
- Dried wheat bread, you can eat uneaten flour products and cookies.
- Porridge on water (or meat broth). Excluded millet, corn and pearl barley, as indigestible.
- Kefir, yogurt, sour cream, yoghurt, grated cheese or slices, milk and cream (in dishes), scrambled eggs with cheese, cottage cheese and dishes from it.
- Mature fruits in the garbled form, mandarins, oranges, apples, baked, watermelon, grapes (peel to remove), oranges and lemons (in tea).
- Tea with lemon, vegetable juices, coffee and cocoa, fruit juices (all juices in diluted form).
- Desserts: creamy iris, pastille, marshmallow, marmalade, jam sugar, honey, jam.