Dietotherapy with glomerulonephritis is primarily aimed at facilitating the work of damaged kidneys and reducing the severity of symptoms.
- Diet is prescribed immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis.
- Food – in small portions, every 2-3 hours, avoiding overeating.
- The optimum temperature for hot dishes 57-62 ° C, cold – not less than 15 ° C. You can cook food, stew, bake, lightly fry.
- Categorically prohibited alcohol.
- The volume of consumed liquid is calculated by the principle – the amount of urine allocated before the day plus 300-500 ml, including soups, drinks. This helps reduce the burden on the kidneys, reduce blood pressure, prevents the appearance of edema. Be sure to remember that many fruits and vegetables also contain water.
- Restriction of protein products.
When renal glomerular filters can not filter blood, the use of additional protein increases the burden on the kidneys. Also in the process of protein metabolism urea is formed – a substance that can lead to the defeat of the nervous system in the first place. However, it is impossible to exclude protein completely from food, because there is a constant loss with urine. Diet with glomerulonephritis provides a small amount of high-quality protein with a full set of amino acids – low-fat meat, fish, chicken breast, egg whites.
Also limit sodium salts. Sodium helps to regulate the volume of fluid trapped in the body. Increasing its concentration leads to an increase in the volume of blood and, accordingly, raises blood pressure. And high blood pressure increases the burden on the kidneys, worsening their condition. If the patient has severe swelling and high blood pressure, then salt is excluded completely for 7-14 days.
To avoid additional intake of sodium, food is not salted, and a weak solution of vinegar, tomato or other sour juices, boiled onion, moderately-spiced spices is used. It should also be ensured that there is no taste enhancer in the foods used – glutamate sodium. It is forbidden to eat processed cheese, pickles, canned foods, snacks, salt substitutes based on potassium.
Check for the presence of sodium glutamate in food
Potassium will also stay in the body, as the kidneys will not be able to filter it. A high level of potassium affects the neuromuscular transmission and can provoke arrhythmia or even a heart attack. You can not abuse foods that are rich in potassium: bananas, oranges, spinach, tomatoes, nuts, beans, potatoes, dairy products.
Control of phosphorus content in products. In acute glomerulonephritis, patients experience difficulties in removing phosphorus. Its amount should be within 800-1000 mg / day, otherwise an elevated level can provoke heart and bone disease. It is necessary to control the consumption of dairy products, peas, beans, peanut butter, nuts. Avoid drinks such as Coca-Cola, cocoa and beer, as well as fast food, in which phosphorus is added to enhance the taste and extend shelf life.
Nutrition with glomerulonephritis in case of deterioration of the condition provides carbohydrate unloading days – sugar, rice, vegetable, fruit, compote. These “unloading” limits the intake of proteins and fats against the background of a sufficient number of carbohydrates, trace elements and insoluble dietary fiber.
- Sugar unloading day – 200 g of sugar in the form of tea, up to 1 l per day.
- Apple day – 1,5 kg of apples with peel divided into 5 receptions per day, with the addition of 50-100
- Potato unloading day – 1,5 kg cooked in uniforms or baked potatoes, without salt on 5 receptions per day.
- Rice unloading day – sweet rice porridge from 50 g of rice and 120 g of sugar – for two meals per day, with compote from fresh and dried fruits, not more than 1 per day.
- During the observance of a compote, grape or kefir unloading day, other liquids are not used at all. In severe exacerbation, it may be recommended that the fluid and food should be completely discarded on 1-2 days.
In severe and medium form, acute glomerulonephritis is prescribed a diet, and after a decrease in the severity of the symptoms go to a softer diet. Further, with a significant improvement in the state, you can eat the foods of the main diet.
Specificity of nutrition with glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis is an inflammatory disease that affects the structure of the kidneys (glomeruli or glomeruli). It occurs against the background of a decrease in immunity when there is an infectious process in the body and problems with the outflow of urine. One of the methods of therapy is a diet with glomerulonephritis, which is important for the treatment of this disease.
Principles and features of a diet in pathology
Kidneys are an important paired organ of excretory system. They are designed to remove from the body the products of decay and metabolism, thereby purifying it and preventing intoxication (poisoning) of harmful substances.
In the presence of inflammation in the kidneys, their functionality is significantly reduced, which leads to the poisoning of the entire human body. Therefore, with glomerulonephritis, a special diet is prescribed, which is also shown in other pathologies of the kidneys (kidney failure and nephritis). It has its own characteristics and is used to:
- restoration of water-salt balance in the body;
- reducing the burden on the kidneys;
- improvement of metabolic processes;
- accelerating the excretion of harmful substances and metabolic products from the body;
- improvement of urinary retention;
- lowering blood pressure;
- improvement of blood circulation;
- removing or reducing the swelling of the body.
The basic principles of the diet for glomerulonephritis:
- Restriction in the use of salt. The acceptable norm per day is about 3-6 g (but not more than 10). In this case, there should be no products with increased content (herring, smoked products, sausages). This is necessary in order to prevent the retention of fluid in the body, as well as to normalize the water-salt balance.
- Reducing the consumption of proteins (especially animal origin), which helps to unload the kidneys during protein metabolism. In this case, fats and carbohydrates should be supplied with food in the usual amount.
- Limitation of fluid intake. A person with this diagnosis should drink an average of 1 liters of free liquid (without soups, broths). This helps to reduce the swelling of the body.
- Avoiding the use of irritating kidney products. These are extractives that are contained in the bones and muscles of animals, as well as in some products of plant origin (for example, in mushrooms). They are poorly assimilated by the human body and create great difficulties in breeding. From them, you can partially or completely get rid of when cooking, when these substances remain in the broth. Oxalic acid, essential oils, preservatives and other chemical additives also have an irritating effect.
- Restriction in daily caloric intake. The patient should not consume more than 2700 calories per day.
- Frequent, but small meals. In a day, you need to eat 56 times in small portions.
- The food should be heat-treated (baking, cooking, lightly frying). Do not eat too hot dishes.
- Refusal of alcohol, poisonous kidneys, as well as strong tea and coffee, which have an exciting effect on the nervous system.
To a diet with glomerulonephritis had a positive effect on the treatment of the disease, it is necessary to adhere to its basic principles.
A special dietary regimen can be prescribed only by the attending physician, who sets its duration and specifics, taking into account the form of the illness, the general condition of the patient.
Compilation of the menu occurs after the delivery of the tests and must take into account all the characteristics of the patient’s body and its taste preferences. Consider an exemplary menu for glomerulonephritis:
- for breakfast you can cook steamed vegetable patties and drink a cup of soft tea;
- in the second breakfast to be supported by allowed fruits;
- in the evening you should eat vegetable soup, stewed lean meat, baked potatoes and fruit fruit drink;
- in a mid-morning snack you can drink a glass of broth from the dog rose;
- for dinner, eat cereals boiled on the water, and a salad of vegetables with the addition of vegetable oil, drink a cup of herbal tea;
- an hour before sleep recommend drinking a glass of freshly squeezed juice or kefir.
What can you eat with glomerulonephritis?
- saltless bread and flour products with a small amount of yeast;
- hospital biscuits;
- fresh pancakes and fritters;
- vegetable broths and soups;
- low-fat varieties of meat and poultry, steamed;
- boiled fish with a low fat content;
- dairy products, but in very small quantities;
- any cereals;
- dried fruits;
- jam and jams with low sugar content;
- herbal teas.
To fill dishes with any spices is forbidden, but during the improvement of the state, you can add a few fresh herbs, carefully watching how the patient will feel after eating such foods.
Each of the allowed menu items is added gradually, one at a time. If deterioration was noted, the product added earlier is immediately again excluded from the food.
At any stage, categorically prohibited:
- any pastry containing salt;
- milk soups;
- soups from meat and fish;
- fried, smoked, dried and dried products;
- fast food;
- legumes of all kinds;
- onion garlic;
- radish, radish, turnip;
- sweet soda.
Eating these foods can cause severe deterioration of the condition, exacerbation of the disease and additional strain on the body due to irritation of other organs and tissues. During treatment, it is better to have patience and not eat them at all.