Many hypertensive patients try to keep their arterial pressure within acceptable limits with the help of drugs. Indeed, the possibilities of modern pharmacological treatment are extensive. A whole army of antihypertensive drugs (drugs for lowering blood pressure) has been developed and released into the pharmacy network. Meanwhile, there are non-drug ways to control the volatile blood pressure. These include therapeutic nutrition.
The correct diet helps to choose the optimal drug faster, reduce the dosage of medications taken by patients, reduce their number, and in mild cases it allows you to completely abandon medication. Its effectiveness varies greatly depending on the severity of the disease, concomitant diseases, motivation and discipline of patients. The main rules of such a diet are:
- reduced amount of table salt;
- control over the amount of fluid consumed;
- inclusion of food with lipotropic effect;
- Enrichment of the diet with the necessary minerals (potassium, magnesium and calcium);
- Exclusion of products that activate the cardiovascular and nervous systems;
- alcohol restriction.
The main parameters of the diet for lowering the pressure should be determined individually. At the same time, the patient’s sex, age group, work, physical activity and weight should be taken into account. If the weight of the patient corresponds to the norms of the norm, then the calorie of the diet must correspond to its real energy costs. In the case of excess weight, the energy value of diurnal nutrition is reduced.
Reductions in kilocalories are achieved by limiting products with animals with high-melting fats and / or simple carbohydrates. Therefore, the diet is eliminated:
- fatty species of fish and meat (lamb, goose, pork, salmon, etc.);
- dairy products with a high percentage of fat (for example, 40% sour cream or 9% curd);
- confectionery with cream and cream;
- white bread from refined wheat flour;
- sweets (jams, sweets, honey, etc.);
- baking and others.
The daily amount of proteins should not be subjected to reduction. After all, it is the protein that reduces the negative effect of excess salt on the level of pressure in the vessels. They are rich in lean beef, turkey, low-fat river fish, soy products, low-fat cottage cheese, oatmeal, buckwheat, seafood.
The salt acts on the successive cascade of interactions of renin, angiotensin and aldosterone, which, in turn, affects the parameters of blood pressure and leads to excess accumulation of fluid. Especially it affects the people prone to swelling, whose parents are also sick or have hypertension. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the daily amount of table salt to 2-4
To this end, all the food is prepared, not salting, and the salt is sprinkled with fully prepared dishes. In addition, hypertensive patients should remove from their menu deliberately salty foods:
- salted cucumbers, tomatoes, squash, etc.;
- canned fish;
- meat and fish smoked products;
- marinades, etc.
Total salt rejection or reduction is below 2 g / day. are dangerous, because they can cause a state of hypochloraemia, in which harmful nitrogenous slags accumulate.
Control over the amount of fluid consumed
Drinking fluid helps increase the volume of plasma, increase the load on the blood circulation and, consequently, affects blood pressure figures. Therefore, it is advisable for all patients with hypertensive disease from time to time to measure the volume of actually consumed liquid and monitor it. To this liquid is not only drinking water, but also all drinks (tea, compote, lemonade, milk, etc.) and liquid food (for example, soups). Their total daily volume should not exceed 1-1,5 l.
Products with lipotropic effect
Lipotropic action is the release of excess fat from the depot (liver) and its subsequent oxidation. These processes contribute to the fight against atherosclerotic vascular lesions, which are considered one of the leading factors in the formation of hypertension. Such substances with lipotropic action include choline, methionine, lecithin, carnitine, etc. They can be found in:
- lean meat (veal, etc.);
- low-fat fish (pollock, cod, etc.);
- egg white;
- vegetable oils (pumpkin, olive, corn, etc.);
- soy flour;
- seafood (lobster, shrimp, etc.);
- buckwheat groats;
- low-fat cottage cheese;
Enrichment of nutrition with the necessary minerals (potassium, magnesium and calcium)
All these minerals affect the excitability of those structures of the nervous system (vasomotor center, etc.), which regulate the tone of blood vessels, and, accordingly, blood pressure.
Scientists have noticed that nutrition rich in potassium products reduces the incidence of strokes and strengthens the myocardium (the heart muscle). Therefore, hypertensors are useful potatoes, apricots, pineapple, bananas, avocado, celery root, dried fruits, peaches, black currant, radish, Brussels sprouts, rhubarb, apples with peel.
To maintain optimal calcium balance, vegetables that have dark green leaves (broccoli, etc.), and dairy products (brynza, yoghurts, etc.) are needed.
Excellent sources of magnesium will be nuts, cereals, legumes, dates, corn, green vegetables.
Products – cardiovascular and nervous system activators
Patients suffering from high blood pressure, you must avoid products – the causative agents of the heart, blood vessels and the nervous system (cerebral cortex). Such an action is possessed by:
- drinks with caffeine (coffeemans with mild forms of the disease can drink 1 cup of morning coffee);
- strong tea;
- concentrated broths, cooked from fish and meat;
- meat and fish gravy.
Many alcoholics have a pathological tendency to increased blood pressure. This is due to the harmful effects of ethyl alcohol on the nervous processes, hormonal balance, psyche. It is after the next libation that hypertensive crises often occur, which unfortunately end in strokes or infarctions. Moreover, drunkards belong to the small group of patients who do not have a clear benefit from achieving the target (optimal) pressure on the body. Therefore, their treatment should deal not only therapists and cardiologists, but also narcologists. Low-drinking people also need to bring the use of hot drinks to a minimum.
It should be noted that such a diet will have its beneficial effect only if it is constantly observed. Chaotic implementation of individual recommendations is ineffective.