Obesity is a disease characterized by excessive fat deposition and, as a result, excessive development of adipose tissue. The main factor influencing the increase in body weight is the discrepancy between the intake of calories in the human body and their expenditure. There are also other causes of this dangerous disease, namely: endocrine disorders, hereditary-constitutional predisposition, some physiological conditions (pregnancy, lactation, climax), professional activity.
To date, over a billion people in the world have extra pounds and one of the 4-x stages of obesity. In Russia, this affects 50% of women and 30% of men, in Germany – every second resident, in Britain and North America – one in three, in the USA – one in five. Excess weight is defined quite simply and for this purpose the Quetelet index is used. It is calculated by dividing the human mass by the square of its height in meters (weight in kg / height in m 2).
Weight is considered normal with the index: for women – 19-24, for men – 20-25, the indicator over this indicates excess fat deposits. At the first stage of obesity, the actual body weight exceeds the ideal body weight by no more than 15-29%, in the II stage – 30-49%, in the III stage – 50-100%, in the IV stage it is more than 100%.
For the treatment of patients with obesity, many special diets for obesity have been developed. All of them are based on the principle of reducing the energy value of the diet due to digestible fats and carbohydrates at a normal protein content. Limit the appetite-provoking foods, table salt (up to 3g) and liquid (up to 1,0-1,2l). The food is fractional, 5-6 once a day. To provide the patient with a sense of satiety, the food must contain a lot of indigestible carbohydrates (fiber), it should be served in boiled, stewed or baked form. Animal fats are replaced with vegetable oils.
The energy value of dietary options
Products that can be consumed without restriction:
Cabbage (all kinds)
Salad leaves, greens
Radish, radish, turnip
Green peas (young)
Tea, coffee without sugar and cream
Low-fat meat (white chicken, turkey, veal, beef)
!! Vegetables can be eaten raw, boiled, baked, baked.
!! The use of fats (butter, mayonnaise, sour cream) in the preparation of vegetable dishes is not allowed
Products that should be eaten in moderation:
Milk and sour-milk products (low-fat)
Cheese less than 30% fat content
Curd less than 5% fat content
Potatoes (no more than 6 tbsp in portions)
Mature grains of legumes (peas, beans, lentils) (no more than 6 tbsp in portions)
Cereals (not more than 6 tablespoon per serving)
Pasta (no more than 6 tablespoon per serving)
Bread and bakery products (not fancy, preferably coarse bread, 1 to.)
!! "Moderate" means half of your usual portion.
Products that must be excluded or maximally limited:
Vegetable oil (1 tbsp / day)
Cheeses over 30% fat content
Cottage cheese more than 5% fat content
Fatty meat (pork, lamb, chicken legs)
Sausage products, sausages, sausages
Canned meat, fish and vegetable in oil
Cakes, cakes and other confectionery products
Cookies, dough products
Sweet drinks (Coca-Cola, Fanta)
!! It is necessary to exclude such a method of cooking food as frying.
!! Try to use dishes that allow you to cook food without adding fat (steamer).
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This diet is used for obesity of varying degrees to reduce the weight of a person and restore disturbed water-salt and lipid metabolism. It uses only low-calorie foods. For example, seafood contains a large amount of organic iodine and essential amino acids. In protein foods – low-fat cottage cheese, cod and vegetable oil, amino acids, vitamins and a sufficient number of unsaturated fatty acids are ideally combined.
Recommended foods with diet No. 8
Bread and flour products
Bread wheaten, black and with bran. Allowable consumption up to 150g per day.
Mostly vegetable or fruit, from unsweetened fruits. It is allowed 2-3 times a week to use vegetable soups on a weak meat broth. The norm of the soup is up to 250g per day.
From cereals it is advisable to use buckwheat, oatmeal and barley in the form of crumbly cereals.
Low-fat fish (pike-perch, cod) to 150-200g per day in boiled or baked form. Seafood.
Low-fat varieties of meat, chicken, turkey, rabbit up to 150g per day in boiled, stewed or baked form.
1-2 eggs a day, hard-boiled, protein omelets.
Any dishes from raw, boiled, stewed and baked vegetables. Potatoes are used limitedly, up to 200g per day.
Cottage cheese, milk and sour-milk products of low fat content. Sour cream is placed only in dishes.
Fruits of sweet and sour varieties in cooked and raw form. Jelly, mousses and compotes on xylitol and sorbitol.
Green tea, coffee with milk, vegetable and fruit (unsweetened) juices, broth of wild rose.
Sauces and spices
Sauces on weak vegetable and meat broths with dill and parsley. From spices – vanillin, cinnamon, turmeric.
Vegetable oil in dishes, creamy – in limited quantities.
A person at this stage does not yet consider excess kilograms a disease, he usually does not have any complaints. For this category of people the norm is high physical and mental load. Only a part of them can complain of general weakness and increased fatigue.
If you do not start to get rid of excess fat deposits during this period, then in the future it can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinemia, ovarian hypofunction (in women), menstrual irregularities. To avoid such complications, active movement during the day and rational nutrition are recommended. It should at 60% consist of proteins (including animal origin), 25% vegetable fats, 5-8 g salt and up to 1,2 liters of liquid daily.
Sugar is excluded completely, except that one can use its substitutes. All dishes are prepared without salt, salted them separately. Use food should be at least 6 once a day, little by little.
Approximate diet for one day:
1 Breakfast : cottage cheese is low-fat (100g), carrots stew (200), coffee with milk without sugar (200).
2 Breakfast : an apple or a salad of fresh cabbage without salt and a spoonful of sour cream (170g).
Lunch: borshch from vegetables (200), braised cabbage (150), boiled meat (90), compote of dried fruits without sugar (200).
Afternoon snack : cottage cheese is low-fat (100g), broth of dogrose (200g).
Dinner : fish boiled, for example, pike perch (100g), vegetable stew (125g), green tea (200g).
Overnight: kefir low-fat (150).
The permissible bread norm for the whole day is 150g.
This period is characterized by a slow but sure set of extra pounds. It is difficult to reduce body weight, but there is a guarantee that the weight loss will not return in the future with an active lifestyle. Treatment of this type of disease requires a comprehensive approach that combines moderate motor loads and well thought-out nutrition.
Diets at 1 and 2 stages of obesity are similar, so here in the daily diet of the patient should be present 60% protein, 25% vegetable fats, 4-8g salt and up to 1,2 liters of liquid. All products are used in raw (vegetables and fruits), boiled, stewed and baked. The daily norm of food is divided into 6 small portions.
Prohibited to use:
cakes and pastries, cookies,
salted and marinated vegetables, beans,
fatty meats and sausages,
fatty species of fish, caviar and canned food,
melted milk and sweet sour-milk products, fat cottage cheese,
pasta, milk soups with pasta,
sweet juices, kvass, cocoa, lemonade,
sharp and fatty sauces, mayonnaise, burning spices.
This stage is characterized by the stability of fat deposits and for slimming a person will need complex therapy. In some neglected cases, surgical intervention can not be avoided. Patient's state of health sharply worsens, dyspnea appears at the slightest physical exertion and even at rest, worries about pain in the heart, headaches, weakness, drowsiness, reduced efficiency.
As complications, atherosclerosis develops, heart and joints, liver and biliary tract diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, pancreatitis, kidney stone disease. The treatment of patients is best carried out permanently, under the supervision of doctors and with one day off a week. In the daily diet should include up to 80g proteins (70% of them of animal origin), 60g fats (30% of them plant origin), 100g carbohydrates. The total caloric content of products should not exceed 1300 kilocalories.
Approximate diet for one day:
1 Breakfast : boiled meat (90g), vegetable salad with vegetable oil (150g), coffee with milk without sugar (200g).
2 Breakfast : an apple (about 100g).
Lunch: vegetarian borsch (200), braised cabbage (150g), boiled fish (100g), compote of apples without sugar (200g).
Afternoon snack : low-fat milk (180).
Dinner : baked meatloaf stuffed with egg (90g), green tea (200g).
Overnight: kefir low-fat (150).
Patients with 100% excess weight, as a rule, need constant care. They move with difficulty, can not climb the stairs, wash themselves in the bathroom and go by public transport. Every step for them is given with difficulty. Such patients have a whole bunch of serious diseases associated with excessive body weight: atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, pancreatitis, Pickwick's syndrome-respiratory failure.
Obesity at the 4 stage requires an integrated approach: a special diet and, quite possibly, surgical intervention. It is desirable to be treated in a hospital, under the supervision of a doctor.
Obesity of the liver is otherwise called fatty hepatosis, steatohepatosis or fatty degeneration. All these medical terms mean the same thing, namely, the pathological degeneration of liver cells into adipose tissue. Fat dystrophy can not be called a fatal disease and to a certain stage it is a reversible process. But if the disease is strongly triggered, then a more lamentable result – hepatitis or cirrhosis – is imminent.
Diet in liver hepatosis involves limiting the intake of animal fats and digestible carbohydrates, increasing protein intake and completely rejecting flour and pasta, sugar and alcohol. In addition, folk medicine offers a variety of medicinal herbs that help to rid the liver of excess fat. They are presented by broths and infusions from immortelle, milk thistle, dog rose, etc.
Particular concern of physicians, recently, cause excessive fatty deposits in children. In Italy, this affects 36% of preschoolers and adolescents, in Greece – 31%, in Spain – 27%, in the USA – 26%, in Russia – about 30%. In order not to overfeed the children and save them from extra pounds, one should only follow certain recommendations:
feed the kids and teens at the same time, 6 once a day, little by little. The first breakfast can be at 8 in the morning, and the last reception of light food is not later than 20 hours,
breaks between meals in 3 hours contribute to reducing appetite and getting rid of hunger,
dishes with a high calorie content should be offered to preschool children and schoolchildren in the morning, when they are more active. For breakfast and lunch it is advisable to cook meat and fish dishes, in the evening, vegetable and dairy food.
A growing children's organism must be provided with all useful substances, including vitamins, macro and microelements, mineral salts. However, in the menu of children prone to a set of extra pounds, carbohydrates, especially those that are easily digestible, should be restricted. It should be completely excluded from the use of mutton, beef and pork fat, as well as margarine. As little as possible, it is necessary to include sweet biscuits, sweets, jam and cookies in the ration of toddlers and teenagers. But vegetables in any form and unsweetened fruits and berries are very, even welcome.
Useful to kids and juices – tomato, beet, cabbage, carrot. Cooking them only from fresh vegetables. In addition, every child should receive an age-specific rate of cottage cheese, meat, fish, milk and other dairy products. Two and three-year-olds will have enough 80g of meat per day, for preschoolers the norm will be 100g of meat, for schoolchildren 7-12 years – 150g of meat. The norm of cottage cheese, for preschoolers and teenagers alike, is at least 50g per day. Milk is recommended to give to children of preschool age 500-600ml per day, for schoolchildren – 400ml.
Soups are cooked, mainly, vegetarian, not more than two times a week they can be cooked on a diluted meat or fish broth. From boiled fish and meat cook steam beads, meatballs and cutlets. But potatoes containing a large percentage of starch in the menu should be included as rarely as possible. It is also important to teach your child to eat slowly, in this case the feeling of satiety arises faster, and the baby will not overeat.
The three best days of shedding – how to lose excess
The author of the article: Gorshenina Elena Ivanovna, a gastroenterologist, specially for the site
Obesity is a disease in which a person has excess fat deposits in the subcutaneous tissue, as well as in other tissues and organs. This pathology manifests itself in the increase in body weight due to the accumulation of adipose tissue by 20% or more of the mean values. People with obesity suffer from various sexual disorders.
Excess weight is a common reason for the complexes, because it can not find beautiful clothes, look attractive, feel confident and free. It is also harmful to health. As a rule, against the background of obesity, hypertension develops, the level of sugar and lipids in the blood is disturbed.
The products of the pharmaceutical industry, designed to reduce weight, are available in various forms (diet pills, powders, capsules). All means for weight reduction are grouped into the following groups: Anorectics are agents acting on the central nervous system. The effect of weight loss is due to oppression.
The injections for weight loss can be called quite an innovative way to get rid of excess weight. Thanks to injections, you can get rid of fat deposits without long trainings and diets. Weight goes, and the slimming person does not apply to it absolutely no effort. Therefore, it is not surprising that an injection for.
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