Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is caused by a microbe called "Koch's stick" that affects the lungs, as well as the intestines, bones and joints. The disease is transmitted by airborne droplets and is characterized by the formation of foci of inflammation in the affected tissues. Earlier outbreaks of tuberculosis progressed in the period of wars and repression, but to date, this infectious disease affects more than 10,4 million people in the world from different social strata of the population. Koch's stick is resistant to many disinfectants, has the ability for a long time to survive in dried sputum, in the soil, on the surface of contaminated objects. In addition to the aerogenic method, it is possible to infect tuberculosis through food products and in contact with objects on the surface of which there is a stick of Koch.
What kind of diet is prescribed for pulmonary tuberculosis?
The main symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis include:
- Deterioration of sleep;
- Decreased appetite;
- Weight loss;
- Increased sweating;
- Enlargement of lymph nodes;
- Elevated body temperature up to 37 degrees;
- Shortness of breath;
- Cough with sputum;
- Isolation of bloody veins in sputum during coughing.
Often, pulmonary tuberculosis is detected quite accidentally with the ordinary passage of fluorography. One of the important components of the treatment of tuberculosis is the diet 11 table, aimed at increasing the weight of the patient, reducing intoxication of the body and increasing the body's resistance to the disease.
A high-calorie diet for tuberculosis patients is an integral part of the treatment. Correct, balanced nutrition with a diet helps to restore the damaged tissues of the body, normalizes metabolism, enriches the body with all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Maintain a diet The 11 table is necessary until full recovery.
The essence of the diet for pulmonary tuberculosis in adults
Diet for tuberculosis The 11 table on Pevzner is balanced by the diet. In the daily diet of a patient with tuberculosis, the products containing vitamins C 180 mg (lemons, kiwi, oranges, onions), A 5 mg (carrots, pumpkin, apricots, spinach) and B 4 mg (nuts, legumes, cereals) . If there is a lack of data on vitamins, the patient is additionally prescribed their intake or as injections.
Nutrition for pulmonary tuberculosis should be strengthened, but not excessive, especially for people with excess weight. On average, the daily caloric intake of a diet with a diet should be 2800-3500 Kcal. At the same time, the higher the weight, the caloric content of the diet should be less. Strengthened drinking is not recommended, enough 1 l of water without gas per day. With puffiness, the amount of salt consumed is reduced to 6 g per day or completely excludes it from the diet. With diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, the amount of salt consumed per day is increased.
The protein diet for tuberculosis is simply necessary for the treatment of an infectious disease. In the patient's body there is an increased disintegration of proteins than in a healthy person. In the diet menu, products containing protein: must be included: lean meat, poultry, fish, dairy and sour-milk products, eggs. Depending on body weight and age, the daily protein norm for an adult human 100-120 g per day is shown.
Diet in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis should contain a sufficient amount of fats and carbohydrates. The amount of fat in the diet should not exceed the norm, depending on the sex, age, weight of a person. On average, the average daily fat intake in the diet is 80-120 gr, with one third of them in the diet should account for vegetable oils, and the rest for easily digestible fats (cream, sour cream, butter).
The amount of carbohydrates in the diet with a diet Table 11, on average, should be 400-500 gr. A large proportion of consumed carbohydrates should be for vegetables and fruits, and easily digestible carbohydrates (cereals, flour and bakery products, sweets) should be less.
Diet 11 table for intestinal tuberculosis, especially in acute form, assumes eating only in cooked and wiped form. Diet for tuberculosis of joints and bones should contain an elevated content of calcium salts and vitamins.
Permitted and Prohibited Products
Diet 11 table for pulmonary tuberculosis – allowed products:
- Low-fat meat (veal, beef, rabbit meat);
- Low-fat bird (chicken, turkey);
- Eggs (no more than 2 pieces per day);
- Dairy and sour-milk products (cottage cheese, milk, sour cream, kefir);
- Cereals and cereals (buckwheat, oats, rice, pyshenka, semolina);
- Fruits and berries;
- Bread (rye, gray, wheat);
- Butter buns;
- Shrimp, herring oil;
- Sausage, ham;
- Cheese and cheese butter;
- Vegetable oil;
- Jam, honey;
- Sugar, salt.
From drinks with a diet Table 11 are recommended: decoction of dogrose, fruit drinks and vegetable juices.
Diet 11 table for pulmonary tuberculosis – Prohibited foods:
- Fatty grades of meat (pork, lamb);
- Pork, beef and mutton fat;
- Fatty bird (goose, duck);
- Oily fish;
- Oily and spicy sauces;
- Cakes with a large content of custard and oily cream;
- Alcoholic beverages.
Therapeutic diet for pulmonary tuberculosis does not include restrictions on the number of meals. Eating with a diet 11 table can be unlimited number of times a day, most importantly – observance of the indicated norm of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as daily caloric value, which are calculated individually, depending on sex, age, weight and level of physical activity. In breaks between meals with a diet Table 11 recommended to drink clean water without gas, no more than 1 L per day, as well as freshly squeezed juices, herbal tea and berries.
Diet for pulmonary tuberculosis – an approximate menu for a week (breakfast, lunch, snack, dinner):
- Omelette from 2 eggs. Sandwich with butter;
- Borscht. 2 a slice of rye bread. Baked chicken fillet. Cabbage salad;
- A glass of yogurt;
- Cottage cheese with sour cream. Kiwi.
- Oat porridge with milk. Bun;
- Chicken soup with pieces of meat. 2 piece of bran bread. Salad from grated carrots;
- A glass of milk;
- Mashed potatoes. Veal meatballs. Greek salad".
- Manna porridge with berries;
- Beetroot. Steam cutlets from beef. Salad of green peas;
- A glass of curdled milk;
- Spaghetti with seafood. Caesar salad with chicken.
- Buckwheat porridge with milk. An Apple;
- Green soup. Boiled turkey fillet. Salad of cucumbers and tomatoes;
- A cheese sandwich;
- Baked carp. The vinaigrette.
- Milk soup with vermicelli. Pear;
- Chicken cream soup. Spaghetti with cheese. Salad from arugula;
- A glass of milk;
- Buckwheat. Steam cutlets from veal. Salad "Brush".
- Rice porridge with milk and raisins;
- Bouillon. Vegetable stew. Baked chicken fillet;
- A glass of yogurt. Bun;
- Baked pike perch with potatoes, broccoli and spinach.
- Scrambled eggs from 2 eggs. Sandwich with ham;
- Soup with meatballs. 2 a piece of wheat bread. Baked Bulgarian pepper;
- A glass of tomato juice;
- Cheesecakes with raisins and sour cream.
Diet for pulmonary tuberculosis in children
Tuberculosis in children is revealed after the Mantoux test, which is done in polyclinics, kindergartens, schools. The earlier the Koch's wand was identified, the easier it is to treat and prevent the further development of an infectious disease. Diet for tuberculosis in children plays a crucial role in recovery.
Nutrition for tuberculosis in children should be balanced and nutritious. Thin children are shown with a diet Table 11 increase in daily intake at 20-25%. At a normal weight, the daily calorie intake of a child's diet should not be increased.
The norm of daily caloric intake diet in children with tuberculosis:
Diet 11 table for children provides a varied diet. The menu should include: meat, fish, eggs, dairy and sour-milk products, pasta, bread, fresh vegetables and fruits. Fish oil, including capsules, should be given to a child with tuberculosis every day, all the year round. In addition, when dieting it is recommended to take vitamin and mineral complexes for children to replenish vitamins, minerals and microelements in the body.
Diet for pulmonary tuberculosis in children – an approximate menu for one day (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner):
- Semolina. Orange;
- Chicken soup. Mashed potatoes. Meatballs made of chicken. Salad from grated carrots;
- A glass of milk. Biscuit;
- Pasta. Fish cutlets. Cabbage salad.
In between meals you can give children to drink juices (vegetable, fruit), tinctures and herbal extracts from herbs and berries. Sugar can be added to drinks, but in reasonable quantities. When swelling, you need to reduce the amount of salt consumed per day and the liquid you drink.
Folk recipes for tuberculosis
In addition to diet 11 Table in the treatment of tuberculosis, you can additionally take infusions and decoctions, which are widely known in folk medicine. We bring to your attention a few folk recipes from tuberculosis, which can be taken on board and supplemented with a therapeutic diet Table 11.
Infusion of birch buds
- Pour a tablespoon of birch buds with two glasses of water at room temperature.
- Infuse until the water becomes a cognac color.
- Take 1 tablespoon of infusion before meals 3 times a day until complete recovery.
Broth of sporichia
- A tablespoon of sponges filled with a glass of steep boiling water.
- Cook for 10 minutes on a water bath.
- Infuse for two hours, then drain.
- Take a decoction of 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day for half an hour before meals.
Broth of oats on milk
- Oats pour into a saucepan, pour the milk so that there remains to the edge 2 cm.
- Cover the pan and cover it with a preheated oven to an 180 degree.
- Bake until the oats are ready. If necessary, you need to top up the milk.
- Strain the broth. Take a decoction of oats for 50 ml three times a day for 30 minutes before meals.
- 4 tablespoons dry lungwort pour 400 ml of boiling water.
- Wrap the container with a warm blanket or blanket, leave to infuse for 2 hours, then drain.
- Take 30 minutes before meals for half a cup of tincture 3-4 times a day.