Various diseases of the thyroid gland have a different genesis, clinical manifestations and, accordingly, different approaches to treatment and nutrition. In 10-15% of cases of thyroid disease are manifestations of of iodine deficiency. Iodine is synthesized hormones thyroid gland. In countries with the existing iodine deficiency, the diffuse (uniform increase in the gland) and nodal (presence of formations) forms of goiter predominate in the structure of diseases. Nodules are actively proliferating cells or follicles of the gland. The node is rarely alone and they are found in different segments of the gland. Diffuse forms are more common in children and young people, and nodular forms are found in the older age group.
The main principles of nutrition are:
- Enough intake of vitamins and trace elements (thiamine, retinol, calcium and phosphorus, potassium). The diet can be supplemented with vitamin-mineral complexes.
- The intake of a sufficient amount of protein. The average rate of it is 100 g for men and 90 g for women. But it is more correct to calculate the necessary amount of protein, based on the deficit of weight, and it can be 1,2-1,5 g per kg of mass.
- Increase the energy value of nutrition by increasing protein, carbohydrates and fats.
- A high-calorie diet is indicated for individuals with significant weight loss. Caloric content can reach 3000-3700 kcal, the carbohydrate content is increased to 400-550 g, fats – up to 120-130
- Consumption of foods rich in calcium and phosphorus (dairy products).
- Introduction to the diet of additional amounts of iodine (sea fish, sea kale, persimmon, feijoa), however paradoxical it may seem. The fact is that the excess suppresses the formation of hormones.
- Fractional meals in small portions, not allowing a sense of hunger.
- Steaming for a couple, avoiding fried, spicy dishes.
- Restriction of salt intake (9-10 g), as these patients are prone to increased blood pressure.
- Exclusion of products that excite the central nervous system (spices, strong broths, alcohol). Meat and fish to reduce extractive substances must be boiled, and then subjected to further processing (quenching, frying). Foods high in caffeine (coffee, strong tea, chocolate, cocoa) are also excluded.
- Limitation of products that cause fermentation (grapes, plums, kvass, apricots, peaches).
In any form of nodular goiter, patients should consume more fresh fruits and vegetables (contain potassium), cereals. It is recommended to switch to seafood (salmon, sea bass, saury, tuna, mussels, flounder, seaweed, shrimp, cod), low-fat beef and eggs. All sea fish, especially fatty varieties, contain omega-3 fatty acid, vitamins A, D и group B, easily digestible proteins and irreplaceable amino acids. Sea fish replenishes deficiency of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron. Dairy products should be increased in nutrition, as a source of easily digestible fats, proteins and calcium.
Useful marine fish, especially fatty varieties
Diet in case of thyroid disease, accompanied by a decrease in its function (gipotireoz), on the contrary, should contain fewer calories and fats. It is aimed at reducing weight and maintaining it at the same level, as in hypothyroidism, the lack of hormones leads to a slowdown in metabolism and weight gain. For weight loss you need to limit:
- Simple carbohydrates (baking from white flour, pasta, honey, sweets, sugar, jam, confectionery).
- Animal fats and introduce vegetable oils (linseed, corn, sunflower, sesame olive). Exclude from the diet all fatty foods, including dairy products and hidden fat (sausages, pates, meat semi-finished products). You should give up fried foods.
- Preparation of products without fat (steaming or baking) will help in reducing weight, because the total calorie content of such dishes is reduced.
- The use of salt, spices and alcohol, which excite appetite, as well as tea and coffee.
RџSЂRё gipotireoze shows a diet that contains 70 g protein and fat, 300 g carbohydrates. In the diet restrict the salt and its products containing. The degree of restriction or complete exclusion depends on the degree of edema.
Since hypothyroidism disrupts lipid metabolism and cholesterol (its level increases in the blood), so limit the amount of fat, due to culinary, animal fats and cholesterol-rich fatty meat products.
The diet includes foods that somewhat stimulate the secretion of gastric juice and have a laxative effect, facilitating the emptying of the intestine.
Important in reducing weight is the physical load, which should be daily. You can do swimming, table tennis, walking on skis, cycling, hiking.
In autoimmune diseases, it is necessary to limit products that enhance and support inflammation and autoimmune reactions. In parallel, it is necessary to work on the restoration of intestinal flora, since its recovery is important for any autoimmune diseases.
In connection with this, the following are excluded from the diet:
- The main products that support inflammation are: refined carbohydrates andomega-6 fatty acid. When assimilating high-carbohydrate foods containing refined sugars, the body produces oxidants, which support inflammation. The role of excess omega-6 in the diet in the onset of the inflammatory process is also proved. Omega-6 predominates in wheat germ and grape seed oil, sunflower, cottonseed, soybean, corn, rapeseed, peanut, wheat, rye, sesame, pumpkin seeds, lentils, chickpeas, oats.
- Limit the use of dairy products, proteins that can be poorly digested or not digested, creating a strain on the digestive tract.
- Trans fats, hydrogenated and deodorized oils, GMO products.
- Starchy vegetables (carrots, potatoes, rutabaga, corn, beets, mature beans, peas, squash, squash, pumpkin, celery roots and parsley, Jerusalem artichoke, radish, radish), as they contribute to the occurrence of autoimmune reactions in the body. At least, these vegetables should be consumed as little as possible. First of all, potatoes should be excluded from the diet as the highest starchy vegetable.
The diet is introduced:
- Foods rich omega-3 fatty acids. Their sources are: linseed oil, flax and chia seeds, dill, rucola, asparagus beans, parsley, coriander, common beans, seafood, fish, eggs, avocado. When choosing vegetable oils, one should prefer those in which there is an optimal ratio omega-3 к omega-6 (1: 2-1: 4). The best choice in this regard are olive oil, walnut, avocado, sesame, linseed.
- Fish and seafood, considering that grown in artificial conditions, contain omega-6, and grown in natural conditions – more omega-3.
- Meat and poultry of animals, fed on natural fodder, and not mixed fodder and corn.
- Most of these requirements are beef and veal.
- Vegetables and fruits in view of the high content of fiber, vitamins and trace elements. Fiber helps to improve peristalsis. Introduction to the diet of fermented vegetables (refer to fermented vegetables) improves microflora. Excluding starch vegetables, you can eat eggplants, green peas, all kinds of cabbage, vegetable tops, green salads, Peking cabbage, chard, onion, cucumber, greens, spinach, sorrel, garlic, sweet pepper, chicory.
With any disease of the thyroid gland, it is useful to include vitamins and microelements in nutrition:
- Vitamin D, contained in cottage cheese, fermented milk products, cheese, vegetable oils, fish oil, raw yolks, fish liver, seafood and fish.
- Antioxidants, reducing inflammatory processes. They are obtained by eating vegetables, fruits, and useful vegetable oils.
- Vitamin V9 – peanuts, spinach, broccoli, legumes, hazelnuts, salads, green onions, wild garlic.
- V12 – liver of animals, fish (herring, sardines, mackerel, salmon), seafood, kefir, sour cream, cheese, cheese, cereal, green onions, lettuce, spinach.
- Iodine can be obtained by eating shrimp, fish, trepangi, mussels, sea kale.
- Selenium is found in bran (wheat and oat), pink salmon, whole grain bread, chickpeas, beans, eggs, lentils. This element is necessary for the functioning of the thyroid gland, reducing inflammation and autoimmune processes.
- Magnesium – wheat bran, cashew, cocoa powder, almonds, soy, buckwheat, oat flakes, brown rice, chicken eggs, spinach.
- Zinc – oysters and other seafood, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, cocoa powder, peanuts, chicken hearts, peas, beans, lentils, animal liver, peanut butter.