Diet in cholelithiasis or how to defeat the disease
Throughout the world, with the development of the food industry and the availability of its finished products, as well as semi-finished products for the acquisition of each person, the number of diseases of the gallbladder and its ducts also grows. Statistics on this situation is the following: in well-developed countries, the affliction is suffering from 15-25% of the population, and in countries less developed to 10%.
Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment can be therapeutic or surgical. However, in any case, it is necessary to follow the diet for cholelithiasis.
Stages of the disease
In the course of cholelithiasis, three stages are distinguished.
- Chemical. At this time, there is a disturbance in the production of normal bile by the gallbladder. As a result, it contains a large amount of cholesterol and small phospholipids and bile acids. If the disease is not detected at this stage and the appropriate methods of treatment are not taken, including diet, then from the pathogenic bile solid flakes and crystals are formed. These processes can last many years, stones begin to form and a second stage begins.
- Kamennositelstvo (asymptomatic or latent). This period is characterized by congestion of bile and active stone formation, most often occurring against the background of inflammation of the gallbladder mucosa and inflammation of its walls. In studies, "mute" stones are diagnosed. In duration, this stage can be 11 years, when a person does not feel obvious anxiety.
- Calculous (clinical) or the period when the formed stones manifest themselves in the form of pain symptoms (pain in the right hypochondrium, hepatic colic) and sensations of malaise (bitterness in the mouth, eructation, flatulence, bloating, etc.). The course of the disease at this stage can be different – acute, prolonged with periodic exacerbations, sluggish. It all depends on the size of the stones and their location. But in any case, you can not ignore it.
Along with medical methods (drug therapy, surgical intervention) to alleviate the condition and prevent complications, and for the overall treatment of cholelithiasis, a diet is recommended.
Diet № 5 for cholelithiasis
In the official medical practice, a special diet No. 5 has been developed, which recommends the following approaches when organizing a nutrition system for people with cholelithiasis:
- decrease in the diet of the amount of food with a high content of cholesterol in order to prevent the process of stone formation (most of the gallstones consists of cholesterol);
- fractional meals in small portions 5-6 once a day;
- the use of warm dishes, which promote the liquefaction of bile;
- it is undesirable to eat cold and hot food;
- the daily norm of drinking water should be equal to 2 liters;
- weekly unloading days on cucumbers, kefir, apples, cottage cheese.
Useful products for this disease are:
- cottage cheese, kefir, cheese, which contain both the necessary proteins for the body and calcium, and also contribute to the creation of a more alkaline bile medium, which prevents the increase of its viscosity and density;
- for the normal production of bile acids, low-fat fish and meat, egg white, olive and other vegetable oils are useful;
- To reduce the processes of crystallization of bile, it is necessary to eat foods high in vitamins A, B, C (berries, vegetables, fruits);
- products rich in magnesium – porridge of oatmeal, millet, buckwheat and barley cereals, dried fruits;
- to increase intestinal motility and prevent constipation, prunes, beets and high-fiber foods should be consumed;
- vegetarian soups;
- It is useful to drink mineral water ("Essentuki № 17").
- fatty meat and fish, fat, animal fats and products based on them (butter), sauces based on fats (mayonnaise, etc.), egg yolk;
- fried dishes, smoked meat, meat and other canned foods, meat and fish broths, mushroom soups are excluded from the diet;
- sweet flour products;
- berries and fruits of acidic varieties;
- cocoa and products based on it (chocolate, creams, etc.), coffee;
- Spicy spices, marinades based on vinegar, spicy seasonings;
- sour and carbonated drinks.
Diet № 5 for cholelithiasis offers the following approximate menu:
- for breakfast – pudding from cottage cheese 130 g, oatmeal with olive oil 150 g, a glass of tea with milk;
- for an afternoon snack – sweet apple;
- for lunch – a portion of vegetarian soup, stewed vegetables (preferably carrots) in olive oil 150 g with a piece of boiled meat 70 g, 200 g decoction of hips;
- for an afternoon snack – 200 g of wild rose broth with lean rusk or bread;
- for dinner – garnish from boiled potatoes 150 g, a piece of boiled fish 100 g and vegetable cutlets from cabbage and carrots with vegetable oil, tea;
- for 2 hours before sleep – a glass of yogurt.
This course has been conducted for a long time for 1.5-2 years. Dishes and ingredients can be changed, following the basic dietary recommendations.
Diet in case of exacerbation of cholelithiasis
In cases when there are exacerbations of the disease, diet No. 5a is applied. Its duration is 1.5-2 a week. After this, they switch to the long-term diet No. 5.
- on 1 breakfast – 150 g of semolina porridge, egg whites omelet 100 g, 200 g tea with milk;
- on the 2 breakfast – buckwheat cereal in olive oil with 150 g with steam cutlets from meat 100-120 g, a slice of white stale bread, tea;
- for lunch – half of a portion of vegetarian soup based on rice and vegetables, boiled chicken fillet 100 g, buckwheat porridge with vegetable oil 150 g, jelly dessert based on milk 100 g;
- for dinner – garnish of mashed potatoes 150 g, a piece of boiled fish 100 g, tea with milk;
- for 2 hours before sleep you can drink a glass of yogurt.
Careful compliance with diet during cholelithiasis effectively helps reduce the risk of surgical intervention, and also helps to stop the pathological process of stone formation.