Diet in fractures
For bone fractures, nutrition should be directed to accelerate the process of adhesion. With extensive injuries, protein decay (due to muscle proteins) increases and the basal metabolism increases significantly. Diet in fractures of the leg bones (especially large tubular bones) should contain an increased protein content – up to 100-120 g per day. Among amino acids are particularly important lysine, glutamine, arginine, glycine, proline, cystine, which are part of the proteins that form bone tissue.
In the formation of bone tissue, the main role is played by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc, so proper nutrition should include these elements.
The skeleton accounts for 99% of all calcium contained in the human body. Calcium in food is in the form of insoluble salts, so their absorption in the stomach does not occur. Here the main absorption occurs in the 12-duodenum, and bile acids have a great influence on this process. For more effective absorption of calcium should be present vitamin D (oily sea fish, fish oil). Nutrition for a broken leg should necessarily include products – sources of calcium: milk, dairy products, dairy products (cheese and cottage cheese), milk powder, hazelnuts, lettuce, spinach, sesame seeds.
The main “depot” of phosphorus (its organic compounds) is bone and muscle tissue. With its deficiency in the body, growth in children is disrupted, bone deformation and osteomalacia. Its sources are milk, meat, fish, sturgeon caviar, beans, yolk, walnuts, beef liver, oat and buckwheat groats and all dairy products.
The main “depot” of magnesium is also found in bones and muscles. It is a necessary composite enzyme, which is associated with the metabolism of phosphorus and carbohydrates. Magnesium together with calcium is necessary for the processes of formation of a new bone. He enters the body with salt, food and water. Particularly rich in this element are unprocessed cereals, coarse flour, dark green vegetables, legumes. Leading in terms of magnesium content is cereal buckwheat, wheat and oatmeal, watermelon, hazelnut, coffee beans, milk powder, almonds, bananas. Excess magnesium has a generally laxative effect.
Zinc is deposited in the liver, muscles and bone system. In case of deficiency, growth retardation in children and poor wound healing are noted. This element enhances the action vitamin D and, accordingly, promotes the absorption of calcium. The bran is richest in zinc (wheat, rye and rice), yeast, cereals, legumes, seafood, cocoa, beef, dairy products, animal insides, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, yeast for baking, peanuts, sunflower seeds, onions, potatoes. The greatest amount of it contains fungi.
Rational and long-lasting nutrition is especially important for leg fractures, since the lower limbs carry a heavy load of weight, and the further activity of a person will depend on how qualitatively the restoration of bone tissue will take place. Fractures of the ankle are no exception. Immobilization is carried out on 45-60 days and consolidation of fragments is observed at the same time. However, for a long time, you should spare your foot and not load it. Rehabilitation after an ankle fracture may be in some patients 3-6 months before the pain disappears completely and edema tissues.
Fat-soluble vitamins A and D can be synthesized from their predecessors in the body. Carotenes, coming in the composition of plant products (orange carrots, sea buckthorn, dogrose, wild garlic, mountain ash, red sweet pepper, tomatoes), are split with formation retinol (vitamin A). Ergosterol (contained in products of plant origin and yeast) is converted into vitamins of group D under the influence of ultraviolet. As already noted, vitamin D plays the main role in providing the body with calcium. Ready-made vitamin D organism receives from chicken yolk, fish oil, fat marine fish and its large content in sprats.
Leader in content vitamin C is briar, sea buckthorn, and B vitamins – by-products (liver of pork and beef, kidneys), walnuts, hazelnuts, cereals, milk, dried milk, garlic, yeast, sweet pepper. Vitamin C together with other vitamins is a catalyst for reactions that occur during the healing of fractures. Vitamin V9 (folic acid) and vitamin B6 are necessary for formation of a collagenous skeleton. Folic acid is obtained with the use of bananas, beans, leafy vegetables, Brussels sprouts, wheat germ, beet, brewer’s yeast, liver, citrus. Vitamin V6 is found in potatoes, shrimps, bananas, salmon, ham, wheat germ, chicken meat, beef, sunflower seeds, beef liver.
Antioxidants, among which vitamin C is the most powerful, restore damage that occurs in bone tissue and reduce inflammation. Sources of antioxidants – nuts, fruits, vegetables, legumes. And in bright vegetables and berries contains the most antioxidants.
Diet in fractures of the bones of the hands may not be so enhanced in protein content. With this localization of fractures, the introduction of protein in an amount of 80 is sufficient. Therefore, feeding with a fracture of the arm is usually organized on the principles diet with the additional introduction of dairy and other products containing calcium. Fracture of the arm (radial bone) fuses for 28-35 days, and ulnar a few longer – for 60 days. All this time you need to eat right.
In jaw fractures or maxillofacial injuries, chewing and swallowing is impaired, so first recommended liquid or semi-liquid food. With less pain and swelling – rubbed, and mushy food. The basic principles of nutrition, related to protein and macronutrient composition, are the same, but the food is passed through a meat grinder, then diluted (broth, broth of vegetables, milk, water) to the consistency of liquid sour cream. The patients have problems with chewing bread, so it is given in the form of grinded rusks, introduced into the main dishes. In case of maxillofacial trauma there is a distortion of taste and lack of appetite, so it may be necessary to add products (at the request of the patient) to improve the taste.
If the rib fractures (one or two are not immobilized) or bones of the upper limbs, a person leads a more or less active lifestyle (at least you can walk and perform simple homework), then with a fracture of the neck of the thigh, the patient is bedridden for many months. The average maturity is within 90-120 days. In 70% of cases, the fractures of this localization in the elderly do not grow together. Nutrition is no different from the above, but given the immobility of the patient, you need to prevent the appearance constipation.
Distinguish “small” damage to the spine (articular, spinous or transverse processes) and large (compression). This depends on the timing of the adhesion and the duration of the diet. The fusion of vertebral bodies occurs in 2-4 months. Time to consolidate the compression fracture 14 weeks. First, it is recommended to adhere to bed rest, wearing a corset (gypsum or metal-plastic), which is selected by a doctor traumatologist. Even after an uncomplicated compression fracture, it is recommended to sit less and actively move (run, jump), avoid physical exertion. In this situation, bends and turns of the trunk, lifting of weights are forbidden.