Diet in Oncological Diseases
Diet in cancerous diseases depends on many different factors: the stage of development of the disease, the affected organ or system, the patient’s condition, the degree of disruption of mineral metabolism in cancer (protein-energy deficiency, hypercalcemia, Iron-deficiency anemia, water-electrolyte disorders and so on), the treatment methods currently in use.
In addition, cancer diseases in many patients develop concomitant lesions of organs and systems, which also requires correction of therapeutic nutrition. Therefore, with oncological diseases, a single diet does not exist and can not in principle be.
Oncodieta with malignant diseases in the initial stages in the absence of concomitant diseases, outside the period chemotherapy and radiation exposure is based on a rational (healthy) diet. Food should ensure energy adequacy and prevent development obesity.
The diet should include all food groups, but the predominant one should be dairy products. In the diet should include at least 500 g of vegetables / fruits per day, as well as dairy products. It is recommended to reduce the consumption of any red meat, especially fatty, fried, smoked and sausage-meat products from it, increasing the consumption of meat, poultry and fish. Limit the intake of table salt and foods containing a lot of salt.
Do not exceed the consumption rate of ethyl alcohol (20 g / day) when taking alcohol-containing beverages. Do not eat too hot / cold food.
The food should be tastier and more varied than in a healthy person, as many cancer sufferers have an appetite and taste sensations and habits are violated, especially with limited mobility of the patient, which often leads to a failure of food. It is necessary to include more often in the diet fresh vegetables, fruits and juices from them, whole-grain foods.
It should first of all take into account the patient’s tastes and cook his favorite dishes. In the absence of specific contraindications, the patient should eat what he wants at the moment.
Drinking regime is a habit for the patient. In the absence of kidney disease, it is desirable to increase fluid intake due to sour milk drinks (kefir, yogurt) and milk, vegetable and fruit juices, tea, table mineral waters.
Progression of diseases in oncological patients is accompanied by eating disorders since malignant tumors cause metabolic disorders with shifts in various types of metabolism (protein, carbohydrate, energy, and others). This is especially pronounced in cancer tumors at the 3-4 stage. As a rule, at this stage patients are prescribed intensive antitumor treatment (radical surgery to remove the tumor, intensive courses chemotherapy, beam irradiation), which negatively affect the nutritional status of patients.
Chemotherapy drugs and radiotherapy are particularly affected, causing nausea, changes in taste, aversion to food, vomiting, diarrhea, depressive conditions, and later – there are intestinal fistulas and strictures. In many patients with oncology 3-4 degree occurs psychogenic anorexia. These phenomena lead to the development of cachexia and protein-energy deficiency with marked depletion of protein stocks.
With such conditions in between the courses of treatment, after improving the state of health, it is necessary to increase the volume of food intake and the frequency of receptions. To take food is necessary at any desire, to eat, even if the meal time has not come.
Meat pâté is an energy-consuming and satisfying product
In the absence or poor appetite it is recommended to include in the diet energy-intensive products, allowing a small amount to obtain a sufficient number of nutrients: red caviar, pates, eggs, sprats, honey, nuts, chocolate, cream, creams. They can also be consumed between basic meals. To improve appetite in the dish, you need to add spices, seasonings in the form of sauces sauerkraut, sour juices, which contribute to the secretion of gastric juice, and accelerate the digestion of food.
In the period between chemotherapy courses, in the absence of contraindications, eating before meals dry table wines, beer or stronger spirits in the amount of – 20-30 ml. During the course of chemotherapy, you should increase fluid intake, mainly through juices and sour milk drinks. In the presence of edema or effusions in the abdominal / pleural cavity, fluid intake, on the contrary, should be reduced and not exceed the volume of allocated daily urine by more than 400 ml.
Nutrition for cancer is adjusted depending on the symptoms and condition of the patient. Thus, the leading symptoms during chemotherapy are severe nausea and prolonged vomiting, which leads to dehydration and disturbance of water-salt metabolism.
In order to reduce vomiting and nausea, it is recommended:
- Do not take liquid and food for 1-2 hours before the introduction of the chemotherapy;
- with frequent attacks of vomiting, it is necessary to abstain from drinking and eating for 4-8 hours, and then take food gradually, mostly liquid;
- take food in small portions, 6-7 once a day and thoroughly chew, not allowing overflow of the stomach;
- nausea reduces the consumption of acidic and salty foods (cranberries, lemons, pickles);
- food should be at room temperature;
- to exclude from the diet products that have a strong odor and specific taste, whole milk, too fatty and spicy food (to include again in the diet can be after the disappearance of nausea);
- Do not take liquid while eating, but take it more in between meals.
With the growth of severe complications, patients often refuse to eat because of severe nausea and vomiting. In such cases, exhaustion increases already from forced starvation and the patient must be transferred to artificial nutrition, starting with the parenteral and simultaneously with him or through him appointed enteral nutrition (through the probe).
Parenteral nutrition in cancer is carried out by introducing nutrients bypassing the gastrointestinal tract, directly into the vascular bed or other internal environments of the body. The main components of parenteral nutrition are divided into: energy donors (fat emulsions, carbohydrate solutions) and protein nutrition (solutions amino acids), which are introduced into the patient’s body according to special schemes.
Enteral nutrition for cancer patients with increasing exhaustion of the body is a fairly effective way of feeding patients. Probe diets consist of liquid and semi-liquid foods and foods that enter directly into the stomach / small intestine through a probe. Dense dishes are ground or milled and diluted with a liquid corresponding to the nature of the nutritional mixture (broth, milk, tea, vegetable broths, fruit juice). The temperature of the dishes is about 45 degrees.
A frequent manifestation of the negative effects of chemo- and radiotherapy is diarrhea. Diet should be directed to bowel movement and compensation of nutrients lost due to malabsorption. For this purpose, the diet includes products that reduce intestinal motility: cereal soups, mashed potatoes, boiled eggs, mashed potatoes on water, meatballs from meat, poultry and fish, freshly cooked cottage cheese, bananas, kissels, apples, green tea, mousses of blueberries, aronia and black currant.
The consumption of foods rich in animal proteins is limited. Take food fractionally, in small portions. When the chair is normalized, the patient is transferred to a more diverse and less sparing diet with a restricted diet rich in fiber. Nutrition by type of diet of a mashed and not wiped diet with a chronic enteritis.
A large group of complications are ulcerative stomatitis, obstructing food intake and inflammation of the esophageal mucosa (esophagitis), manifested by difficulty and pain when swallowing solid food, pain behind the sternum, less often vomiting or regurgitation. Dietary nutrition in such cases should be based on the maximum shading of the oral mucosa and esophagus. It should be excluded hot, hot, salty and sour food, dry meals.
In the diet should only be a well-rubbed food, consisting of semi-liquid warm dishes (mucous soups, omelets, steamed meat and fish purees and soufflé, cereals, milk and jelly). Excluded from the diet are bread, spicy sauces and spices, fried and whole lump dishes. Alcohol, coffee, hot and cold food are forbidden. In the acute period – you can use specialized children’s dietary concentrates (porridges, meat, vegetable, fruit), yoghurt, cottage cheese, jelly non-acid, non-sharp grated cheeses; As the acute symptoms subsided, salted broths, soups (soup cream) and then well-ground dishes.
A lot of varieties of dietary nutrition are suggested in oncology. Let us consider only some of them.
It is based on the exclusion of salt from the diet, because it is assumed that it has a strong effect on the electrolyte balance of the tumor. The author believes that the salt contained in the products is quite enough for the body. The diet assumes frequent and maximum (several liters / day) consumption of vegetable and fruit juice-fresh, which are sources antioxidants.
Freshly squeezed juices – the basis of the diet of the Gerzon diet
From the diet, animal fats, protein products (red meat) and technologically processed foods (canned food, sausages, smoked foods, salted and refined foods) are excluded. It is forbidden to use spices, legumes, nuts, berries, carbonated drinks, chocolate, ice cream, tea, sour cream coffee, alcohol. The diet includes a lot of organic vegetables and fruits mostly in raw form (except pineapple, cucumbers and avocado). And also baked grain products, cereals from whole grains, rich in food fibers.
Through 1,5 months of this diet is allowed to include in the diet in small quantities of low-fat dairy products, low-fat fish. In parallel, the calf liver juice, bee products, thyroid extract, coffee enemas are taken. Food should be cooked with a minimum amount of water on low heat.
Diet with Cancer Cornelius Moermann
The diet proposed by the author is aimed at limiting the harmful substances in the diet and activating the body’s defenses with food. The main principles are:
- Low Blood Maintenance Glucose, which is achieved by limiting / eliminating from the diet food products containing simple carbohydrates (sugar, honey, jam, jam, confectionery).
- The diet contains predominantly plant products, the consumption of animal proteins is limited in order to reduce the processes of protein synthesis by tumor cells.
- The diet includes foods rich in fiber and foods that have anti-carcinogenic activity (carotenoids, green tea, garlic, cruciferous vegetables), and freshly squeezed juices (cabbage, beetroot, carrot, apple, blackcurrant).
- The diet includes preparations of iodine and sulfur, vitamins-antioxidants, citric acid.
- It is necessary to eat products from bran and whole grains.
- In the absence of anemia The diet excludes red meat, liver and preparations rich in iron. (for entry into the body of sufficient quantity omega-3-acids should consume a variety of nuts, marine fish (3 times a week), linseed and olive oil).
- To correct bowel function and replenish calcium stores, it is necessary to include defatted dairy products (kefir, yoghurts) in the diet, introducing in parallel cultures of beneficial intestinal microorganisms.
- Consumption of table salt is limited.
- Drinking regime – up to 2 liters of liquid, it is desirable to drink thawed or artesian water and on it also prepare teas, infusions and decoctions.
- The use of coffee and alcohol is contraindicated.
At the heart of the author’s anti-cancer diet is the use in large quantities Quercetin, which has a pronounced antioxidant effect and the property of binding free radicals. As a result, recovery processes are started in the patient’s body, immunity. To products rich in quartzetine include buckwheat, brown rice and dog rose. The diet is carried out in the 2 phase.
Porridge from buckwheat groats
At the first stage, the duration of 3-4 weeks diet is sharply limited. Red meat, sugar and salt are excluded. The basis of the diet – buckwheat groats and plant products: berries (rose hips), fruits, vegetables, nuts.
Separate food (you can not combine protein and carbohydrates in one meal). In the morning and before dinner, a mixture for nutrition is prepared in the composition of ground hips, vitamin flour and honey, which is diluted with water to the state of gruel. During the day, for all three meals, buckwheat porridge with fiber and olive oil is used. For a snack, raisins with green tea and freshly prepared juices are used, diluted with water.
At the second stage, lasting about 1,5 month, the diet is expanded by including proteins in the form of chicken or fish. Menu you can enrich the menu with dried fruits and nuts, bran. The protein intake should not be higher than 0,4-0,6 g per 1 kg of patient weight.
Oncological diseases of various organs and systems at all stages.
The diet should contain energy-intensive, easily digestible products: grain bread, wholemeal bread, soups and cereal cereals, brown or not brown rice, buckwheat flakes, crispbread, boiled potatoes, red caviar, soy cheese, butter, various types of red fish, tuna, herring, liver, olive, sunflower and flax seed oil, soft-boiled eggs, milk and dairy products, sour cream, chocolate, cheeses.
Must be included in the diet of poultry (turkey, chicken), rabbit meat. Red meat – in small quantities, mainly veal or low-fat beef. It is important to have “soft” vegetables and salads on their basis – carrots, zucchini, tomatoes, broccoli, cucumbers, cauliflower, beetroot, eggplant, asparagus, kohlrabi, greens, wheat sprouts, kelp, as well as ripe fruits and berries ( pears, apricots, mangoes, tangerines, strawberries, peaches, peeled apples, melons, grapes, raspberries, bananas).
It is useful to include in the diet various nuts, dried fruits, honey and bee products. In small quantities in the diet you can enter dry and fortified wines, beer, cognac. Of the beverages, green and herbal tea, not aerated mineral water, is extremely useful.