Diet in pancreatitis – medical nutrition
Pancreatitis, however sad it was, is the most common disease of the digestive tract. The cause of its occurrence are various factors, including the abuse of alcohol products and malnutrition. This pathology has two forms – chronic and acute. Diet in pancreatitis is the main key point in the treatment of this disease.
The thing is that the pancreas (its functions are violated in the development of pancreatitis) plays a very important role in the process of digestion. It produces special enzymes that promote the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
After careful "processing" these nutrients transform the syndrome of pain, the patient's diet gradually evolves into simpler compounds, penetrates the circulatory system and spreads through the arteries throughout the body. It is also worth noting that the liver also depends on the functioning of the pancreas. After all, it produces lipokina, which prevents the deposition of fatty deposits in the cells of the liver. In addition, the pancreas also synthesizes the insulin required for normal carbohydrate metabolism.
When there is a violation of the functionality of this organ, the following happens in the body:
- digestive enzymes start to accumulate inside the gland, which provoke self-digestion, which is felt by the patient himself – he experiences strong pain in the abdomen;
- the acid medium in the small intestine changes, which leads to the appearance of such unpleasant symptoms as heartburn and burning;
- the body accumulates toxins, which often leads to its intoxication;
- the production of insulin and lipokin is disrupted, which provokes diabetes and the development of liver diseases.
Unfortunately, it is very difficult to completely cure pancreatitis. However, if the diet is regularly maintained in pancreatic pancreatitis, the patient's condition is stabilized. If you deviate from the diet, then perhaps an exacerbation of the disease, which is fraught with hospitalization of the patient and the need for surgical intervention.
Therefore, it is so important to strictly follow a diet for pancreatitis. And it should be noted that for a chronic and acute form of pathology, it is different.
Diet for acute pancreatitis
The first few days (2-4 days) of acute pancreatitis development the patient is assigned a dietary table №0. That is, he is forbidden to eat any food, even the most "light". Only drink in small sips and in small quantities. In this case, the ideal solution will be the use of therapeutic non-carbonated mineral waters, for example, Essentuki and Borjomi.
After the collapse of the pain syndrome, the patient's diet gradually expands. It starts to include "light" products. In doing so, they must fully provide the patient with proteins (they must be the most), fats and carbohydrates (their number should be minimized).
The daily caloric value of a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis is 2500-2700 kcal. All the dishes that he uses should be either boiled or cooked. Stewed and fried foods are prohibited, even if they are cooked without butter.
The main diet of the patient is made up of proteins. They must be at least 80% of the total, and 60% of them must necessarily be of animal origin. Daily intake of fat for patients with pancreatitis – 40-60 g, and carbohydrates – no more than 200
It is very important to limit the use of salt. Since it contributes to the flow of pancreatic walls and increased production of hydrochloric acid. Refusal of salt not only leads to an improvement in the work of the organ itself, but also to a slowing down of the process of digestion, because of which a person feels longer satiety longer.
It is for this reason, the first few days after the introduction of conventional food in the diet, it is recommended to eat fresh food. In addition, to avoid irritation of the mucosa of the pancreas, all dishes must be taken in a warm form (the ideal temperature is 45-60 C). This is a very important consistency of the dishes themselves. It should be either liquid or puree.
A week later, the patient's diet will gradually expand. It includes:
- soups of mucous consistency;
- cutlets from beef;
- cheese mass;
- mashed potatoes;
- rare porridge (with acute pancreatitis it is prohibited millet croup);
- kefir (not fatty);
- weak unsweetened black tea;
- broth from a dogrose.
If the patient's condition is stable (there are no exacerbations for 6-7 days after the expansion of the diet), the diet for pancreatic pancreatitis also includes:
- protein steam omelettes;
- cheese puddings;
- carrot puree;
- Baked apples (they can be eaten only in a grated form).
What is absolutely impossible?
If the rules of nutrition are not adhered to, acute pancreatitis can easily pass into a chronic form. To prevent this from happening, the patient should be excluded from his diet for a long time (4-8 months):
- fried food;
- various smoked products;
- flour products made from dough;
- canned goods;
- packaged juices;
- alcoholic beverages;
- fatty dairy and sour-milk products.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by a wavy course. That is, the disease can be in remission for a long time, after which its aggravation is observed. Pass it can be relatively easy, so many people do not even seek help from a specialist.
However, there are situations when an exacerbation of pancreatitis is accompanied by a number of unpleasant symptoms, including severe pain. In such cases, the patient is hospitalized and prescribed conservative treatment, which includes drugs that have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
As a rule, the first 2-4 days after exacerbation, the patient, like in acute pancreatitis, is assigned a dietary table No. 0. If the patient is in a very serious condition, the fasting period can be extended. During this period, he is injected with nutrients through a vein or probe that inserts into the nasal passage and reaches the intestine.
Usually, the patient is allowed to eat only after a few days, as soon as the pancreatic edema subsides and the inflammatory process decreases. There are strict limitations. Diet in chronic pancreatitis the first days after improving well-being resolves:
- abundant drinking of ordinary water (required for restoration of water-electrolyte disturbances);
- Drinking beverages with alkaline medium (such as mineral still water, green tea, rose hips);
- the use of homogeneous food (jelly, oat broth, jelly, etc.);
- dried bread (only a few slices of bread are allowed per day, they do not provoke the production of pancreatic enzymes and ensure complete rest).
If the patient's condition is stable, food is introduced into the diet, containing a large amount of carbohydrates. They are easily digested by the body and do not load the pancreas. At the same time it is obligatory to use homogeneous or viscous food.
During this period, you can not eat fatty and fried foods. All dishes are prepared without adding oil and salt. In addition, the amount of protein is also reduced to 15 g per day. The first few days a patient can not be eaten:
During this period, the patient's diet consists exclusively of carbohydrate products. However, the amount of carbohydrates consumed should not exceed 200 g per day.
After 7-10 days after an exacerbation of a chronic pancreatitis, in a diet of the patient are entered:
- protein steam omelettes;
- low-fat cottage cheese;
- milk products not more than 3% fat content;
- dietary meat, steamed;
- non-acid varieties of fruit (of which mashed potatoes are prepared);
- almost all types of vegetables (they are also eaten in a grated form);
- vegetable and meat soups.
During this period, it is very important not to allow a repeated exacerbation of the disease. Therefore, you must strictly adhere to the diet. Even after the expiration of 10-12 days after exacerbation, the patient also should not forget about the prohibitions concerning food.
It is worth noting that the diet for chronic form of pancreatitis should be observed throughout life. Therefore, even after discharge from the hospital, the patient must adhere to a long time of strict limitations. It can not be eaten:
- sour fruits and berries;
- alcoholic products;
- fatty and fried foods;
- smoked products;
- canned food and the like.
His diet should consist of a food rich in carbohydrates and not having a stimulating effect on the receptors.
Diet during remission
Chronic pancreatitis is a "lifelong" disease, in which it is necessary to follow strict rules of nutrition constantly, not only during periods of exacerbation, but also in the phase of persistent remission. During them, the patient's diet must necessarily include a rich in vitamins and minerals, for example:
- fresh vegetables;
- non-acid varieties of fruits and berries;
- various cereals (except beans);
- dairy products;
- Soups (they can be cooked either on vegetable broth or on secondary meat);
- dried fruits;
- low-fat meat;
- Fish and seafood.
Also allowed to eat bread. But at the same time it must be prepared from wholemeal and be slightly dried. In addition, the diet of the patient must necessarily contain jelly and jelly.
Still allowed to consume vegetable oil, but only in very small quantities. Doctors recommend using it exclusively for filling vegetable salads.
It should be noted that during a period of persistent remission, binge eating should also be excluded. You need to eat up to 5-6 once a day in small portions. All food consumed must be warm. Hot and cold food irritatingly acts on the pancreas, which provokes an exacerbation of the disease.
In general terms, the patient throughout his life is prescribed a diet 5p with pancreatitis, which excludes the following foods:
- fatty meat and fish;
- cold soups;
- chocolate and various products from it;
- fried eggs;
- onion and garlic;
- beverages containing caffeine;
- carbonated drinks;
Sugar should also be excluded from the diet. It contains many "simple" carbohydrates, which should be avoided whenever possible. Instead, it is recommended to eat bee honey. However, they should not get carried away. Despite the fact that this product contributes to the removal of inflammatory processes, it also contains simple carbohydrates, although not in such large quantities as in granulated sugar.
During this period a person should take care of his health and pay special attention to nutrition. It should be fractional, but nutritious. Small portions help to avoid excessive stress on the pancreas, which reduces the risk of exacerbation of the disease.
Remember that alcohol and fatty foods are your enemies, which can "put" you in a hospital bed in just a few hours. Therefore, you should put "taboo" on them. Thoroughly discuss your menu with your doctor and stick to all the recommendations that he will give you.