Diet in renal failure
Diet in renal failure is designed to normalize, or maintain metabolic, excretory, filtering, hematopoiesis and other kidney functions. Inadmissible irritation of the organs, so the diet should be as gentle for them as possible. Diet is a prerequisite for the treatment of both chronic and acute renal failure, it is included in the general scheme of therapy of this pathological process.
The diet is based on the restriction of eating protein and salt. However, if you exclude the protein from the menu completely, then the body begins to destroy its own tissues, and if you completely abandon the salt, it threatens hyponatremia, which worsens the filtration ability of the kidneys. Therefore, doctors strongly recommend the use of specialized tables that have an optimal ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and adapted for a specific disease. So, for patients with renal insufficiency it is desirable to adhere to a diet at number seven. Naturally, no one cancels the individual approach and, with the permission of the attending doctor, it is possible to introduce certain amendments. Nevertheless, it is the diet number 7 that should be taken as a basis.
In addition, there are a variety of options for this dietary table, which are adapted to this or that stage of the disease:
The 7 diet is suitable for severe chronic renal failure. It allows you to maximally spare the kidneys, facilitates the removal of nitrogen slag and protein compounds from the body. With it, you can get rid of edema and reduce arterial pressure.
Diet under number 7b is suitable for patients with moderately expressed renal failure of chronic course. It also helps to relieve the load from working nephrons and allows the removal of decay products from the body.
It is possible for chronic insufficiency to use the diet 7v. It is suitable for patients at the initial stage of chronic renal failure, as it allows to normalize the level of cholesterol, replenishes protein losses, reduces the severity of edema.
The diet numbered 7g is suitable for patients at the terminal stages of failure and with exacerbation of the disease. It is recommended to adhere to patients who are on hemodialysis.
As for the diet itself at number seven, it can be used during the remission of acute failure, when the recovery period begins from the underlying disease that caused this pathological process (nephritis, glomerulonephritis, etc.).
In addition, when selecting a diet table, one should also consider what background diseases the patient has, such as heart and vascular disease, GI disease, disruptions in the functioning of the endocrine system, etc.
Diet in chronic renal failure in the compensated and intermittent stage
Nutrition at these stages should be as gentle as possible for the kidneys. It is important to help the body to withdraw the products of the metabolism, to reduce pressure and swelling due to the withdrawal of excess fluid.
Proteins severely restrict. They are no more than 20 g per day, while 75% of them must have a plant origin. Under the restriction of salt. Fats and carbohydrates also decrease, but moderately. The total daily calorific value should not exceed 2200 kcal. Under absolute prohibition products with oxalic acid, essential oils, extractives enter.
Food processing – gentle, the products can be boiled, baked, slightly fried. Bread should not contain salt. All meals are also prepared without the addition of sodium chloride. Such a diet should be followed for 6 days, but no more.
Products that are not allowed:
Flour products and bread and salt;
Bouillons: mushroom, meat, cereal, bean, milk soup;
All meat and fish products that have undergone secondary processing are canned food, sausages, semi-finished products, etc .;
Cereals – the exception is rice;
Vegetables – pickled, pickled and salted;
Spinach, cauliflower, sorrel, garlic, radish;
Ice-cream chocolate, jelly on milk;
Sauces based on prohibited foods, peppers, horseradish, mustard;
Mineral water with sodium, coffee, cocoa.
A sample menu for one day might look like this:
For breakfast: rice porridge, tea with sugar.
For the second breakfast: boiled egg, broth of wild rose.
For lunch: vegetable soup (potatoes, carrots, onions, sago), boiled veal, berry jelly.
For an afternoon snack: carrot cutlets with sour cream.
For dinner: steam zrazy of fish, vegetable salad with vegetable oil, tea with lemon.
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Diet in chronic renal failure in the latent stage
This diet involves replenishment of excreted protein in the urine, contributes to the normalization of metabolism, reduces the level of cholesterol. Adhering to the dietary table under the number 7 in you can get rid of edema, adjust blood pressure.
Animal fats should be moderately reduced, at least 30% of fats should be of vegetable origin. At the same time, proteins are up to 125 g from a daily diet, but it is important that 65% of them are of animal origin. Salt and sugar fall under the restriction, lipotropic substances must come in increased quantities. The volume of a daily free liquid is no more than 800 ml. That is, if you divide the fluid intake by 5 times, then the average dose per approach should be equated to 150 ml.
Products that are prohibited:
Dough as flaky, and butter, plain bread.
Broths based on meat, fish, mushrooms;
Fatty meat, by-products;
Sausages, smoked products, canned food;
Salted fish, fatty, smoked, caviar;
Radish, sorrel, spinach;
Chocolate, confectionery cream;
Mustard, radish, horseradish, pepper;
Mineral water with sodium, cocoa.
Sample menu for one day:
For breakfast: carrot chops, fruit juice.
For the second breakfast: broth of dogrose, cottage cheese with sour cream.
For lunch: vegetable soup with vermicelli, salad of their cucumbers and greens, steam zrazy of chicken with mashed potatoes.
For a snack: berry jelly with tea.
For dinner: stewed rabbit in tomato sauce, boiled buckwheat, fruit pudding, green tea with lemon. Before going to bed, you should drink a glass of kefir.
Diet at the terminal stage of acute and chronic renal failure
The diet is designed to reduce the side effects of hemodialysis, designed to balance the patient's diet, taking into account the characteristics of metabolism.
The salt is sharply limited, the protein per day needs to consume no more than 60 g, while 75% of them must have an animal origin. The amount of fluid consumed is also reduced to 700 ml per day. It is possible to give salt to 3 g, if the blood pressure is normal and there is no swelling. Products with potassium also fall under the constraint. Necessary for the life of the body of an amino acid, a person should receive with eggs, fish, meat and dairy products, but in limited quantities. Fish and meat cook, to improve their taste qualities, they use salt-free sauces, seasoning.
The following products are banned:
All bread, except for salt and wheat, as well as flour products;
Broths based on fish, meat, mushrooms;
Dried fruits, rhubarb, spinach, sorrel, mushrooms;
Vegetables in marinade, pickles;
Sausage, fatty and salted fish, caviar, canned food;
Refractory fats, cocoa.
Sample menu for one day:
For breakfast: an egg, boiled soft-boiled, vegetable salad dressed with vegetable oil, tea.
For the second breakfast: a baked apple.
For lunch: vegetable borscht with low-fat sour cream, boiled veal, pear jelly, compote.
For a snack: saltless bread with cream cheese and greens.
For dinner: potato zrazy, boiled turkey, broth of wheaten bran.
If the volume of fluid was not replenished during the day, then before going to bed you can drink a broth of dogrose (not more than 150 ml).
The author of the article: Diet Doctor, Kuzmina Vera Valerievna, specially for the site
Acute renal failure is a sudden, marked violation, or a complete stop of kidney function. This pathological process is potentially reversible, although all the functions of the kidneys are affected – excretory filtration and secretory.
Chronic renal failure is the progressive decline in renal function associated with death of nephrons, or with their replacement by connective tissue, against a backdrop of chronic renal pathology. Nephrons are important structural units of the kidneys, which are involved in purifying blood from nitrogenous slags.
Derivation of metabolic products from the human body, suffering from renal failure, is recommended through the stimulation of sweating. At home, this can be achieved by visiting the sauna, using medicinal baths, sanatorium and spa treatment in regions with a dry warm climate.
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