Since ascites is not an independent disease, but one of the symptoms of various pathologies, the choice of dishes for an ascites diet is determined by the characteristics of the underlying disease. Diet in ascites is one of the means of treatment along with drug therapy. Correctly organized diet significantly improves the patient's quality of life in the first stages of ascites, although it does not replace the intake of drugs.
Basic principles of therapeutic nutrition:
Salt in ascites actively retains fluid in the tissues of the body, so it is not used at all in the patients' diet;
It is forbidden to consume fried and smoked dishes, fatty varieties of fish and meat, fat, margarine, canned food, sausages, fast food products;
To avoid the need to drink a lot of liquid, you can not eat pickles, spicy and spicy dishes, acidic foods;
The optimum amount of water is only 700 ml per day. This includes the liquid that is contained in soups, kissels, compotes;
For the prevention of flatulence, you should not use beans, cabbage, mushrooms, turnip, radish, garlic, onion in preparation of dishes;
In ascites, it is not recommended to drink carbonated drinks, coffee and cocoa;
Confectionery, buns, fresh bread from wheat flour – forbidden products for the patient with ascites.
Alcoholic beverages of any strength accelerate the development of ascites, so absolutely unacceptable in this pathology.
All products for feeding the patient with ascites are subjected to gentle culinary processing – they are boiled, stewed or baked. The diet should contain all the basic elements of food: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, but their proportions are adjusted. Making up the menu, they prefer complex carbohydrates and vegetable fats. They are found in vegetables, oatmeal, millet and buckwheat. If ascites is caused by cirrhosis of the liver, the presence of easily digestible proteins is important in food.
Products recommended for ascites:
Chopped or ground veal, lean chicken, rabbit, turkey, cooked steamed.
Vegetable soups are pureed with such compulsory ingredients as parsley, marjoram, fennel.
Lean fish cooked steamed or baked in the oven without salt.
Egg omelet from one protein can be eaten 3 times a week;
Various cereals, cooked on water with a minimum addition of milk in a proportion of not more than 3: 1.
Nuts mixed with honey (hazelnuts, peanuts, walnuts).
Zephyr and fruit jelly as desserts.
Pomegranate juice, diluted with water, dried fruits.
Diuretic drinks and juices with potassium-sparing properties: birch, carrot and pumpkin juice, infusion of figs and dried apricots, tea from currant leaves.
Cottage cheese, sour cream for refueling dishes.
Vegetables: aubergines, zucchini, pumpkin, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers.
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The number of meals for ascites is 6-7 once a day. It is necessary that between them there was a time interval of no more than 3 hours. Portions should be small, and the temperature of the dishes – a little warmer than the room. Food should not be too cold or too hot. Almost all products are cooked, with the exception of sweet fruits, and those, if possible, are made part of oven-baked desserts.
It is undesirable to impose large portions and overeat. The goal of the diet in ascites is to mitigate such negative manifestations of pathology as swelling of tissues and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity. It is desirable that the menu for the patient is a diet, which will take into account individual characteristics and the existing diagnosis. More than others, with ascites, the diet No.10, created in Russia by the doctor Pevzner, is suitable. With improvement of well-being the patient moves to the table №10.
Prohibited and permitted products with this diet comply with the above recommendations for feeding patients with ascites. In addition to this category of patients, table 10 is recommended for people with ischemia of the heart, hypertension, after myocardial infarction, with liver cirrhosis.
Features of the table № 10:
The daily calorific value is 2300-2600 kilocalories;
The total amount of salt, together with the salt contained in the products, does not exceed 5 g per day;
The daily amount of fats (up to 70 g), carbohydrates (up to 350 g), proteins (up to 90 g) is reduced.
Sample menu with ascites in accordance with dietary requirements:
Morning is oatmeal in diluted milk or steam protein omelette with boiled beef, cottage cheese with sour cream. Tea with biscuit or biscuit;
The second breakfast is a curd cheese or an apple with a banana;
Lunch – vegetarian soup with potatoes, steam chicken with rice or steam cutlet with pasta, compote;
Dinner – boiled fish and salad or a portion of charlotte;
Before going to bed – kefir or yogurt.
The result of a carefully observed diet with ascites will be improvement of blood circulation, restoration of normal metabolism, sparing attitude towards digestive organs, heart and blood vessels.
The author of the article: Dmitry Sergeevich Volkov, surgeon, specially for the site
Ascites are a secondary condition in which the accumulation of the transudate or exudate occurs in the peritoneal cavity. Symptoms of the disease are manifested in an increase in the size of the abdomen, in pain, shortness of breath, a feeling of a sense of heaviness in the peritoneum and other signs. Still ascites in medicine is called abdominal dropsy, which can accompany.
Due to the fact that the main disease that causes ascites is widespread and occupies a leading position among the causes of death from gastrointestinal diseases, even ascites itself with cirrhosis of the liver is not uncommon. Statistics indicate that ascites will occur in 50% of patients, within 10 years, after the diagnosis was made – cirrhosis of the liver.
The medical term "ascites" is the usual abdominal dropsy. This unpleasant ailment can develop in a person with hypertension, heart failure, diseased kidneys or a malignant tumor in the retroperitoneal space. Ascites are a serious symptom, and its development is the reason for an immediate visit to the doctor.
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