Constipation is not considered an independent disease – usually a symptom of a dysbiosis or other disease, as well as a certain psychophysical state of a person. In the process of treating the underlying disease, constipation can be eliminated. If this phenomenon can not be associated with a particular disease or other obvious factors, a complete examination of the state of the gastrointestinal tract is performed. Long and chronic constipation leads, as a rule, to a violation of protein absorption and an increase in the level of ammonia in the blood, changes in the immune system. The main symptoms are stool discomfort, bloating, abdominal pain. Constipation can cause secondary colitis, diseases of the anal area of the rectum, enteritis, hepatitis, biliary tract and colon cancer.
With constipation, a diet is recommended. The diet corresponding to this diet stimulates the activity of the intestine, normalizes metabolic processes, restores the mucous membranes of the intestine. Most recommendations for this diet are suitable for constipation caused by improper diet. Stimulation of the intestine is ensured by introducing into the daily menu of mechanical and temperature stimuli, a large amount of fiber (mainly plant) and the exclusion of products that can cause fermentation in the intestine. Provides a fractional power mode – up to 6 once a day. Unmilled steamed, boiled or baked products are used. Fruits and vegetables are used fresh. In the morning on an empty stomach drink cool water or juice, at night: sour milk drinks, decoctions of dried fruits.
The composition and nutritional value of the diet:
- Proteins: 90-100 g (45% proteins of animal origin);
- fats: 80-90 g (30% fats of vegetable origin);
- carbohydrates: 350-400 g (not more than 40 g of simple carbohydrates);
- daily caloric content: 2 300-2 500 kcal;
- free liquid: 1,5-2 l;
- table salt: 8-10 g;
- vitamins: retinol (A) – 2 mg, riboflavin (B2) – 4 mg, thiamine (B1) – 4 mg, nicotinic acid (B3) – 30 mg, ascorbic acid (C) – 100 mg;
- macronutrients: calcium 0,8 g, magnesium 0,5 g, phosphorus 1,2 g;
- trace elements: iron – 15 mg;
- optimum temperature of dishes: 15-65 ° C.
Allowed products: drinks: tea, surrogate coffee, broth from rose hips and wheat bran, fruit and vegetable juices (especially from tomatoes, carrots, plums and apricots); baking: wheat bread and rye from coarse flour, crispy loaves (soaked). Dry biscuits, uneaten pastries, other baked goods except for fresh bread made from fine wheat flour; dairy products: milk, acidophilus milk, cheese, sour cream, cottage cheese, yogurt and kefir (one-, two-day); fats: vegetable oil and cream; meat products: lean red meat, boiled or baked pork, pieces of chopped meat, dairy sausages; fish products: low-fat fish in boiled and baked form, as well as seafood; any vegetables (beets are preferred), greens, sauerkraut, beans (especially green peas), bean curd; fruits and berries, especially prunes, figs, apricots, plums, melons; cereals: cereals are crumbly and semi-viscous (especially good porridge from buckwheat); flour products, macaroni; eggs (1 pcs per day), preferably added to meals; Fats: unsalted butter, refined vegetable oils (olive, corn).
Excludes: puff and dough, bread from flour of higher grades; boiled eggs and fried eggs; fatty varieties of meat and fish, duck, goose; smoked meat and fish; canned fish and meat; from vegetables: garlic, onion, radish, radish, turnip; mushrooms; from drinks: jelly, cocoa, strong tea, black coffee; from fruits: blueberries, dogwood, quince; chocolate; sharp and fatty sauces; from seasonings: mustard, horseradish, pepper; fats: animals and culinary; alcoholic beverages; of cereals: rice and semolina are used in a limited way.
Allowed dishes: soups: vegetable (borsch, soup, minestrone, etc.), cold soups, pearl soup with weak meat or fish broth; meat dishes: boiled, baked, fried without crusty dishes whole piece or in the form of cutlets, prepared from beef, veal, chicken, turkey, rabbit; fish dishes: boiled or baked fish of low-fat varieties with a piece or in the form of cutlets, seafood is recommended; from vegetables: raw and boiled side dishes, casseroles, beets, carrots, lettuce, zucchini, cucumbers, colorful cabbage, green peas and cabbage – when tolerated, restrict potatoes; cheeses; garnishes: crumbly cereals (rice, pasta – limited), vegetables in any form (cabbage – with tolerability, potatoes and legumes – limited), preferably beets, carrots, zucchini, cauliflower, pumpkin, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce ; porridge: crumbly porridge and casseroles; snacks: vegetable salads and vinaigrettes, fruit salads, caviar from vegetables, sauerkraut, soaked herring, jellied, cheeses; sauces, spices: béchamel, mild sauces on meat broth, tomato sauce, occasionally sour cream sauce, cinnamon, vanilla, bay leaf, chopped fresh herbs (dill, celery, parsley); sweet dishes: especially recommended fresh and baked fruits in large quantities, plums, figs, melons, apricots (including dried apricots), prunes, jam, mousses, jams, pastille, marmalade are desirable; yesterday’s wheat bread from flour 2-th grade, with bran, with tolerance – rye; biscuit uneatable, dry biscuit, pastry with jam, jam, fruits and berries – limited; steam omelettes, albumen omelettes; salads from raw vegetables and vinaigrettes with vegetable oil, vegetable salad, fruit salads; cheese is not sharp, ham is lean, the herring is soaked; drinks: tea and coffee from substitutes, fresh juices (cold), broth of wild rose, decoction of bran.
The menu includes 250-300 g bread; soup – 1 once a day; meat – 1 once a day; Fish – 1 once a day; vegetables – 2 times a day; cereals – 1 once a day; eggs – 2 times a week; low-fat sausage – 1 once a week; raw cheese – 1 once a week; sea kale – 3 times a week.
Sample diet menu for constipation:
First breakfast: vegetable salad with vegetable oil, steam omelet, tea.
Second breakfast: fresh apple.
Lunch: Shchi Vegetarian with sour cream, boiled meat with stewed beets, compote of dried fruits.
Supper: cabbage rolls, krupenik from buckwheat groats with cottage cheese, tea.
Sample menu with stable constipation
On an empty stomach: a cold broth of prunes.
The first breakfast: squash caviar, cottage cheese, bread, weak tea.
The second breakfast: curdled milk, baked apple, bread, broth of a dogrose.
Lunch: vegetarian soup from fresh cabbage, stewed chicken with boiled vegetables, compote.
Dinner: buckwheat casserole, chicken with stewed cabbage, fresh fruit, broth of bran, jam, cookies.
At night: kefir, soaked dried fruits.
First breakfast: omelette (can be replaced with soft-boiled eggs, or boiled fish, or buckwheat porridge), tea.
Second breakfast: 1 a glass of juice or 1 fruit, 1 a spoon of natural honey (it is slowly dissolved in the mouth).
Lunch: potato vegetarian soup, boiled chicken meat (you can replace beef stroganoff from boiled meat), boiled vegetables (beets, carrots and potatoes), compote of dried fruits.
Snack: beetroot or salad of grated carrots, broth of wild rose.
Dinner: homemade cottage cheese, boiled vegetables, tea.
During the day you can eat 150 g bread with bran or rye, 2 a spoonful of sugar, 1 a spoonful of butter (for sandwiches and cereals), 1 st. a spoonful of vegetable oil (in salads and soup).
If the constipation and diarrhea alternate, it is necessary to make an individual diet by contacting a doctor.