Proper nutrition is very important for the prevention and treatment of inflammation of the stomach. Diet reduces the severity of painful manifestations and increases the effectiveness of therapeutic manipulations.
The imbalance of food components (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fiber) changes the pH of the stomach environment, stimulates the pathogenesis of gastritis, up to the stomach ulcer. All diets for chronic diseases of the stomach are developed taking into account the acidity of the stomach environment.
Based on nutritional value, the treatment tables for gastritis are divided into two types:
Basic diets. The diet contains a sufficient amount of energy necessary to support the life of the patient, and at the same time it has a beneficial effect on the walls of the stomach;
Low calorie diets. When the pathogenesis is exacerbated (acute digestive disorders – constipation, diarrhea), a diet with a reduced energy value is used for several days.
Diets (tables) used to feed patients with gastritis have a digital designation. Fifteen basic numbered medical diets have been approved by the official medicine. Some tables can be in several variations, denoted by the letters of the alphabet. In diseases of the stomach, tables 1, 1, 1, 2, 3 and 4 are recommended. In the period of therapeutic nutrition with gastritis should be abandoned alcohol and smoking, as well as from fatty, smoked, pickled, spicy and sour food.
Nutrition of patients diagnosed with gastritis is based on several principles laid down in the basis of such diets:
Exclude from the diet hot (above 60 0 C) and cold (below 15 0 C) dishes;
Choose the optimal temperature for diet food (20-50 0 C);
Use the rules of eating: fractionality (up to 5-6 once a day) and regularity (at the same time);
With hyperacid gastritis – to exclude from the diet products that stimulate the production of hydrochloric acid and irritating the walls of the stomach;
With hypocidal and anacid gastritis – give preference to foods that accelerate digestion;
If a person has at the same time two diseases, for example, gastritis and diabetes, it is also necessary to exclude from the diet products harmful to diabetes.
What can you eat with gastritis with high acidity?
The diagnosis of "chronic gastritis with increased acidity" or "chronic hyperacid gastritis" is confirmed by comprehensive medical research using laboratory and functional diagnostic methods.
The disease is characterized by an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid produced, digestive enzymes and other components of gastric juice. Acid irritates the walls of the stomach, reduces their functional properties and changes the course of the physiological processes of digestion.
The main symptoms of gastritis with high acidity are pain in breaks between meals, heartburn after eating.
With gastritis with high acidity it is forbidden to eat dishes based on rich mushroom, meat and fish broths, as well as convenience foods. They strongly irritate the taste buds and stimulate additional production of hydrochloric acid.
A set of dishes from which a patient's diet should be diagnosed with a diagnosis of gastritis with high acidity, includes:
The first dishes (soups-mashed potatoes on vegetables and cereals, soups with vermicelli, cooked on water or milk);
The second dishes (meat, fish, chopped, steamed, boiled or baked, sometimes lightly fried, without crust);
Garnishes (boiled vegetables, pasta, soft porridge);
Salads, snacks (salads from boiled vegetables, snacks based on low-fat varieties of meat, fish, milk sausages, cheese);
Milk 2,5% pasteurized, some sour-milk products (cream, yogurt, cottage cheese);
Fruits and berries of sweet varieties;
Drinks (tea, compotes from dried fruits, jelly, juices from some kinds of fruit, decoctions);
Bakery products (dried wheat bread, dry biscuits);
Fats (vegetable oils, butter).
In more detail about each ingredient of the menu of the patient with a hyperacid gastritis:
Beef. It is recommended to use first category meat with a limited fat content. The energy value of this product is about 218 kcal per 100. The ratio of proteins and fats is 1: 1. Beef contains a lot of macro and micronutrients, especially phosphorus, sulfur, iron, zinc, copper, chrome, cobalt and molybdenum, as well as a high content of B vitamins. Beef steaks are cooked, portions of boiled, stewed, baked meat;
Mutton. Low-fat meat is allowed, its energy value 100 g is about 209 kcal, the ratio of proteins and fats is 1: 1. The product contains many macroelements – potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, trace elements – copper, fluorine. Because of the specific taste and smell, mutton is not widely used in medical institutions, but it is quite possible to prepare it at home;
Rabbit – the energy value of 100 g – about 183 kcal. The ratio of proteins and fats is 2: 1. In the meat, enough macro- and microelements, vitamins. Lenten rabbit meat is considered one of the best meat products with hyperacid gastritis. Cook boiled, stewed, baked pieces;
Meat of chicken. The energy value of 100 g is 90-180 kcal, depending on the part of the carcass. The ratio of proteins and fats approximately corresponds to the indicators of rabbit. The most valuable is white chicken breast meat without skin. Cook boiled and baked pieces;
Sausages. Use as a snack. It is recommended to 50 g per day of lean varieties of cooked milk and doctor sausages. Sausages can be replaced with snacks from by-products – pates;
Beef tongue. Its energy value is about 173 kcal per 100. It is a delicious sub-product of the first category. It is nutritious and rich in useful substances. Used in boiled form, as a warm snack;
Sausages. The use of this product is not regulated by the official diet for gastritis. Since it is possible to use low-fat varieties of milk sausages, it should be considered that dairy sausages can also be eaten with gastritis with high acidity. It is not recommended to choose smoked and fried sausages, sausages and shpikachki with a lot of pork fat;
Sea fish. Low-fat varieties are recommended. The usual amount of fat in fish is up to 15-20%. Fish with a low fat content refers to marine species (cod, tuna). The fat content in them is from 0,4 to 0,8%, and the protein from 17,6% (cod), to 22,8% (tuna). The energy value of this fish is from 148 kcal to 100 (cod), up to 297 kcal per 100 g (tuna). In fish there are useful unsaturated fats (omega-3, omega-6). As a snack is allowed lean, soaked in water (milk) herring. With hyperacid gastritis, in a small amount, sturgeon roe can be used;
The fish is river. Low fat content in pike perch, pike. Limited use of river fish in hospitals is caused by a large number of small bones. At home, cooked boiled pieces, fish cutlets for a couple;
Milk. Usually use milk cow pasteurized 2,5% fat. Whole milk (immediately from under the cow) is prohibited in dietary nutrition. The energy value of 2,5% milk is 54 kcal per 100 ml. Pasteurized milk can be consumed without additional heat treatment. It prepares warm dishes: soups, cereals, mashed potatoes, omelettes. Individual intolerance to milk components is possible;
Cream – this milk, separated to 10% (normal cream) or up to 35% (fatty cream). Fatty cream is not used in diets, and normal in small amounts is added to the main dishes, in sauces and puddings;
Cheese of hard varieties – Parmesan, Dutch, Kostroma, Cheddar and others. The energy value is about 355 kcal per 100 g of product. Used as snacks. For gastritis with high acidity, hard cheeses with a limited fat content (30-50%) are recommended without sharp additives. You can eat more than 20-50 grams of cheese per day;
Cheese of soft varieties – Mascarpone and others. Calorie content of Mascarpone cheese is 450 kcal per 100 g of product. For dietary meals, you need to choose a quick, unsalted variety of cheeses. A moderate amount of cheese can significantly adjust the balance of proteins and fats of animal origin, as well as trace elements in the diets of a patient with gastritis;
Cottage cheese. Non-acid grades are recommended. The percentage of fat content is from 0% (low-fat cottage cheese) to 30% (fatty cottage cheese). The energy and nutritional value of such a product is very high. Cottage cheese can be consumed as cottage cheese, curd cheese, fried without crust;
Yogurt . The standard fat content is 3,2%. The product is low-calorie – just 65 kcal per 100. There are enough sugars and few acids in the yoghurts. The main grades of yoghurt are suitable for dietary nutrition in gastritis;
Eggs of chicken. The energy value is 157 kcal per 100 g of product. The ratio of proteins and fats is about 1: 1. With gastritis, fresh eggs produced (obtained from chicken) are used no later than seven days ago. Recommended soft-boiled eggs, omelets on milk or cream. A raw egg in dietary food is forbidden due to poor digestibility of raw proteins;
Kashi. Caloric content of cereals exceeds the energy value of meat products. However, vegetable carbohydrates give fast energy. Kashi should not be considered the main component of dietary nutrition in gastritis. For the preparation of porridges, mucous soups, puddings and other dishes use popular cereals: semolina, rice, buckwheat, oatmeal.
Semolina – energy value 100 g – 335 kcal. The main amount of energy is carbohydrates. Despite the high content of macro- and microelements and vitamins, manku is used cautiously in dietary nutrition of children up to 3-x years and elderly people over 70-ти years. A high level of individual intolerance of the product in these age groups was observed;
Rice groats – energy value 100 g – 323 kcal. A portion of a portion of approximately 20% provides a daily energy demand for a person. There are many useful substances in rice. It contains components that remove irritation of the walls of the stomach, and has antioxidant properties;
Buckwheat – energy value 100 g – 335 kcal. Valuable dietary product. Regulates the level of cholesterol in the blood, normalizes metabolic processes, promotes weight loss;
Oatmeal – the energy value of 100 g – 342 kcal. Oat flakes are allowed. Porridge from oatmeal (flakes) have high energy value, contain the maximum set of macro- and microelements and vitamins of group B. The mucous substances of oatmeal reduce the irritation of the walls of the stomach.
Macaroni and vermicelli. The energy value of 100 is 320-350 kcal. For gastritis with high acidity, macaroni products are recommended from hard varieties of superior wheat. The negative influence of wheat (an undesirable cereal product with gastritis) is reduced by the protein component of macaroni – egg protein. It is added in the process of factory production. Macaroni and vermicelli are used as components of the first and second dishes;
Bread. With gastritis, wheat bread of the highest grade is used. It should not be fresh. It is better if the bread was baked 1-2 a day ago. In a limited number allowed biscuits, dry biscuits. You can vary the menu twice a week with baked patties with meat, fish, apples and berries, allowed with hyperacid gastritis;
Potatoes – energy value 100 g – 77 kcal. The product contains a large amount of water, carbohydrates, potassium, iron, zinc, vitamin PP (nicotinic acid). It is recommended in boiled form or puree. It is forbidden to include fried potatoes in the diet. In this form, it is poorly digested, irritates the walls of the stomach and stimulates fermentation processes;
Carrots – energy value 100 g – 33 kcal, contains a large amount of carbohydrates, Beta-carotene (provitamin A), B vitamins, pectins. Pectins are substances that sanitize the body and reduce the level of harmful substances. In carrots, a lot of potassium and other trace elements;
Beet – energy value 100 g – 43 kcal, contains a large amount of carbohydrates, macro- and microelements, vitamins. Use it in cooked form. Beetroot interferes with the development of pathogenic microflora in the stomach and intestines, and also enhances the intestinal peristalsis;
Cabbage . Recommendations dieticians about its use in gastritis are ambiguous. Cabbage is certainly useful, but can cause bloating. White cabbage and Brussels sprouts increase the secretion of gastric juice. These varieties are not recommended for hyperacid gastritis, but are used for gastritis with a low content of hydrochloric acid;
Cauliflower – energy value 100 g – 30 kcal, contains a large amount of carbohydrates, potassium and sugars, vitamin C, microelements. It is highly recommended for hyperacid gastritis stewed and cooked on steam, as it does not stimulate the production of hydrochloric acid;
Zucchini – the energy value of 100 g – 24 kcal. A lot of carbohydrates and sugars, a little fiber. Zucchini is rich in vitamins C (ascorbic acid) B9 (folic acid), A (retinol). In zucchini delicate consistency of pulp, they are uniquely recommended for dietary nutrition in gastritis;
Pumpkin – the energy value of 100 g – 22 kcal. The product is balanced by proteins, fats and carbohydrates, rich in vitamins A, B9 (folic acid), C (ascorbic acid). From macro- and microelements it is possible to note a large content of potassium and copper. Pumpkin is recommended for hyperacid gastritis in the form of pumpkin porridge, pumpkin juice is very useful. This vegetable has useful properties in pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract – seeds have anthelmintic properties and produce a laxative effect. The fruits of zucchini and pumpkin should be used in the early stages of maturation. Ripe fruit is not recommended;
Tomatoes – the energy value of 100 g – 20 kcal. Use exclusively ripe fruit with a high sugar content. The product is rich in potassium, chlorine, sodium, vitamins A and C. With hyperacid gastritis, tomatoes are used in the composition of soups-purees and sauces. It is recommended to remove the skin first;
Fresh green dill. As a seasoning for gastritis with high acidity, it is very useful to use fresh dill. This product is rich in vitamins, in addition, the substances that make up dill, prevent the fermentation of food in the stomach and relieve spasms;
Apples. Only sweet varieties are recommended. The energy value of this product is 47 kcal per 100. Apples contain a large number of macro- and microelements, vitamins. Apple diets from green apples are a myth. All supposedly irreplaceable biochemical components of apples, including pectins, are found in other fruits and vegetables. Before eating apples, remove the skin, it irritates the walls of the stomach. Baked apples with gastritis can be used without restrictions;
Pears. Their energy value is 52 kcal per 100. Pears are rich in macro- and microelements, especially cobalt and silicon. Some varieties have pronounced astringent properties. With gastritis with high acidity, sweet types are allowed. Tying properties of the pear are useful for the walls of the stomach, since they remove unpleasant pain sensations;
Bananas. Energy value 100 g – 96 kcal. Bananas are rich in macro elements, especially potassium. The content of potassium in bananas is five times higher than in zucchini. Another plus – bananas can be eaten raw. A day is recommended to eat no more than one banana. A large amount of potassium (400 mg) against a background of low sodium (31 mg) can cause heart rhythm disturbances and biochemical processes. Optimal ratio: potassium – one part, sodium – two parts. The need of the organism in sodium is supplemented with sodium chloride;
Strawberries. Sweet garden varieties of strawberries are usually called "Victoria." Forest strawberries get harder. Pre-berry must be wiped clean. The energy value of strawberries is 41 kcal per 100. The product is very rich in useful substances, however, do not consume more than 50 grams of berries per day. Fruit acids contained in strawberries irritate the walls of the stomach;
Seeds. This product is not dietary. However, its components, in particular, fats, are part of vegetable (sunflower) oil. With gastritis with high acidity, the use of sunflower oil is indicated. Seeds are a high-calorie product (about 500 kcal per 100 g). The use of seeds with increased acidity of gastric juice suppresses heartburn;
Pine nuts and butter are valuable products that contain many fat-soluble vitamins, in particular, vitamin E. This vitamin has a beneficial effect on sexual function, stimulates the regeneration of mucous membranes, including the stomach. Nutritional and medicinal properties of cedar nut oil greatly exceed the analogous values of sunflower oil. With hyperacid gastritis, the use of cedar nuts is possible (up to 10-20 g per day);
Walnut – contains a large amount of iodine and other useful substances. In a small amount (up to 20 g per day) beneficial effect on the walls of the stomach, helps to balance the daily diet;
Fats. With gastritis it is allowed to use vegetable oil from sunflower, as well as cream unsalted cow's oil;
Honey. If the product is of high quality, then it has a high energy value and is a valuable nutritive sweetener. The use of honey is justified for gastritis. In moderate amounts, it does not irritate the walls of the stomach, in addition, it is very rich in natural, easily digestible sugars.
As sweeteners, sugar beet or cane sugar, jam, strawberries and apples of sweet varieties are used.
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What can not be eaten with gastritis with high acidity?
With this type of inflammation, dishes containing the following substances are not recommended:
Stimulating the production of gastric juice;
Aggressively affecting the walls of the stomach;
Enhancing fermentation processes;
Poorly digested in the stomach.
Products that stimulate the production of gastric juice:
Kiwi. This pleasantly sweet and sour exotic fruit has many vitamins, sugars and organic acids, as well as substances that stimulate the regeneration of tissues and have a local soothing effect. Meanwhile, it is necessary to refrain from using kiwi in hyperacid gastritis, especially in the stage of exacerbation. The ban is due to the possible negative effects of acids on the inflamed wall of the stomach;
Orange. All citrus fruits (lemon, lime, grapefruit, mandarin) stimulate taste buds and indirectly cause the production of hydrochloric acid. There are numerous scientific observations confirming the fact that a person produces saliva even just when he sees a lemon. Therefore, with hyperacid gastritis categorically prohibited the use of any citrus;
Garlic. The plant is known for phytoncides – substances that prevent the development of colds and are natural antibiotics. However, when ingested, garlic stimulates appetite, thereby causing an active production of gastric juice.
Products that aggressively affect the mucous membranes of the stomach:
Chocolate. Despite the abundance of nutrients, it is forbidden to use it for gastritis. The ban is associated with a large (about 40%) caffeine content in chocolate. Caffeine is known for its aggressive effect on the sphincter of the stomach and the ability to provoke reflux. On the walls of the stomach, caffeine also affects irritatingly. All these properties of caffeine and chocolate are undesirable for gastritis.
Ice cream. A delicious dairy product, however containing thickeners, flavors, preservatives, flavoring agents and colorants. This cold sweet delicacy negatively affects the walls of the stomach;
Nuts are not recommended for gastritis in large quantities (more than 30 grams per day);
Cashew. This product contains a caustic oily substance, from which natural ink is produced, so cashew can cause an exacerbation of gastritis;
Almonds and other stone nuts from fruits and berries (apricots, plums, cherries) contain a small amount of hydrocyanic acid, which affects badly the walls of the inflamed stomach;
Hazelnut (hazel) – a product rich in nutrients, is close to meat by protein value. However, hazelnuts contain small amounts of corrosive acids, which negatively affect the intestines. For the stomach of a healthy person, their effect is invisible, but with inflamed mucous hazelnut may enhance pathogenesis.
Products that enhance fermentation processes in the body:
Cereals (millet, corn, pearl barley, beans). Porridges prepared from these cultures contain coarse fibers, increase the acidity of gastric juice and stimulate fermentation processes;
Peanut. This is not a nut, but a fruit of a legume plant. Like all beans, peanuts cause fermentation in the stomach, thereby irritating its walls;
Grapes. Contains a large number of nutrients, with a lot of sugar in it. Grapes also have a thick peel, the components of which stimulate fermentation processes.
Products that are poorly digested in the stomach:
Meat-containing foods, poorly digested in the stomach, have a common feature – a high content of cholesterol and animal fats;
Low-fat pork, although it is on the list of products acceptable for dietary nutrition, is not used in medical institutions. Therefore, we classified this type of meat as forbidden in gastritis;
Meat of ducks and goose, smoked meat products. Fats, in excess available in the specified grades of meat and delicacies, suppress the production of hydrochloric acid, as a result, the rate of digestion decreases. Fatty food is not retained in the intestines, quickly excreted from the body and often causes diarrhea;
Fat. The main energy value of this product is represented by animal fat. Salo contains a lot of table salt and spices. Just like fatty meat, lard suppresses the production of hydrochloric acid, irritates the walls of the stomach and provokes diarrhea;
Canned meat and fish. Contain flavors, a lot of fat and other components, poorly digested in a sick stomach;
Pelmeni. Hard to digest, contain two opposite in composition component – boiled dough and minced meat. In conditions of gastritis with high acidity, eating pelmeni is accompanied by heartburn and heaviness in the stomach;
The liver. This product contains a huge (more than 270 mg per average portion) amount of cholesterol, in addition, the liver is a biological filter of the body, it accumulates and processes harmful substances that have got into the blood of an animal or a bird. Despite the high content of vitamin A and other fat-soluble vitamins, the liver is not recommended for inflammatory processes in the walls of the stomach.
To plant products, poorly digested in the stomach, include melons and watermelons.
Diet with gastritis with low acidity
Hypoacid gastritis manifests belchings, dyspepsia (often diarrhea) and nausea. Symptoms are a consequence of insufficient digestion of food in the stomach. The recommended diet with reduced acidity has the official designation – No. 2.
When gastritis with a low level of digestive enzymes, food is enriched with products that stimulate the production of hydrochloric acid.
Dietary nutrition of patients who have lowered production of hydrochloric acid, is organized in the same way as a standard diet for gastritis. The set of products is approximately the same, but there are slight differences, because the reduced acidity is due to the inadequacy of digestive enzyme production.
In contrast to gastritis with high acidity, in this case you can:
Cook dishes from rich meat and fish broths;
Eat sweet and sour fruit and berries, including citrus fruits;
There are salted cucumbers and tomatoes in reasonable quantities;
Instead of milk, drink sour milk drinks (koumiss, kefir, ryazhenka);
Drink fruit juices with sour taste;
Use mineral water without gas.
To improve the digestive efficiency, the food should be thoroughly chewed. From medicamental agents, the intake of digestive enzymes (Festal, Mezim-forte) is effective.
Exacerbation of inflammation of the stomach is characterized by vivid symptoms – this is severe pain, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, gastric bleeding. With exacerbation of gastritis, dehydration phenomena are possible – weakness, paleness of skin and mucous membranes, thickening of the liquid fraction of blood.
In the first days of exacerbation, complete starvation and abundant drinking in the form of physiological solutions and fluids that remove inflammation and irritation of the walls of the stomach are allowed. From the second to the third day, a gradual introduction of nutritional components into the diet begins.
The subsets of basic nutrition – diets 1 (with diarrhea) and 1b (with constipation) – are energetically poor. The diet reduces the amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. At the first stage of therapeutic nutrition, products completely excluding the secretory function are completely excluded.
The diet menu for exacerbation of gastritis includes:
Cereal mucous soups-mashed potatoes on water with a gradual inclusion of milk;
Chopped lean meat (chicken, rabbit, tender veal, fish without bones) in the form of souffle and steam cutlets;
Soft-boiled eggs, omelets;
Porridge on water from crushed buckwheat, oatmeal, rice cereal;
Drinks – berry jelly, slightly boiled tea without sugar.
After removing the symptoms of exacerbation, they gradually return to basic diets with increased or decreased acidity.
The author of the article: Diet Doctor, Kuzmina Vera Valerievna, specially for the site
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