Diet with increased cholesterol – list of products
Cholesterol is an extremely controversial chemical compound. By its nature, this organic substance is a fatty alcohol. Most of the cholesterol is produced by the human body (liver, almost 75%) and in small amounts comes with food: fatty meat, etc. (of the order of 25%).
Cholesterol itself is not "bad" or "good". On the one hand, this substance participates in the synthesis of active proteins (hormones), cellular structures. On the other – excessively accumulated, begins to settle on the walls of the vessels, forming stratifications that narrow the lumen, which can cause ischemia of the organs.
Thus, both a deficiency and an excess of cholesterol are bad. But if the body is able to cope with a lack of itself, lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood requires a change in diet and lifestyle. Obviously, this is somewhat more complicated, and requires a man of remarkable volitional efforts. A diet with high cholesterol is the right choice, from our article you will learn all the nuances of a healthy diet.
List of products increasing cholesterol in the blood
To avoid high concentrations of cholesterol in the bloodstream, it is necessary to limit the intake of the following products (and in the case when the level is significantly elevated – completely abandoned):
Chicken Yolk. The greatest amount of cholesterol is contained in the yolk of a chicken egg. In 100 g of yolk is 1234 mg of cholesterol. And one yolk contains about 210 mg, while the whole egg is 212 mg.
However, the egg is an ambiguous product, because besides cholesterol in the egg there is also 400 mg of lecithin, which lowers the level of bad cholesterol in the blood. And it is just enough for the cholesterol of the yolk to not harm the body.
Liver, liver pate. Since cholesterol is synthesized by the liver, the largest amount of cholesterol in concentrated form is contained in this organ. Cholesterol contains all dishes from the liver: pates, etc. At 100 grams of the product account for up to 500 mg of cholesterol.
Fish caviar. All kinds of eggs contain a large amount of cholesterol, up to 300 mg per 100 grams.
Substitutes for butter. Recently, natural oil is replaced with margarine and palm oil. These products, although they do not abound in cholesterol, are also no less, or, to a greater extent, harmful.
Shrimp. In shrimp, the cholesterol content is large enough. According to Western sources, the shrimp contains 150-200 mg of cholesterol, and according to the domestic total 65 mg.
Fast food (fast food). It has a high fat content, in connection with which the liver has to produce a significant amount of cholesterol for the synthesis of digestive juices.
Margarine. Formally, cholesterol does not contain, because it is produced from vegetable fats. However, margarine is rich in trans fats, processing of which presents a difficult task for the liver. As a result, the body is forced to produce a huge amount of cholesterol.
Sausage products, smoked products. They contain cholesterol by themselves, and also rich in saturated fats, for the processing of which cholesterol is required.
Fatty cream. The higher the fat content of this dairy product, the more cholesterol the liver synthesizes, and the higher its concentration in the blood.
Cheese products. Cheese, although not a record for the content of cholesterol, still contains it. The highest concentration in cheeses of hard varieties.
Despite all that has been said, the question of the role of food in an overabundance of cholesterol is rather controversial. The relationship between increased cholesterol concentration in the blood and human diets is not proven. Therefore, the recommendations to refuse any food are questionable. In a healthy person, a temporary increase in cholesterol is a small problem that the body is able to cope with.
List of cholesterol lowering products in the blood
The consumption of many foods contributes to the normalization of cholesterol in the blood:
Products rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fats. If a person has an increased level of cholesterol in the blood, it makes sense to replace foods saturated with animal fats, on foods containing vegetable fats. These include, for example, sunflower oil, olive oil, avocado, etc. The use of a diet in which vegetable fats are involved, can reduce blood cholesterol levels by almost 20%.
Cereal products (bran). Despite the fact that bran is a by-product, they are a serious tool in the fight against cholesterol. The basis of the bran is fiber, which plays the role of "ballast" and prevents the absorption of cholesterol in the intestinal wall and further penetration into the bloodstream. Thanks to bran, you can reduce the cholesterol level by almost 15% (7-15%).
Flax-seed. Flaxseed has proven effective in fighting cholesterol. According to the research, only 45-50 grams of seeds per day can reduce cholesterol concentration by almost 8%, and in some cases – by 15%.
Garlic. Garlic in its raw form is an excellent help in eliminating excess cholesterol in the blood. It is able to reduce the level of this substance by almost 12%.
Peanuts (almonds). If we believe the conducted studies, the consumption of almonds has a beneficial effect on the dynamics of cholesterol in the blood. Its consumption in food helps to reduce the concentration of fatty alcohol by 8-10%.
Fruits, vegetables, berries of red color. Red plant products contain a common pigment – lycopene. It is he who gives such a color to vegetables, fruits and berries. To reveal a direct connection between the dynamics of cholesterol and the amount of lycopene consumed by scientists was not possible, but according to some data, their inclusion in the diet can reduce the cholesterol by almost 18%.
Peanuts, walnuts, pistachios. They have the ability to excrete cholesterol. However, the greatest effectiveness of their action is observed in combination with a decrease in the consumption of fatty foods that increase the level of cholesterol. In this case, nuts can reduce the indicator by 9-10%.
Barley flour, cereals. Barley is more suitable for controlling cholesterol than wheat cereals. Such results were obtained by the researchers. Barley is able to lower the cholesterol in the blood by almost 8%.
Green tea). Traditionally it was considered a useful product in the East. Although its ability to eliminate cholesterol is lower than that of other products on this list (about 4-5%), tea consumption is available to everyone.
Chocolate (dark, with a cocoa powder content of at least 70%). Like green tea, it has a minimal effect of eliminating cholesterol (4-5%). However, its consumption is not only not burdensome for a person, but also extremely pleasant.
Can you eat butter, eggs, shrimp, drink alcohol?
Is it possible to use oil with high cholesterol?
The active development of the food industry has led to the fact that even the most harmless and familiar to people since childhood, the products began to blame a high degree of harm to the body. This fate and butter did not pass by. But is a dairy product pleasant to taste and color so harmful, or is it about eliminating a "natural competitor" for the sake of synthetic spreads and margarine?
The main and only argument of the proponents of the harmfulness of the oil is its high fat content. The fat content of butter varies from 72% to 82%, which is really quite a lot.
However, focusing on this formal indicator, the opponents of oil did not take into account many other factors:
Scientific research was carried out. The scientists collected two control groups. One actively consumed butter. The other is its substitutes: spread and margarine. In the course of the experiment it was revealed that the level of cholesterol in the blood of the test subjects from the first control group was not increased, moreover, in some cases the cholesterol concentration became lower than the initial value. In the members of the second control group, the cholesterol level was higher than the initial value and above the established rate. Formally, this could not be, and the spread and margarine are made from synthetic substances and vegetable fats. However, for processing by the body, they require more strength, and, consequently, the liver has to work much more intensively and produce cholesterol;
Natural butter contains in its composition not only cholesterol, but also a substance such as lecithin. It produces the opposite effect, splitting the molecules of cholesterol and reducing its concentration in the blood. The proportional content of lecithin and cholesterol in butter is in balance, so that it can be argued that the oil has no harmful effect on the body.
Experiments were also carried out in rats. The results were identical. Butter not only does not increase, but it can lower cholesterol.
However, one must understand that we are talking about the use of butter in a fresh form, and not frying on it!
Thus, unequivocally believe the recommendations for limiting the consumption of butter is not worth it. Although it contains cholesterol and high in fat content, cholesterol is balanced with lecithin, and compared to synthetic products, oil is more familiar to the body. Therefore, it is relatively easy to assimilate. Attacks of champions of a healthy way of life in this case are untenable. However, to abuse butter is also not worth it. In everything, it is important to be guided by a sense of proportion.
Eggs raise the level of cholesterol?
Every person actively consumes eggs. Chicken egg is present on any table. However, lately there have been calls for limiting consumption of eggs, and especially zealous champions of a healthy lifestyle are in favor of a complete rejection of the egg. This position is obsolete, and the myth of the harmfulness of eggs has long been debunked.
In Western Europe and the United States at the beginning of the 20th century, studies were conducted, according to which it was found that the egg contains a huge amount of cholesterol, about 1234mg per 100 grams of product, a colossal figure. The peak of cholesterol hysteria occurred in the 70-s. In the West, the myth of the role of eggs in increasing cholesterol and the development of arteriosclerosis of blood vessels was dispelled in the 90-ies, in Russia and the CIS it exists until now.
The problem is that supporters of the cholesterol theory of atherosclerosis and the opponents of eggs do not take into account a number of important points.
They proceed from the fact that a high concentration of cholesterol is dangerous in itself and involves blockage of blood vessels with cholesterol layers (plaques). This is true, but the thesis that the higher the intake of cholesterol-rich foods, the higher the concentration of cholesterol in the blood, is erroneous.
It is important to keep in mind two factors:
Cholesterol does not exist in a free form. It is transported through the body with special proteins;
Cholesterol itself is not "good" or "bad". It becomes so only in the "bundle" with proteins.
When cholesterol interacts with transporter proteins, either low-density lipoprotein (different LDL) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is formed. Low-density cholesterol is the so-called "bad cholesterol". It is he who settles on the walls of the vessels. High-density – "good cholesterol".
It is impossible to say in which cholesterol fat will turn from a chicken egg. Here everything depends on the foods eaten at the same time. For example, fried in butter with sausage products fried eggs will contribute to the development of "bad" cholesterol. And the hard-boiled egg does not. But in this case, not everything is so unambiguous, and this statement is not an axiom.
In any case, the amount of synthesized cholesterol (even "bad") will be so small that it can not cause any serious consequences for human health.
And besides, do not forget that the eggs – a real pantry lecithin – up to 400 mg in one egg. It reduces the level of bad cholesterol and has a mass of other useful properties.
Thus, there are no restrictions on the consumption of eggs. If a person is healthy, he can eat as many eggs as he likes. Restrictions apply only to individuals who are inherently caused by a specific metabolism, as a result of which primarily "bad" cholesterol is produced. However, the number of such people is very small.
That is why all over the world, dietitians, gastroenterologists, cardiologists have excluded eggs from the list of harmful products.
How much cholesterol in shrimp?
Several years ago, the program, led by Elena Malysheva, sounded a statement about the harmfulness of shrimp. If you believe the leader, shrimps contain a large amount of cholesterol, and therefore extremely harmful to health and their consumption can cause the development of atherosclerosis.
Is this really the case? Indeed, these crustaceans are real cholesterol record holders among all seafood. The value of cholesterol concentration in them fluctuates about 190 mg per 100 grams of product. This is less than in a chicken egg, but still a lot. It does not take into account that the shrimp contains a minimum of fats and saturated fatty acids. Therefore, the synthesis of bad cholesterol simply can not.
In addition, the shrimp contains a lot of useful substances: F, K, Ca, I (necessary for normal operation of the thyroid gland), vitamins and other necessary compounds. It turns out a paradox: shrimp should be consumed, because they are very useful, but they can not be consumed, since the cholesterol content in these crustaceans is large.
To understand the topic and finally put an end to the issue of the danger of shrimp, it is worth turning to foreign experience.
By the beginning of 90-x in Western countries, cholesteric hysteria subsided, but talk about the harmfulness of shrimp began. The reason for this was the research conducted at the end of 60-x, the essence of which was the following experiment.
The control group was actively fed shrimp, every day, approximately 290 grams. As a result of the control measurements, it turned out that the concentration of cholesterol in the blood of all subjects increased. However, not only "bad" cholesterol rose, but also "good". Moreover, the "good" was almost twice as large. And this means, the risk of atherosclerosis has become slightly less, and shrimp can not cause this dangerous disease. In the experiment, 18 people took part. Of course, this control group can not be considered an absolute criterion of truth, because there is too little statistical data.
But in the West, shrimps are not considered harmful today. Indirectly, the thesis of the benefits of shrimp can be confirmed by the level of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries. So, Japan is on this indicator in the last places.
It is important to keep in mind that cholesterol in foods turns into "bad" or "good" not in itself, but under the influence of accompanying products. If the shrimp is part of any fatty dish, cholesterol is likely to transform into a harmful species. After frying in butter and when consumed with fatty products, the use of shrimp is sharply reduced, but the harmfulness becomes relevant.
Thus, the information that is transmitted from television screens is not always true. Shrimp, cooked in the best way and eaten with the "right" products, will only benefit. Frying with butter can increase the concentration of cholesterol, but in certain amounts, the use of shrimps, cooked in "harmful" ways, is permissible. It is important to know the measure.
Among ordinary people, there are two main points of view regarding the effect of alcoholic beverages on the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. Some argue that alcohol is the purest poison that helps increase the level of fatty alcohol. Others, on the contrary, are confident of the benefits of alcohol and its ability to destroy and excrete cholesterol. And the one and the other view is wrong.
When deciding the question of the effect of alcohol-containing products on the level of cholesterol, several things should be taken into account:
It is important to know what kind of alcohol is being spoken about.
It is important to consider the dosage of drinks.
Most often, people struggle with cholesterol to consume vodka, whiskey, wine or cognac. They have different composition and have different effects on the body:
Whiskey. Whiskey, prepared on the basis of malt, has a pronounced anti-cholesterol effect. The fact is that this alcoholic beverage contains a powerful antioxidant – ellagic acid. It actively struggles with free radicals and is able to excrete excess cholesterol;
Vodka. Vodka has no therapeutic effect (when it comes to cholesterol). Her consumption is not only useless from a medical point of view, but also dangerous. Often unscrupulous manufacturers use technical alcohol (methyl instead of ethyl) to reduce the cost of production (so-called "salted" vodka). Methyl is capable of causing severe poisoning, almost always accompanied by a complete and irreversible loss of vision. The lethal dose is about half a tablespoon. Thus, chasing the lowering of cholesterol with vodka, you can lose health, and even life;
Cognacs, liqueurs. Cognacs and liqueurs are rich in active biological substances. They have a pronounced antioxidant effect and can lower cholesterol;
Dry wine. Like cognac, wine has antioxidant and cholesterol effect.
Thus, of all alcoholic beverages, a more or less pronounced effect without excess harm to health is capable of rendering cognacs, malt whiskey and good wines. But their uncontrolled use brings extremely destructive consequences, and about any benefit of speech does not go. As with any medicine, it is important to observe the "dosage".
The therapeutic dose also depends on the type of drink. A fully healthy person with high cholesterol content in the blood is allowed to take:
35-45 ml of liqueur or cognac;
145-155 ml of dry red wine;
40 ml malt whiskey.
This amount should be consumed within a week, not every day. Do not forget that when taking many medications aimed at fighting cholesterol, alcohol is contraindicated. In the case of taking these drugs in parallel with alcohol, there will be no therapeutic effect, and the side effects will become much stronger.
Thus, alcohol in some doses, although it can have a positive effect on the concentration of cholesterol, resort to its reception for the sake of treatment is still not worth it.
Table of cholesterol content in food
Product type (in grams)
Yolk of chicken, 100 gram
Egg of chicken, 1 pcs.
Egg quail, 1 pcs.
Fish and other seafood:
Sour cream, 30% fat content
Cottage cheese, 18% fat content
Milk, 3% fat content
Milk, 2% fat content
Kefir, 1% fat content
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Menu diet for high blood cholesterol
A universal diet with increased cholesterol concentration in the blood is not, and can not be: the body of each person is unique and requires a special, individual approach. A competent and high-quality diet can be made only by an experienced dietitian. However, a simple person can optimize the diet on his own. This is enough to normalize the level of cholesterol, if initially it was not too high, and for prevention.
Each of the products has its own characteristics and behaves differently, getting into the human body:
Milk and sour-milk products. It is recommended to consume low-fat milk, or milk with a minimum fat content (not exceeding 1,5%). Kefir – not higher than 2%, and hard cheeses – below 35%. Sour cream and cream are high in fat, so they are generally not recommended for inclusion in the hypocholesterol diet;
Substitutes of butter (margarine, spread) is not recommended for eating;
The greatest effect in terms of lowering cholesterol is olive oil. It is recommended to include it in the diet. In small quantities, other kinds of vegetable oil (sunflower, corn, etc.) are allowed;
In the hypocholesterolemic diet it is recommended to include low-fat varieties of meat: beef, veal, poultry. When preparing it is important to cut the skin and fatty layer, because it contains most of the cholesterol, besides, fat can provoke the synthesis of its own cholesterol. In no case should one refrain from meat. The lack of adequate nutrition will inevitably lead to anemia and other unpleasant consequences. From ready-made meat products, such as sausages of sausages, should be discarded, or eat them in small quantities;
By-products accumulate a significant amount of cholesterol, so it is best to refuse them (brain, liver, etc.);
As for the bird, it is best to eat a turkey. Of all types of meat, it is the least fatty;
Fish can be eaten without restrictions. However, fish eggs are not worth it;
Eggs can also be consumed without any restrictions. However, if there were patients with cardiovascular diseases in the family, and there are suspicions of an elevated cholesterol level, it would be better to limit the amount of 4 eggs per week. This concerns the yolks. Proteins can be consumed in any amount;
A good way to reduce cholesterol in the blood will be the consumption of a large number of fresh fruits and vegetables (at least 400-500 grams per day). Grapes, beets, zucchini and eggplants are especially effective;
When using a hypocholesterolemic diet, it is recommended to eat bran and pasta. Bran and high-quality pasta are high in density and rich in fiber. Fiber will not allow cholesterol to be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and penetrate into the blood;
In moderate therapeutic doses, doctors advise drinking good drinks;
To lower the concentration of cholesterol, it is also worth using as much nuts as possible, as well as legumes. It is especially important to eat legumes (beans, lentils, etc.) in conditions of lack of protein of animal origin. Protein contained in legumes, although not fully capable of replacing animal proteins, but most close to them, so a sharp reduction in meat consumption (if any was earlier) will not become an excessive stress for the body;
Sweets, smoked products, fast food and other harmful products should be excluded from the diet until the level of cholesterol in the blood is normalized;
When preparing dishes, preference should be given to quenching and cooking. Hot – only in vegetable oil.
An approximate menu for increased cholesterol may look like this:
First breakfast: buckwheat porridge (130-150 gram), fruit (1 citrus, apple or pear), tea or coffee without sugar (can be made with honey).
The second breakfast: a salad of fresh vegetables (230-250 gram), dressed with vegetable oil or lemon juice, a glass of juice from carrots.
Lunch: 300-350 ml vegetable soup, 1-2 chicken cutlet steamed, 130 grams of grilled vegetables, a glass of citrus juice and an 1 slice of bread.
Afternoon snack: 120 grams of oatmeal and a glass of juice.
Dinner: 220 grams of fish, 130 grams of steamed or stewed vegetables, a glass of tea and a slice of bread.
Thus, a correct and rationally constructed diet plays a much greater role in controlling the level of cholesterol than selecting specific foods. By themselves, food, even being extremely saturated with cholesterol, does not always lead to harmful effects on the body. It is important to understand how they act on each other. Take into account all the subtleties can only an experienced nutritionist.
The author of the article: Diet Doctor, Kuzmina Vera Valerievna, specially for the site
Doctors speak about an increase in the level of cholesterol in the blood, when the indices exceed the norm by more than a third. In healthy people, the cholesterol should be less than 5,0 mmol / l (for more details, see the cholesterol level in the blood by age). However, it is dangerous.
Few people really know what cholesterol is. However, ignorance does not prevent the majority from considering it to be extremely harmful and hazardous to health. Cholesterol is a fatty alcohol. In both domestic and foreign medical practice, another name for the substance, "cholesterol," is also used.
On the general, household level, everyone knows that there is "bad" (or LDL-cholesterol) and "good" (HDL-cholesterol) cholesterol. Complex molecules of good cholesterol are too large to be absorbed into the tissues, they are.
Descriptions of most statins contain information indicative of the beneficial properties of the drugs. Reducing the risk of heart disease, the normalization of cholesterol, the prevention of heart attack – all these effects provide the means of this pharmacological group, if.
Good cholesterol is dense and hard, so on the contrary, like a brush for dishes, it cleans the garbage from the inner surface of the vessels. That is why it is possible to assert with assurance that negative consequences for health are caused not only by excess.
With elevated cholesterol it is very difficult to observe the usual regimen that you observed before the illness. You need to follow a certain diet, look for foods that contain special substances. Meanwhile, such products are very expensive. Medications are also not cheap, and them.
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