Diet in kidney disease is a key point in complex treatment. First of all, an important function of the kidneys is to support the homeostasis in the body, to perform the regulatory function of the acid-base and water-electrolyte balance.
The regulating function of the endocrine system of the body and the metabolic function of the kidneys can be absolutely confidently called the most important functions in the human body. As a rule, when kidney diseases occur, there is a decrease in renal excretion, endocrine disorders occur, metabolic processes are disrupted. All these pathological processes contribute to the development of nutritional imbalance. Diet with kidney disease is not only symptomatic, but also a pathogenetic method of treating kidney diseases. With kidney disease throughout the body, pathological changes occur immediately. For example, there are edemas, there is a failure in metabolic processes, the process of isolation of liquids and metabolic products is disrupted, and an increase in blood pressure is observed. In particularly severe cases, toxin poisoning is possible. From the correct and stable performance of the kidneys, timely release of metabolic products from the body, optimal water-salt balance in the body depends.
Diet with kidney disease is needed almost equally, as well as medical treatment. It is properly prescribed diet with kidney disease will contribute to a good result and effective treatment. Diet in kidney disease in each case is appointed individually and has some features that are considered by a specialist in the appointment. The attending physician and the dietitian together determine the permissible amount of fluid, salt, protein, taking into account the features of the course of the disease and the general condition of the patient.
As a rule, the set of products in dietary nutrition with kidney disease consists of fresh vegetables and fruits that have diuretic properties. For example, from vegetable crops, you can pick out cucumbers, beetroot, zucchini, pumpkin, celery root and deciduous salads. Of the fruits can be noted melons, watermelons, apricots, dried fruits, dried apricots, raisins, prunes. The technology of preparing dishes for a diet table with kidney disease also has some peculiarities. Almost all dishes of the diet table are prepared without salt and best of all on a double boiler. In especially severe cases of kidney disease, meals are prepared generally without salt. To compensate for the lack of salt and improve the taste of ready meals, nutritionists usually recommend using wine vinegar or lemon juice.
In a diet with kidney disease, fractional nutrition is important. This division or fragmentation of the total daily volume of food into five to six proportional receptions, while eliminating the overload of the kidneys and digestive system. Restriction of daily intake of liquid is one and a half liters, taking into account the liquid in the main dishes, ie in pure form of liquid you can drink up to one liter.
Nutritionists recommend a daily calorie diet for kidney disease within 3000 kcal. At the same time, the diet should be maximally carbohydrate, about 450-500 grams. Proteins are allowed no more than 80-90 grams. The maintenance of fats in dishes of a diet table should not exceed 70 grams. Diet with kidney disease involves minimal consumption of fats and proteins, and carbohydrates in the maximum amount contribute to effective treatment and good results.
First of all, a diet with kidney disease should maximize the correction of metabolic processes in the patient’s body. The degree of disturbances in renal function and the degree of severity of the pathological process are the main criteria for the appointment of dietary nutrition. Other equally important indicators of the patient’s condition are also important. For example, the presence of swelling and sickness, increased blood pressure, the level of protein in the patient’s urine, the possibility of the kidneys to secrete protein exchange products. With an increased amount of proteins in the patient’s urine, it is necessary to increase the amount of protein intake. Increased edema of the patient requires the elimination of salt from the diet. The use of liquid is usually limited.
Diet in kidney disease has some features that must be taken into account in each individual case. Undoubtedly, the appointment of dietary nutrition is carried out by a specialist.
Nutrition for kidney disease in its importance is no less important than the process of treatment itself and is its main part. In the human body, the function of the kidneys, as the main filter, is aimed at cleaning and removing from the blood excess fluid, salts, toxins. The main task of the kidneys is to ensure the optimal composition of the internal environment of the human body.
Every minute approximately one liter of blood is filtered through the kidneys, which is almost five times the weight of the kidneys! Within six hours, the whole volume of blood of the human body undergoes one cycle of filtration through the kidneys. For one day, the kidneys filter approximately one and a half thousand liters of blood. It is obvious that the daily burden on the kidneys is large enough and this process does not stop throughout the life of a person. Few people think about the important function of the kidneys. And the purification of blood from unnecessary components is not their only function. Adrenal hormones perform the regulatory function of the central nervous system and the amount of these hormones depends on the mood and disposition of the human spirit. It is these hormones that determine the susceptibility to stress and the willingness of the body to fight them. It is quite obvious that the kidney is an important organ in the body, the general condition of a person depends on their condition. Modern medical statistics indicate kidney disease in every tenth inhabitant of our planet. This sad statistics is the result of improper nutrition, consumption of poor-quality drinking water, modern lifestyle. How to avoid such statistics and what is necessary for kidney health?
First of all, to start proper nutrition with kidney disease, which excludes from the diet harmful foods, alcohol, carbonated drinks. In general, the appointment of dietary nutrition, which will be effective in each case, is possible only after a complete examination of the patient and determining the diagnosis by a specialist. The general complaint “pulls or hurts in a loin” is not the basis for the appointment of dietary nutrition. A thorough examination of all symptoms and laboratory tests is necessary. It is very important to determine the violation of the nitrogen excretory function of the kidneys. It is this moment that is usually the determining factor in the appointment of nutrition in kidney disease. In the case of disturbance of the nitrogen excretory function of the kidneys in dietary nutrition, a minimum amount of proteins is provided – the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, fatty foods is limited. The use of dairy products is also limited, but small amounts of low-fat cottage cheese and yogurt are allowed. The main diet for kidney diseases is fresh vegetables and fruits, berries, greens, dried fruits, fruit juices. At the same time, the technology of cooking must preserve vitamins and fiber in fruits and vegetables as much as possible. It is best to prepare vegetable dishes in a double boiler, minimally exposing them to roasting and heat treatment. It is recommended to use vegetables with diuretic properties, for example, watermelon, melon, pumpkin, zucchini, cucumber. The consumption of starchy vegetables is allowed in very small quantities.
Numerous scientific studies of various therapeutic diets with kidney diseases, boil down to a single statement – the use of salt in diseases of the kidney is not allowed, and to improve the taste of dietary foods, the use of lemon juice or wine vinegar is allowed. Also excluded: alcoholic beverages, coffee, tea, salty foods, chocolate and cocoa, spicy and spicy dishes.
Nutrition with kidney disease with inflammatory processes without disturbances of the excretory function, can be prescribed with the usual content of protein products, but with minimal salt intake. Protein products in this diet are lean meat and fish, low-fat dairy products. The use of dairy products gives a large amount of calcium and potassium. Carbohydrates in such a diet are presented in the form of vegetables and all kinds of cereals.
The amount of liquid consumed is about two liters. Fruit compotes and juices are necessarily included in the diet. Dried fruits in the form of raisins, prunes, dried apricots, figs are quite nutritious and provide the body with potassium. If the patient’s condition allows, perhaps, the appointment of a doctor in the watermelon, pumpkin or orange diet.
Another common kidney disease is currently kidney stone formation. As a rule, stone formation in the kidney begins as a result of disturbances in metabolic processes in the body. In the case of exacerbations and attacks of stone formation, in the kidneys there are strong painful sensations. Prevent stone formation will help a balanced diet and drinking regimen. The appointment of dietary nutrition in case of kidney disease should be entrusted to a specialist. To determine the correct diagnosis, you will need to perform laboratory tests, ultrasound. Nutrition in kidney disease, namely, with the formation of stones, provides for a limited intake of carbohydrates containing oxalic acid. Such products as beans, beets, peas, sorrel, rhubarb, parsley, spinach, chocolate and cocoa must be excluded from the patient’s diet. Nutritionists recommend eating foods that effectively remove oxalic acid from the body, thereby preventing stone formation in the kidneys. From fruits you can use quince, pears, apples, dogwood, grapes. Useful is the use of dairy products – milk, kefir, low-fat meat and fish, fresh vegetable salads from cabbage, carrots, cucumbers and mushrooms. The main condition for preventing the formation of kidney stones can be called rational balanced nutrition. It is necessary to abandon fast food, drinking alcoholic drinks, carbonated drinks. In general, to exclude a large and integral part of the harmful habits of modern man. The organism will certainly thank you for your health with a full life!
It is not superfluous to recall that nutrition with kidney disease should be discussed with a competent specialist.
Non-protein diet for kidney disease
A protein-free diet with kidney disease will significantly improve the effectiveness of the treatment course for acute and chronic diseases. Low calorie diet of this diet, also helps to reduce the total body weight. But the use of protein-free diet as a method of weight loss, can not be called correct. Weight reduction occurs to a greater extent due to a decrease in the level of fluid in the body. Long-term dietary intake with limited protein intake or combining a protein-free diet with active physical activity may lead to serious loss of muscle tissue, which will be used to fill the protein deficiency.
The protein-free diet for kidney disease, according to its nutritional value, does not exceed the daily norm of 2200 calories. The energy value of a nutritious diet for each category of patients is individual. So, for bedridden patients, it is possible to reduce the energy value to 1800 calories. A protein-free diet involves reducing protein proteins to a minimum level, namely, up to 20 grams per day. In this case, the main sources of protein proteins are products of plant origin. Meat, poultry and fish must be consumed in very limited quantities, and it is better to exclude altogether. Dairy products and eggs are also subject to complete exclusion from the patient’s diet. The carbohydrate portion of the protein-free diet menu is about 350 grams per day. Fats are recommended in an amount not exceeding 80 grams daily.
In order to prevent overload of the kidneys, the drinking regime of the protein-free diet is limited to 450-500 grams of liquid daily.
The technology of preparation of protein-free diet consists of boiling, steaming, stewing, but not frying or baking in the oven. Dishes should be as easily digestible, without the use of salt.
The basic nutritious diet of protein-free diet with kidney disease can be represented by a small list of allowed products and a fairly large list of products that are restricted to consumption. Let’s start with the list of allowed products. From bakery products can be salt-free bread. The use of dairy products is possible in minimal quantities and very limited. Vegetables can be used almost any and in fresh form and as ready meals. It is best to cook vegetables for a couple or to boil, long-term suppression and frying of vegetable dishes is not allowed. From vegetables it is possible to prepare various soups-mashed potatoes, vegetable side dishes and many other dishes. You can also use almost any fruit in fresh form and all kinds of dishes from them, for example, jams, jams, puddings, fruit jellies and mashed potatoes. From fats, you can use vegetable oil, and ideally, olive is better, of course. Now consider the list of restrictions. So, from the diet of protein-free diet, bakery products with the content of eggs and salt, melons and legumes, seafood and fish of all kinds, meat and poultry are completely excluded. It is not recommended to use cottage cheese and cheeses, all kinds of curd and cheese desserts, any pastry, cakes, cakes, chocolate and dishes from it, milk soups, first dishes based on any broth. You can not eat salty foods and dishes, smoked meat and fish products, canned foods, seeds and nuts. The use of various margarines, refractory fats and oils, culinary mixtures is excluded for the preparation of dietary dishes.
As a rule, protein-free diet lasts no more than ten days, during which it is necessary to comply with bed rest and physical activity is not allowed. The total daily volume of food should be consumed in equal parts five to six times a day. The diet and beverages of the protein-free diet are regulated by a dietitian individually, based on the results of tests and the general condition of the patient. It is not superfluous to recall that the use of protein-free diet to reduce excess body weight, can cause protein starvation and other undesirable complications, so its appointment is carried out by a specialist if necessary. A protein-free diet significantly limits the nutritional diet, thereby helping to improve the metabolism of protein proteins, but this process does not need to be delayed. The protein-free diet for kidney disease is used as an effective element of the treatment course for chronic glomerulonephritis with kidney failure, acute and severe forms.
Diet in chronic kidney disease
As a rule, chronic kidney diseases occur as a consequence of prolonged flow of pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, glomerulonephritis and arterial hypertension. The excretory function of the kidneys gradually decreases, toxins and toxins accumulate in the body, which provoke the development of general weakness and painful condition, headaches. The effectiveness of the course of treatment is significantly increased when the patient adheres to a diet for chronic kidney disease.
The diet for chronic kidney disease, above all, is necessary to limit the use of protein protein and has several fundamental principles that we will consider. So, from the diet are generally excluded salt and spices, chocolate and cocoa and various dishes, and desserts from them. Strictly limited to eating foods containing phosphorus and potassium. The daily quantity of the liquid is limited to 1,5 liters. The principle of fractional nutrition will be actual – up to five times a day. Caloric content of a daily diet should be at least 3500 calories.
The process of protein protein metabolism contributes to the formation of urea and creatine, which, due to kidney diseases, are not withdrawn from the body in a timely manner. Restriction of protein intake helps to prevent possible intoxication of the body and reduce the burden on the kidneys. The diet for chronic kidney disease limits the daily protein rate within 50 grams. The main source of protein, with it, will be lean meat and poultry, low-fat cottage cheese and eggs. Vegetable proteins, for example, soy, peas, beans are completely excluded. For a general idea of the amount of protein in foods – one egg contains about 5 grams of protein. The same amount of protein is contained in 200 grams of potatoes, 25 grams of raw meat, 35 grams of cottage cheese or 20 grams of cheese.
With chronic kidney diseases, the salt balance is disturbed and as a result salts accumulate in the body, provoking puffiness at the same time. Therefore, a diet for chronic kidney disease excludes the use of salt. Preparation of dietary meals without salt is the main principle of dietary nutrition in chronic kidney diseases. Salt can be consumed in an amount of no more than 2 grams per day apart from main dishes. At the same time, various vegetable salting, marinades, meat and fish smoked products, canned foods, as well as bakery products of industrial production with the content of eggs and salt are excluded from the diet. Excessive phosphorus content provokes accelerated excretion of calcium from the body, it is for this reason that fish and fish products, seafood, cheese, liver, legumes and nuts are excluded from the patient’s diet. Maintaining the optimal balance of microelements will ensure the restriction of the use of products containing potassium, for example, dates, tomatoes, mushrooms, dried apricots.
The diet for chronic kidney disease is quite caloric and this is a very important point. This is due to the limited amount of protein proteins in it and lack of calories, the body will start using muscle tissue to ensure its own vital functions. Accordingly, the effectiveness of the diet in this case will be zero. Caloric content of dishes can be increased due to carbohydrates, for example, in pasta, cereals, vegetable dishes, fruits and berries. From the diet it is necessary to exclude fish and meat broths and dishes based on them. It is recommended to use vegetable soups, mashed potatoes, vegetable side dishes cooked for a couple or boiled. Of fats are recommended to eat vegetable and butter. From sweets and desserts you can marmalade, marshmallow and pastille, jam and jams. It is very important to observe the principle of fractional nutrition, this will avoid excessive stress on the digestive system of the body and kidneys. The amount of fluid used in the initial stages of chronic kidney disease should be greater than the desired amount and is approximately 1,8 liters. In the future, the amount of liquid must be reduced to 0,8 liters. In chronic kidney diseases, very carefully eat watermelons and melons, because of the high content of potassium in them. For the purpose of minimal irritation of unhealthy kidneys, it is recommended to season dishes of dietary nutrition with cinnamon, dried dill, lemon juice. At the same time, the dishes are not subjected to long heat treatment, as a rule, steaming, cooking or quenching is used. Otherwise, the technology of preparing dishes for dietary nutrition in chronic kidney diseases has the same principles and concept as with kidney disease in general.
Diet recipes for kidney disease
Any organ of the human body has in its work periods of active activity and periods of work with minimal intensity. The kidneys are no exception. That is why, diet recipes for kidney disease should be calculated for consumption in the morning, up to about 13 hours. In this period of time, the most intensive work of the kidneys is observed.
Diet recipes for kidney disease in this period of time, usually consist of the main dishes of the dietary table, for example, the first breakfast can consist of oatmeal, low-fat cottage cheese, jam and sweet tea. The second breakfast can consist of an omelet, a small piece of low-fat meat or poultry, a small portion of buckwheat porridge, fruit juice. For lunch it is recommended to have vegetable soup or vegetarian borscht, boiled potatoes, boiled lean fish, fruit compote. At mid-afternoon snack in the form of dried fruits – dried apricots, prunes, raisins and a glass of wild rose broth with honey. For dinner, you can eat one rice cutlet with raisins and jelly. One and a half hours before bedtime, you can drink one glass of fruit juice with vanilla croutons.
In the second half of the day, the activity of the kidneys gradually decreases, and consequently, with therapeutic nutrition, the food should correspond to the physiological state of the kidneys at the given time of day. It is best to eat vegetable and fruit juices, fruits in fresh form or in the form of dishes and desserts. In general, diet recipes for kidney disease basically contain the predominant majority of vegetable and fruit dishes. Do not forget about exceptions, for example, radish, garlic, spinach, cauliflower, celery – are excluded from the patient’s diet. The first dishes of the diet with kidney disease are presented in a rather wide variety of vegetable soups, pureed, cereal and pasta, which are prepared exclusively without meat or any other broth. The second dishes can be prepared from low-fat meat, poultry, fish, for example, in the form of steam cutlets or bits, boiled meat. The main food in the diet with kidney disease can be called porridge, in any form. It can be rice, millet, oatmeal, wheat, with the addition of meat or fruit. Desserts and fruit purees are prepared from seasonal fruits. It can be fruit smoothies and jelly, kissels and puddings.
Menu diet for kidney disease
The diet menu for kidney diseases is made by a dietician, according to the recommendations of the attending physician and depending on the general condition of the patient. As a rule, the diet menu for kidney diseases consists of light meals, which help to minimize the burden on the diseased kidneys and digestive system. Basically it’s vegetable dishes and dishes from different groats.
The menu of a diet for kidney diseases for a week approximately consists of such dishes:
- For breakfast – milk porridge from rice, cheese with raisins, tea with honey;
- For the second breakfast – cottage cheese pudding, decoction of rose hips;
- For lunch – vegetable soup-puree, boiled meat, compote;
- For dinner – steamed fish cutlets, curd casserole with pasta, a glass of low-fat milk;
- Before going to bed – a glass of kefir;
- For breakfast – buckwheat porridge with milk, carrot chops, tea with honey;
- For the second breakfast – boiled fish and mashed potatoes;
- For lunch – vegetarian borsch, meat boiled poultry, compote of apples;
- For dinner – meat casserole, cottage cheese with sugar, tea with milk;
- Before going to bed, a glass of curdled milk;
- For breakfast – vinaigrette, boiled fish, cottage cheese with sour cream, a glass of tomato juice;
- For the second breakfast – cottage cheese casserole;
- For lunch – milk soup with vermicelli, rice with boiled veal, cherry compote;
- For dinner – potato casserole, oatmeal with fruit;
- Before going to bed, a glass of curdled milk;
- For breakfast – milk porridge from rice, cheese with raisins, tea;
- For the second breakfast – cottage cheese casserole;
- For lunch – vegetable soup, boiled meat with buckwheat porridge, compote of apples;
- For dinner – steamed cutlets from fish, pasta from a pasta, a glass of milk;
- Before going to bed – a glass of kefir;
- For breakfast – vegetable pilaf, cottage cheese with sour cream, fruit juice;
- For the second breakfast – cottage cheese, kefir with sugar;
- For lunch – vegetable soup with chicken, veal boiled, apple compote;
- For dinner – curd casserole with rice, decoction of rose hips;
- Before going to bed – prunes, dried apricots, raisins;
- For breakfast – milk porridge from buckwheat, boiled beets, decoction of rose hips;
- For the second breakfast – mashed potatoes with boiled fish;
- For lunch – vegetarian borscht, boiled meat, fruit juice;
- For dinner – meat casserole, tea with honey;
- Before going to bed – a glass of kefir;
- For breakfast – milk porridge from semolina, tea;
- For the second breakfast – vinaigrette, oatmeal porridge with fruits, milk;
- For dinner – potato soup, boiled meat, fruit jelly;
- For dinner – curd casserole, apple pancakes, compote;
- Before going to bed – a glass of yogurt.
This diet menu for kidney diseases is advisory in nature and can be changed or supplemented by a dietitian.
What foods can you eat with kidney disease?
The key moment in dietary nutrition in kidney diseases can be called limited consumption of protein and salt in the diet of the patient. Consequently, the caloric content of the dishes of the therapeutic diet is achieved through the carbohydrates contained in vegetables, cereals and pasta. Protein is a necessary nutrient for the human body and can not be completely excluded from the diet. When dietary nutrition, the use of low-fat meat, poultry and fish is allowed within 100 grams daily. There are lean meats just necessary, best in boiled form in small pieces. The carbohydrate part of the diet consists of various vegetable dishes, for example, soups-mashed potatoes, vegetable side dishes, which are cooked for steaming or boiled. Vegetables can be used almost any kind of fresh or cooked dishes, except spinach, celery and radish. From bakery products you can use salt-free bread with bran, gray from the flour of coarse grinding. It is possible to use low-fat lactic acid products, cottage cheese. Fruits and berries are recommended, as well as various dishes from them. For example, all kinds of fruit purees, smoothies, juices, jams, jams.
If there are no obvious contraindications and on the recommendation of the attending physician, with kidney diseases it is very effective to spend unloading days, during which various vegetables, juices, fruits are used. In a fruit-free day of 300 grams of seasonal fruit, for example, apples, pears, apricots, watermelons, melons, is consumed five to six times a day. You can add a little honey or low-fat yogurt. At the same time, do not forget about the danger of starvation with kidney disease. Remember that the daily caloric intake should not be less than 3500 kcal. In diseases of the kidneys, the number of spicy dishes and spices decreases significantly, with the aim of minimizing the irritation of the kidneys. In small quantities you can eat cinnamon, bay leaf, onion.
An exemplary menu of therapeutic nutrition for kidney diseases includes the first dishes in the form of vegetarian soups and borscht, soups, mashed potatoes, second dishes in the form of steam cutlets, meat or fish, low-fat meat or poultry. Garnish can be both in the form of pasta, and in the form of cereals. Desserts can be from fruits and berries, for example, jelly, kissels, smoothies, fruit mixes. Separately, you can use dried fruits – raisins, dried apricots, prunes, figs. It is also very useful to eat fresh fruits and berries. As drinks it is recommended teas, fruit and vegetable fruit drinks or juices, broths of black currant or dogrose. Drinks before consumption must be diluted with boiled water in the ratio of 1: 1, this will reduce the burden on the kidneys.
Depending on the nature of the course of the disease, the attending physician and dietician determine what foods can be eaten with kidney disease, individually in each case.
What foods can not be eaten with kidney disease?
This list is quite large. That is why proper nutrition significantly speeds up and increases the effectiveness of the therapeutic process. We will begin this large list with protein products. So, from the diet of the patient completely eliminated all types of fatty meat, poultry and fish, including pork, beef and mutton fats. Also, broths cooked on the basis of meat, poultry, fish, mushrooms, legumes are completely excluded. All foods and dishes with a high salt content, for example, vegetable pickles, canned products, all kinds of meat and fish smoked products, sausages, spicy dishes, adzhika, mustard, bitter pepper, garlic, onions are subject to exclusion. This list can be continued indefinitely, but the main principle of exclusion is all products that can irritate diseased kidneys or increase the burden on them. It is unacceptable to use various desserts and creams based on butter, cakes and cakes, chocolate and cocoa, foods and dishes based on them. The use of carbonated drinks, strong coffee and cocoa is also excluded. All foods and dishes with a high salt content and having properties to irritate sick kidneys and stimulate their work are excluded. During the treatment period, it is necessary to ensure the most gentle diet, with the aim of minimizing the impact on diseased kidneys.