What is urolithiasis?
The pathology of metabolism, characterized by the presence of stone or stones in the kidneys and urinary tract, is urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is associated with the formation in the urinary organs, mainly in the kidneys, of salt “stones” – uric acid, oxalic acid, phosphoric acid.
Causes: metabolic disorders, malnutrition, overeating, lack of vitamin A food and an excess of vitamin D, infectious and other diseases of excretory system.
In any case, nutrition with urolithiasis should be aimed at eliminating foods that promote the formation of stones from the diet.
Given that kidney stones can have different origins, a diet with kidney stones can contain a different set of products. They are selected strictly individually.
Diet for kidney stones
Diets are made taking into account the peculiarities of metabolism, the chemical composition of stones and the reaction of urine.
- the restriction of nutrients from which sediment or stones are formed in the urinary tract;
- change due to the nature of feeding the urine reaction (urine pH) in the acidic or alkaline side to prevent deposition and better dissolution of the salt sediment;
- abundant intake of fluid to remove sediment salts from the urinary tract.
In diets, mainly with uraturia and phosphaturia, individual food groups are limited or increased. This makes it difficult to meet the body’s need for all nutrients, and the monotonous reaction of urine that emerged can contribute to the formation of salts of a different composition.
Diet with urolithiasis is prescribed to ensure a gentle nutrition for the kidneys, promotes the removal of various metabolic products from the body. Compliance with the diet provides for the exclusion from the diet of products that include purines, oxalic acid, limits salt intake, increases the amount of free liquid (if there are no contraindications) and alkaline products (vegetables and fruits, dairy products). In addition, with the diet decreases the intake of proteins and fats. It is mandatory to boil meat, fish and poultry, cooking food and the temperature of food is normal. When cooking, half of the contained purines remain in the broth, so do not consume broths. After boiling, the bird, fish and meat can be used to prepare a variety of dishes (fried, stewed, baked), chopped products. Meat and fish can be combined in approximately equal amounts. Dishes from these foods should not be included more often than 2-3 once a week. The portion of meat should not exceed 150 g, fish – 17 g. The diet is 5 once a day. Instead of a mid-night snack, a broth is recommended.
Chemical composition of the therapeutic diet
– 70 g proteins, 50% of which are of animal origin and predominantly dairy;
– 80 g fats, 30% of which are vegetable;
– 350-400 g carbohydrates, of which 80 g is sugar;
– 1,5-2 L and more fluid.
The energy of this diet is 2400-2600 calories.
Meat, poultry, fish are interchangeable. Milk – 0,5 l, meat – 120 g, unsalted cheese – 30 g, one egg, 6 slices of bread, half a cup of cereals, 1 serving of potatoes, 3 and more servings of vegetables, fruit and juices (optional), sugar or jam less than 4 tea spoons, butter – less than 2-teaspoons, optional weak tea, coffee.
Bread, flour products
We recommend the consumption of wheat and rye bread from first and second grade flour, various pastries, including the addition of ground bran.
Consumption of dough products is limited.
Vegetarian soups are allowed: borsch, soup, vegetable soups, soups with cereals, cold soups, milk fruit soups.
Soups are prohibited on meat, fish and mushroom broths, with the addition of sorrel, spinach and legumes.
Meat, poultry, fish
Therapeutic diet allowed the consumption of low-fat species and varieties. Maximum 3 times a week you can eat for 150 g cooked meat or 160-170 grams of boiled fish. Boiled meat, poultry, fish can be used for cooking stews, fried, baked dishes, as well as dishes from cutlet mass. It is allowed to combine meat and fish in equal quantities.
Do not eat kidneys, liver, brains, tongue, meat of young birds and animals, sausages, smoked foods, salted fish, canned fish and meat, caviar.
You can consume milk, sour milk drinks, sour cream, cottage cheese and curd dishes, cheese.
Salted cheeses are forbidden.
It is allowed to eat one egg a day, cooked in any way. It is better to eat chicken or quail eggs.
You can eat any food in moderation.
The consumption of legumes is forbidden.
Recommended use in increased amounts, raw and cooked in any way. Potato dishes are allowed.
Not allowed to eat mushrooms, fresh beans, spinach, rhubarb, sorrel, cauliflower, portolac. The number of salted and pickled vegetables is limited.
Therapeutic diet is recommended salads from fresh or pickled vegetables, fruit salads, vinaigrettes, vegetable caviar (squash, eggplant).
Prohibited salty snacks, smoked dishes, canned food, fish caviar.
It is recommended an increased amount of fruits and berries, fresh and cooked in any way. You can use dried fruits, milk creams and kissels, marmalade, pastilles, non-chocolates, jam, honey, meringues.
Do not use chocolate, figs, raspberries, cranberries, cowberries.
Sauces and spices
The sauces are allowed on vegetable broth, tomato sauce, sour cream, milk sauces. You can use citric acid, vanillin, cinnamon, bay leaf, dill, parsley.
Sauces cooked on meat, fish or mushroom broths are forbidden. Do not use pepper, mustard, horseradish.
You can drink tea with lemon, with the addition of milk, a weak coffee with milk, fruit and vegetable juices, fruit drinks, water with juices, kvass. Useful broths of dog-rose, wheat bran and dried fruits.
Prohibited cocoa, strong tea and coffee.
Examples of the diet menu for kidney stones:
Breakfast: cottage cheese, bread with butter, vinaigrette (sour cream dressing), tea with milk.
Lunch: eggs, porridge from buckwheat, juices.
Afternoon snack: soup (vegetarian) with roasted roots with sour cream, fried potatoes, sauerkraut, meat cooked in breadcrumbs, compote.
Dinner: vegetable cutlets, cottage cheese, pasta casserole, jelly.
At night: milk with a bun.
To drink on an empty stomach a broth of a dogrose (100 ml) or warmed up mineral alkaline water.
First breakfast: oatmeal in milk (liquid) 150 g, milk 200
The second breakfast: grape juice (200 ml).
Lunch: mashed vegetable soup (150 ml), milk jelly (180 ml).
Snack: a glass of carrot juice.
Dinner: rice porridge on milk (liquid) 150 g, fruit compote (180 g).
In the evening: a glass of kefir.
At night: a cup of unsweetened tea diluted with milk.
First breakfast: vegetable salad with butter, soft-boiled egg, apple-carrot pudding from wheat cereals, tea.
The second breakfast: infusion of a dogrose.
Lunch: milk soup with vermicelli, cutlets from potatoes, kissel.
Supper: cabbage rolls with vegetables and rice, tea with baked syrniki.
Before going to bed: a decoction of wheat bran.
First breakfast: soft coffee, salad of apples and beets with sour cream.
The second breakfast: fruit fresh, fried eggs with tomatoes.
Lunch: vegetable stew with boiled beef, okroshka, tea with lemon.
Afternoon snack: berry compote.
Dinner: salad with fresh vegetables from potatoes, cabbage casserole with sour cream sauce, tea with milk.
At night: boil wheat bran, strain. Drink half the glass.
The first breakfast: broth of a dogrose, a beet salad with prunes.
Second breakfast: soft coffee, soft-boiled egg.
Lunch: pasta with cheese, oatmeal soup, carrot cutlets with sour cream, tea (lemon is not forbidden).
Snack: a glass of fruit juice.
Dinner: prunes, in the oven baked with cottage cheese, vareniki with cottage cheese, dog-rose decoction.
We recommend a simple unloading day on cottage cheese: 5 once a day for 100.
The first breakfast: vinaigrette with butter, oat milks porridge, coffee with milk.
The second breakfast: compote berry, omelet with apples.
Lunch: beef stroganoff from beef (boiled), beetroot, cabbage stew, fruit jelly.
Snack: fruit (fresh).
Dinner: cheese curd, beets stuffed with rice and apples, broth of wild rose.
Diet with oxalate kidney stones
There is a strong excretion in the kidneys of oxalic acid, which means that it is necessary to limit the use of its rich products: milk, lettuce, oranges, spinach, potatoes, sorrel. In addition, you should take 2 g of magnesium carbonate daily, because magnesium binds oxalic acid salts in different parts of the intestine.
The patient should limit the use of cocoa-containing products, as well as strong tea, lettuce leaves, black currant fruits, dairy products in the form of cottage cheese, cheese and milk, strawberries, citrus fruits, nuts.
When calcium oxalate stones should be excluded salad, sorrel, spinach, reduce the consumption of carrots, potatoes, dairy products, cheese, chocolate, black currant, strawberries, strong tea and cocoa.
It is forbidden to eat smoked meat, fish and meat canned food, jellies, fish broths and broths, internal organs, chicken, veal and fatty meat, fried potatoes. It is necessary to reduce the intake of vitamin C in the body, so you should not be addicted to citrus. Of fruits, vegetables and herbs you can not eat – radish, Brussels and red cabbage, beets, asparagus, parsley. Do not eat – pepper, rhubarb, lettuce, sorrel, spinach. Green beans, celery, red currants, gooseberries, plums, cranberries. From drinks – coffee, bread kvass, strong tea, cocoa and tomato juice.
It is allowed to consume white cabbage and cauliflower, fruit soups and on vegetable broth, bread, boiled fish and meat. And also fruit and berry juices, mixed berries and fruits, apples, watermelons, boiled potatoes, cucumbers and turnips. With calcium stones, sick people need to reduce their milk and milk products (yoghurt, cheese, milk) in their diet.
Diet with urate stones in the kidneys
It is not recommended to eat foods rich in animal protein, as well as alcohol and coffee. When cooking, give preference to non-fried and non-sharp dishes.
Limit products that will promote the formation of uric acid in the body. It’s brains, meat broths, liver, kidneys. In the diet should limit vegetable fats, meat and fish. It is necessary to take freshly prepared solutions of citrates, they interfere with the salts to crystallize and dissolve the salt of uric acid. With stones in the kidneys, you can not drink grapefruit juice.
You can not eat foods that are rich in purines:
- Snack canned food (herring, sprat, sprats, cod liver, sardines), meat and fish broths.
- Internal organs of animals (heart, kidneys, udder, tongue, brains, liver), restrict meat and fish.
- Pickles and smoked products, spices, spicy soups, decoctions of bones. Also jellies, meat soups, pates, liver sausage.
- Products from greens and vegetables – Brussels sprouts, soybeans, beans, sorrel, spinach, asparagus and celery, grapefruit, cauliflower.
It is allowed to eat foods that have alkaline properties – bread, except baking, eggs, cereals and pasta, cottage cheese, dairy products and milk, vegetable and butter. Also allowed to eat – berries, fruits, greens. Vegetables: cucumbers, pumpkin, carrots, white cabbage. To reduce the concentration of uric acid salts, you need to consume up to 3 L of liquid. In fresh lemon juice contains a lot of citrates, it is recommended to drink it.