Liver diseases are widespread at the present time, which is caused by the growth of medicinal, viral or toxic effects on the organ. Chronic hepatitis are the most common among liver diseases. In 60-70% of patients with hepatitis there may be no complaints, and pathology is detected accidentally upon detection hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver) and changes in liver samples. In some cases, the debut of the disease is decompensated cirrhosis of the liver (manifested ascitic syndrome, bleeding from the enlarged veins of the esophagus).
What kind of diet should be observed in these diseases? Diet with liver disease in the acute period should be as gentle as possible. The purpose of this diet is to shake all the digestive organs – not only the liver, but also the stomach and pancreas. This is achieved using only boiled (steam), wiped dishes: twisted meat, chicken, fish, boiled vegetables, boiled semi-liquid porridge. Passeding, stewing and frying, vegetables in raw form are excluded.
Eating in an acute period contains:
- Reduced amount of refractory fats and salt.
- Increased amount of lipotropic products (cottage cheese, buckwheat, whey, buttermilk).
- Soups, cooked on vegetable broths with cereals and fried vegetables. To refuel soups, vegetables can not be fried. Allowed soups, mashed potatoes. Season soups with butter, sour cream, milk or cream.
- Stale wheat bread (I and II grades) and uneaten biscuits.
- Low-fat meat and fish in a boiled and steam form and only chopped meat products, fish can be eaten with a piece.
- Steamed, buckwheat, rice, oatmeal and oat flakes, from which porridges are cooked on the water (you can add milk). Porridge rub to a semi-liquid consistency. Allowed thin boiled vermicelli and small pasta.
- Low-fat dairy products, bold cottage cheese (natural and dishes from it). Milk and butter – only in dishes. Sour cream is used as a seasoning for dishes.
- Protein Omelettes.
- Vegetable oil (in ready-made meals and only with good tolerability).
- Vegetables (potatoes, cauliflower, pumpkin, carrots and beets) are boiled and ground.
- Ripe, sweet fruit in its raw form is consumed only by mashed, baked and boiled.
- Tea with lemon, tea with milk, rose hip, water without gas.
List of Prohibited Products
- refractory fats, spices, spices, marinades and pickles, canned food;
- coarse fiber (legumes, rutabaga, nuts, seeds, mushrooms, white cabbage), vegetables with essential oils (radish, onion, garlic, onion, radish);
- fatty meat, offal and fatty fish;
- confectionery products with cream, black bread, buns, millet;
- coffee, ice cream, chocolate, cocoa;
- egg yolks;
- sour fruits and berries, vegetables and fruits in raw form;
- alcohol and drinks with gas.
The same diet should be followed and hepatic colic after an arrest of an attack. Bile (hepatic) colic is a manifestation of cholelithiasis, when for some reason there is a movement of stones, contraction of the gallbladder, accompanied by a sharp bout in the right upper quadrant. Provoke colic can fried, fatty or spicy food, overeating, stress, exercise or shaking.
In the future, with hepatic colic for their prevention, it is necessary:
- Exclude from the diet products that enhance bile secretion or severely restrict them (raw egg yolk, vegetable oils).
- Do not eat greasy fried foods and alcohol.
- Spicy spices and dishes, marinades.
- Enter into the diet more fiber (vegetables, bran, fruit).
- Use sour-milk products, which, like vegetable food, contribute to the alkaline reaction of bile, and this prevents further increase in stones.
- Drink 1,5-2 a liter of water to dilute the bile and prevent its stagnation.
After the operation on the liver (about the injury, removal of the tumor, etc.), only on the second day in the diet, low-fat kefir, tea, kissel – in small portions (up to 0,5 glass) every 3 hours.
On the third day, meals are allowed in divided batches (100-150 g) to 8 once a day. It can be mashed potatoes, mashed soups and mashed boiled fish, diluted juices (apple, pumpkin) and tea. After a week include mashed porridge (buckwheat, oatmeal), boiled meat (scrolled or whipped in a blender, cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt and vegetable purees). Then the patient is assigned Diet No. 5A on 2 month with the transition to the fifth table.
After that, to restore the liver for a long period (up to six months or permanently, depending on the condition), Table No. 5 is recommended, it is prescribed after the transferred viral hepatitis, it is the main food for chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis without exacerbation. Despite the fact that the patient’s condition is satisfactory and complaints are often absent, this treatment table also provides for the shaking of the liver, but moderate. It provides for the unloading of fat and cholesterol metabolism and stimulation of the intestine.
Diet for the liver, which can not be eaten
- fatty fish and meat;
- canned food, smoked products, sausages;
- Spicy spices and sauces, marinades on vinegar;
- bean vegetables and vegetables with a high content of essential oils (radish, all kinds of radishes, garlic and onions in raw form);
- cakes, cakes, fatty milk and cream, fried pies, buns;
- dishes cooked by frying.
In addition to the main products provided by this dietary table, which will be discussed below, you need to include daily food products useful for the liver:
- Vegetables and fruits, leafy greens. Among the vegetables can be distinguished pumpkin, pumpkin juice and dishes from it. It is an easily digestible vegetable, and due to its high content vitamin E, which promotes digestion and digestion of food, it discharges the liver.
- Cauliflower, Brussels and broccoli contain sulfur, which contributes to improving the detoxification function of the liver. They are also rich vitamin K, which is necessary for its normal operation.
- Beets and carrots are rich beta-carotene, from which the body synthesizes vitamin A, improving the excretion of free radicals. Other substances of beet and carrots dilute bile, improving excretion toxins.
- All fruits contain antioxidants that prevent oxidation and damage to cells. The maximum amount of antioxidants contain black currant, sweet pepper, dog rose and citrus.
- Sea kale, which contains a large amount of iodine and salts alginic acid. Alginates bind chemical compounds and salts of heavy metals.
- Artichoke – normalizes the outflow of bile and reduces the level cholesterol.
- Low-fat dairy products (kefir, fermented baked milk, acidophilus, natural yoghurt). They heal the microflora of the intestine and to some extent remove harmful substances from the body. Curd contains lipotropic substances, so it is very useful for these diseases.
- Cereals (buckwheat and oatmeal) are characterized by a high content of vitamins of group B and PP, necessary for the liver.
- Cold pressed oils (olive, hemp, linseed) – their usefulness lies in the high content of antioxidant vitamin E и omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin E promotes the preservation of cell membranes and protects cells from death. In addition to vegetable oils, its high content in walnuts, chokeberry, sea buckthorn and blackberries.
- Dried apricots containing potassium and magnesium, reduces the risk of liver cancer.
- Honey – activates the production of bile and helps restore liver cells.
- Walnuts containing amino acids arginine, contribute to reducing the number of toxins, are also rich in fatty acids omega-3, necessary to maintain the function of this body.
- Compliance with drinking regimen is equally important for improving liver function – toxins are released with water.
Adding lemon juice, grapefruit juice to the water improves the detoxifying ability of the body and improves the processes of its self-cleaning. Lemon juice stimulates the production of bile, from which toxins are released into the intestines.
In the diet make adjustments if there are signs of stagnation of bile: restrict sugar and inject more vegetables, fruits, vegetable and fruit juices, as well as vegetable oils. The total amount of fats under this condition increases slightly, but due to vegetable.
When cirrhosis occurs with ascites, recommended a diet of reduced energy value (up to 2000 kcal) containing protein 70 g and not more than 0,5 g salt. All dishes are prepared without salt. The use of salt-free bread and butter is allowed. Reduce also the amount of liquid and introduce potassium-containing products (dried apricots, prunes). Food should be predominantly vegetarian. It is advisable for a few days (before 10) to transfer the patient to a salt-free diet.
Nutrition for a sick liver includes:
- Soups on vegetable broths (cereals, vegetables, with vermicelli, borsch, soup, dairy). Vegetables for soups do not passer, but are laid in kind.
- Wheat bread (stale) up to 500 g per day. Rye bread is allowed (if the patient tolerates it well), dry biscuit, uneatable and low-fat cookies.
- Meat beef, rabbit, chicken and veal. They are first boiled, and then you can bake. It should be remembered that dishes from a twisted minced meat are easier to digest and reduce the burden on the stomach.
- Low-fat fish and fish baked with vegetables.
- Cereals are different in the form of cereals and casseroles with cottage cheese and vegetables.
- Low-fat dairy products: kefir, acidophilus, bifilife, yogurt, bifid, bifidum-kefir. When flatulence, liquid stool, their use is limited.
- It is recommended daily use of not very fat cottage cheese (preferably natural) and in dishes.
- Milk and sour cream should be used as an additive to dishes.
- Eggs – up to 3 pieces for a week, omelets or soft-boiled eggs. The amount of yolks is limited only for zhkb.
- Vegetables in baked and stewed and fresh. Tomatoes are consumed in limited quantities due to the possibility of heartburn, tomato paste is not allowed.
- Salads from fresh vegetables, which the patient tolerates well, with the addition of vegetable oil, homemade salad caviar, peas puree. From spices – cumin, bay leaf, dill and parsley.
- Meat, fish and vegetable dishes can be served with sauces (sour cream, vegetable and dairy), excluding mushrooms and cooked on broth.
- Fruits and berries are allowed only non-acidic, they are consumed fresh and processed (compotes, mousses and kissels).
- Sugar, marmalade, caramel, iris, marshmallow, honey, (1-2 tsp), jams. Sugar is replaced with xylitol (partially).
- A small amount of nuts (peanuts are excluded).
- Butter and vegetable oil is allowed to be used in ready meals, their heat treatment is excluded.
- Tea (not strong), vegetable juices, coffee with milk (not strong), infusion of dogrose, table water without gas, broth of wheaten bran.