Urolithiasis disease (urolithiasis) is a metabolic disease and is manifested by the formation of stones in any organs of the urinary system: the kidneys, ureters or the bladder. The probability of urolithiasis in people increases hormonal imbalance, hereditarily caused metabolic disturbances, nutrition of the patient, as well as available anatomical abnormalities.
Diet with urate stones in the kidneys (uraturia)
The indicator of purine metabolism in the body is the concentration of uric acid in the blood. Purines are synthesized in the body, and also come with food. The consequence of violations of this exchange is an increase in the level of uric acid. The salts of uric acid found in urine are called urates.
The main reasons for its occurrence are:
- abuse of food rich in purines;
- abundance in the diet of high-calorie foods and fatty foods;
- malignant neoplasms;
- destruction of tissues.
RџSЂRё uraturia the patient’s diet should be aimed at reducing the level of uric acid. The diet is characterized by the restriction of products containing purines (meat, offal), oxalic acid (sorrel, radish, spinach, raspberries, cauliflower, asparagus, cranberries) salt. At the same time, the share of alkaline products (vegetables, milk, fruits) and the amount of liquid in the ration are increased.
Urat in urine should be excluded:
- Canned fish.
- Meat and poultry of young animals, by-products, in view of the large content of purines. Limitedly allowed to eat meat of age-old animals – these dishes are included in the diet no more than 2 once a week. Portions of meat to 150 g, and fish – 170
- Meat broths, smoked meat dishes.
- Sprouts of cereals.
- Cheeses, strong tea, chocolate, alcohol.
- Eggs, mushrooms, tomatoes, beans.
- Limit flour and various confectionery.
The basis of the diet is milk, sour-milk products and vegetables, berries, fruits (seaweed, pumpkin, cabbage, grapes, apples, all citrus fruits, figs, bananas, raisins, currants, gooseberries, cranberries, strawberries, cherries). Patients periodically should carry out courses of the use of diuretic grasses: clover, cornflower, burdock and dandelion roots, infusions of dried apricots, blueberries, bones, apples, mountain ash, barberry, carrots, pumpkin, parsley root, beets. Promote the removal of stones decoctions of leaves of grapes and black currants. In the season you need to use these berries as much as possible.
Culinary processing of meat and fish products has features – they must be boiled, and only then used for cooking various dishes. When cooking 50% purines go and it can not be used in any case. Meat, poultry or fish, devoid of purine parts, can be stewed, baked, grinded for stuffing or fried.
Cereals are an integral part of the diet
Duration of observance of such nutrition – from several months to a constant. The patient should drink 2,5 l of liquid per day (alkaline mineral water, natural juices) and once a week to spend unloading days – kefir, curd, fruit, dairy.
Increase in phosphate levels is caused by consumption of milk, kefir, cottage cheese, fish, seafood, fish eggs, oatmeal, pearl barley and buckwheat. The reason for the precipitation of these salts is the alkaline reaction of urine and a high content of calcium in it. The appearance of calcite phosphate stones is detected when hyperparathyroidism.
With phosphaturia, products containing calcium and phosphorus are sharply restricted. It is recommended to use liquid up to 2-2,5 l. In the presence of hypercalciuria appoint diphosphonates. Increase the acidity of urine can be the use of acidic juices and mineral waters.
RџSЂRё of pregnancy there is a secondary phosphaturia associated with changes in diet and alkalinization of urine. If the urine becomes even slightly alkaline (pH > 6,0), a precipitate of phosphates precipitates. This is promoted by a diet rich in green vegetables and dairy products. It is necessary to repeat the urine tests in the dynamics and only after repeated changes are diagnosed with ultrasound and a more detailed examination of the kidneys. Usually the phosphaturia in pregnant women is adjusted by diet.
Normal fluid intake (2 L per day) is necessary if this is not contraindicated due to the presence of edema and high blood pressure. From the diet are temporarily excluded:
- products rich in calcium: dairy products, eggs, cocoa;
- salty and spicy foods (salt restriction up to 8 g per day);
- vegetable greens (salad, chives, dill, parsley, celery and cilantro leaves);
- nuts, cocoa;
- sweet confectionery (biscuit, cakes, cakes);
- fruit juices;
Urine acidification is facilitated by:
- meat and fish dishes;
- acidic fruit drinks (from cranberry, currant, cowberry);
- compotes of dried fruits;
- Birch juice;
- groats products;
- bread with bran;
- consumption of pumpkin, asparagus, Brussels sprouts.
Quite often occurs phosphaturia in children. Until 5 years, these salts are present in the urine in the form of amorphous crystals, which give it a hazy color. Their appearance is associated with a large consumption of dairy products in this at this age. Often, crystalluria is transient and appears on the background of ARVI and other diseases, disappears after the recovery of the child.
For more serious violations (Dismetabolic nephropathies) there is a lesion of the renal tubules due to metabolic disorders. Dismetabolic nephropathies are characterized by urine oversaturation and crystalluria.
True phosphaturia occurs in diseases that are accompanied by a violation of phosphorus and calcium metabolism at hypercalciuria. The crystals in this case are represented by calcium phosphate. Chronic infection of the urinary system is the cause of secondary phosphaturia. In this case, microorganisms possessing urease activity are important. They decompose urea, alkalinize the urine, which leads to the formation of crystals of amorphous phosphates (salts of magnesium phosphates).
With all these factors in mind, adjustments are made to the diet:
- Products with a high content of oxalic acid are excluded: rhubarb, figs, sorrel, spinach, beans, chocolate, parsley, celery. The moderate content of this acid is found in tea, chicory, carrots, green beans, onions, beets, tomatoes, plums, strawberries, gooseberries.
- Limited use vitamin C with products: grapefruit, strawberry, lemons, sea-buckthorn, gooseberries, currants, oranges, tangerines, wild rose, cranberry, mountain ash, wild strawberry, wild garlic, Bulgarian pepper.
- A large amount of plant fiber is introduced.
- Observed abundant drinking regimen, which prevents the precipitation of calcium oxalates in the sediment (3 l per day). Water alternates with the use of juices (cucumber and other fruit and vegetable), compotes, fruit and vegetable broths. Weak solutions of organic acids (malic, citric, benzoic and others) contained in them, can dissolve oxalates.
- The alkalinization of urine is carried out using mineral waters.
Diet in women with urolithiasis
For women, it is also important:
- to fight with hypodynamia and lead an active lifestyle;
- do not allow weight gain;
- consume enough fluids;
- Do not overcool and treat inflammatory diseases of the genito-urinary tract in time.
All these factors contribute to stone formation.
With pyelonephritis and urolithiasis
In this case, a more rigorous approach is required for both treatment and therapeutic nutrition. Pyelonephritis is often a complication of urolithiasis. Mandatory antibiotic therapy is carried out based on the sensitivity of pathogens to antibacterial drugs. It must be remembered that only removal of the stone creates conditions for the complete elimination of the infection.
Patients are shown a diet, which is adjusted to the composition of the stones. In the presence of inflammation, dietotherapy is aimed at shaking the kidneys, so it is forbidden to eat: spices, pickles, spicy foods, smoked products, marinades, horseradish, mustard, vinegar, fish eggs, onions, garlic, alcoholic beverages.
Features of nutrition are a significant salt restriction (1,5 g-5 g), depending on the state of kidney function. It is not allowed to take sodium (salty) medicinal waters.
RџSЂRё uraturia products of dairy and vegetable origin are recommended:
- Vegetables are all, except for legumes and high in oxalic acid. Eggplants, sweet peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers. When possible, vegetables should be eaten raw before meals.
- Enrich the diet with foods rich in vitamin A (broccoli, sour cream, sea kale and other algae) and groups in (nuts, corn, dogrose, oatmeal, barley cereals, cabbage, pomegranate, Bulgarian pepper, oranges, grapefruits).
- Fruits with a high content of vitamin C: sea-buckthorn, dog rose, lemon, currant, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, strawberry, grape juice.
- Any cereals.
- Milk, cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, butter.
- Any bread – rye, bran and wheat. It is better to eat bezdrozhzhevuyu baking.
- Dishes from low-fat meat and fish can be eaten no more than 3 once a week. When choosing meat, consider that chicken legs have more purines than in breasts, just like in pork ham. In the meat of turkey purines less than in the hen in 4,5 times. All meat or fish dishes are pre-cooked to reduce the purine content, and then they are already cooked at their own discretion: bake, fry or stew.
- Vegetarian vegetable and cereal soups.
- Two eggs a day, protein omelets – the protein does not contain purines.
- From sweets – jelly, jam, sugar, honey, caramel, marshmallow, pastille. Chocolate is excluded.
- Before going to bed, drink 1 a glass of liquid (decoction of bran, juices, water with lemon or other citrus, herbal tea, kefir).
- Observed milk-vegetable (“alkaline”) diet. Recommended regular use of products rich in calcium – dairy products (sour cream, sour-milk products, cottage cheese).
- To reduce the level, you need to eat foods rich in vitamins B1 и V6. It’s eggs, meat, liver. Fish, meat and poultry should be low-fat varieties (boiled or baked).
- Wheat and rye bread.
- All cereals.
- Vegetable oil and butter.
- The ration is enriched with products rich in magnesium: oat porridge, buckwheat, pearl barley, wheat bran, seafood, sea kale, coarse bread, dried apricots, oatmeal, peas, soy, radish. Magnesium ions bind up to 40% oxalic acidin urine with formation magnesium oxalates, which dissolve well. The lack of magnesium is manifested by the formation of calcium oxalate.
- Colored and white cabbage, potatoes in any form, aubergines (in moderation), carrots, pumpkins, cucumbers, green cilantro.
- Apricots, bananas, pears, prunes, grapes, apricots, apples, watermelons, melons, peaches, quince, dogwood. The excretion of oxalates is promoted by apples, pears, quince, broths of currant leaves, pears and grapes, and decoctions of fruit peels. To alkalize urine, you need to eat dried fruits.
RџSЂRё phosphaturia shows food with a predominance of meat and flour dishes:
- Any fish, fried fish snacks, soaked herring, and also in small quantities and infrequently – canned fish.
- Meat, poultry in any cooking.
- Pasta and dishes from unleavened dough.
- Any bread and flour products.
- Soups with a weak broth with croup, macaroni, egg dressing.
- Fats, except refractory.
- Enrichment of the diet vitamin A: liver of animals, birds, cod liver and halibut, fish caviar, butter.
- Introduction of additional quantity vitamin D: tuna, salmon, pink salmon, fish caviar.
- From dairy products only sour cream in a small amount for refueling.
- A variety of porridges cooked on the water.
- One egg a day.
- Vegetables are excluded, but you can pumpkin, green peas, Brussels sprouts and mushrooms, vegetable juices are excluded.
- Sour varieties of apples, compotes, jelly from them, cranberries, cranberries, red currants.
- You can drink loose tea and coffee, but without milk, cranberry and cranberry morsels, broth of dogrose, bread kvass.
- Confectionery, sugar, jam and honey.
Totally or partially limited products
Nutrition for kidney stones caused by kidney stones urate should not contain:
- Meat products and canned meat. Animal protein is limited. Red meat of young animals is excluded, since it contains the greatest number of purines.
- Dishes from carp, halibut, sardine, tuna, sea bass, mussels and herring, the use of canned fish is excluded.
- Any broth – in rare cases you can use a secondary broth.
- Beef and pork fat.
- Vegetables rich in oxalic acid (radish, spinach, cauliflower, sorrel, asparagus, cranberries, raspberries) and pickled vegetables.
- Soups made of spinach, sorrel and beans.
- Legumes and mushrooms (white and champignons).
- Groats of oatmeal and white rice.
- Cheeses, chocolate, cocoa, red wine, tea and coffee – they are also rich in purines.
- Confectionery products, brewer’s yeast.
- Spicy snacks and spices.
- Dried fruits (you can prune).
RџSЂRё oxalaturia excluded or restricted:
- Products with oxalic acid.
- Studen and gelatin-containing dishes.
- Sprouted grasses.
- Fatty grades of meat and fish. Low-fat meat and fish dishes can be up to 150 g per day.
- Soups, cooked on strong broths and containing legumes.
- Cocoa, bread kvass, coffee, chocolate.
- Limit the use of potatoes, beets, tomatoes, onions, carrots, aubergines, zucchini, Brussels sprouts, beans, tomatoes and tomato juice, celery, parsley, rhubarb.
- Salted cheeses, canned food, smoked products.
- The use of milk and fermented milk products is limited.
- Products made of dough.
- The products with vitamin C are reduced: lemon, grapefruit, currant, dogrose, oranges, mountain ash, strawberries, gooseberries, Antonov apples, cranberries, tangerines, dill, ramson, sweet pepper.
- Limitation of salt to 3-4
- Calcium-containing products (milk, cottage cheese, cheese), sesame seeds.
- Greens and vegetables (you can sprout Brussels sprouts and peas).
- Spicy dishes, smoked products, sauces.
- Nuts, cocoa.
- Sweet yeast baked goods.