Gallstone disease: symptoms, treatment and diet during an exacerbation
Gallstone disease (SCI) is characterized by the formation of various stones and stones (stones) that are localized in the gallbladder and bile ducts. The development and progression of the disease is determined by malnutrition, sedentary lifestyle and genetics. Getting rid of stones without surgery is not easy and it takes a while. However, a special diet helps to eliminate negative manifestations of the disease and significantly improve the condition of the patient's body.
LCD makes itself felt not immediately. If the stone is localized directly in the gallbladder, and not in the duct, then the patient may not experience any manifestations. According to statistical data, about 70% of patients no complaints are presented in the first few years of the disease development. Then there are diarrheal disorders.
The first signs of the disease, which need to pay attention – bitterness and dry mouth, nausea, discomfort in the right upper quadrant. In addition, the patient may be burdened by eructations, attacks of heartburn, unstable stools and bloating. In women, signs of SCI are characterized by increased pain on menstrual periods. This form of the disease can last several decades and is accompanied by attacks of biliary colic in the absence of adequate treatment.
Paroxysmal colic often occurs due to inaccuracies in the diet, when a person consumes a significant amount of heavy food. The patient feels a cutting pain in the right hypochondrium, which can give into the collarbone or right arm. The patient has nausea and vomiting, which does not bring relief.
If this does not happen, the bile ducts are blocked, and there is a risk of such pathologies as subhepatic jaundice.
Methods of treatment are selected depending on the severity of the course of the disease. Most doctors try to stop on conservative treatment, since the operation can lead to negative consequences for the general condition of the human body. If the therapeutic treatment is ineffective, then the specialist decides on the surgical intervention.
Treatment of cholelithiasis without surgery is possible only if the size of the stones is not more than 3 cm. Based on the research, a number of treatment methods have been developed that include lithotripsy and drug therapy:
- Lithotripsy (crushing) is a procedure that does not require skin damage and is used to crush gallstones.
- Drug therapy – treatment of the disease with the help of medicines. When the pathological process is exacerbated, intramuscular injection of a 1% solution of Drotaverin or Platyfilin is indicated. In the treatment of chronic disease, the most commonly used group of drugs are antispasmodics.
A key role is played by diet compliance, which sometimes acts as a full-fledged treatment for cholelithiasis.
LBC is one of those pathologies in which it is important to adhere to special dietary rules. According to the recommendations of specialists, there is a need for small portions of 5-6 once a day. Frequent meals favorably affect the work of the gallbladder, contribute to the uniform and timely separation of bile. Also, fractional nutrition positively affects the functions of the digestive tract and promotes the effective assimilation of useful elements.
The rules of therapeutic nutrition:
- Most dishes should be served in a crushed form, as this can reduce the burden on the gallbladder, and it does not produce excess bile, which leads to colic and spasms.
- The food should be medium temperature, not too hot or cold. Otherwise, it irritates the walls of the stomach and activates the bile formation.
- It is important to choose predominantly light and low-calorie foods, and foods high in cholesterol should be excluded from the diet in order to stop the process of stone formation (many gallstones consist of cholesterol).
- All foods should be baked without crust, cooked or steamed. Sometimes it is permissible to extinguish. To fry products it is forbidden, as thus there are oxidized fats, which aggravate the course of cholelithiasis. Fruits should only be ripe. Before use, they must be cleaned from the skin.
- It is necessary to drink at least two liters of free liquid per day. This makes it possible to remove toxins from the body and "dilute" the bile.
The content of nutrients that must be present in the daily diet:
- Proteins are 90 gram, half of them are of animal origin;
- Carbohydrates – 325 gram (not more than 70 grams of sugar);
- Fats – 75 grams, of which up to 30 grams of plant origin;
- Cooking salt – up to 10 grams.
The energy value of therapeutic nutrition is an average of 2 250 calories per day. Nevertheless, once a week it is recommended to spend unloading days on kefir, apples, cottage cheese and cucumbers, to give a rest to the gall bladder.
Features of the diet during an exacerbation
When exacerbating the CLS in the first day, a refusal of food is recommended so that the gall bladder does not suffer a load. Experts recommend to use only liquid: broth of dogrose and sweetened tea. Fasting with exacerbation of cholelithiasis is easy, since the body regulates recovery processes on its own.
On the second day, it is recommended to add rice soup and mashed potatoes to the menu. In the next few days, you can have everything that is allowed for cholelithiasis, but with some limitations: the diet completely eliminates meat and reduces the amount of salt intake to 8 grams. When the condition improves, you can again consume lean meat.
- At 1-th breakfast – pumpkin casserole, compote;
- For 2 breakfast is oatmeal;
- Lunch – lean borsch, broth of wild rose;
- Snack – crunches, juice;
- Dinner – salad with grated carrots and other vegetables, a piece of boiled meat, kefir.
- At 1-th breakfast – semolina porridge, egg white omelet, jelly;
- At 2-th breakfast – baked apple;
- For lunch – half a portion of vegetarian soup from vegetables and rice, buckwheat porridge, boiled chicken breast (no more than 120 g), fruit jelly;
- For dinner – mashed potato, boiled fish, green tea;
- For 3 hours before sleep, you can eat a little cottage cheese.
The third option:
- At 1-th breakfast – protein omelet, juice;
- At 2-th breakfast – low-fat cottage cheese, tea;
- Lunch – carrots and mashed potatoes, soup from any cereal;
- Snack – grated apple;
- Dinner – boiled fish, vegetable ragout, tea.
Careful adherence to the diet for exacerbation of cholelithiasis can significantly reduce the risk of surgery, and also allows you to stop the formation of concrements.
Features of the diet in chronic form
Especially important is the strict adherence to dietary rules for chronic HCC because of the risk of exacerbations and pain. First of all, therapeutic nutrition facilitates the burden on the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract. At the same time, it ensures the functioning of the whole organism.
It is also not recommended to eat foods that irritate the digestive tract and increase gas formation in the intestine. It is necessary to limit the amount of simple carbohydrates in the diet that provoke stagnant processes in the gallbladder and increase the level of "bad cholesterol".
The effectiveness of bile separation is enhanced if the nutrition menu includes a large number of vegetables in combination with vegetable oils. For the full functioning of the internal organs, the intake of protein proteins is necessary. These nuances are important to take into account in the process of compiling a diet for chronic liver disease.
Difference between diet for women and men
It is important to note that nutrition for cholelithiasis in men and women is no different, except for the average daily number of calories. The whole point is to observe the same principles of nutrition and to include only a strictly limited list of acceptable foods in the diet.
Diet for patients with CSF completely excludes from the diet products such as:
- Smoked meat, sausages and sausages;
- Black coffee and carbonated drinks;
- Fatty sorts of meat;
- Meat and fish broth;
- Milk with a high percentage of fat;
- White and Brussels sprouts;
- Fatty varieties of fish, salted fish;
- Radish and radishes;
- Rhubarb, onion and garlic;
- Alcoholic beverages;
- Fresh white bread;
- By-products and corned beef;
- Millet, barley and pearl barley;
- Spinach, sorrel, parsley, thyme, basil;
- The dough is good;
- Fish and meat canned food;
- Fast food (French fries, hamburgers, etc.);
- Unripe fruit with sour taste;
- Fried cakes;
- Mushroom soup and okroshka;
- Marinades based on vinegar;
- Sauces based on fat (mayonnaise, etc.);
- Yolk and fried eggs (high concentration of cholesterol);
- Ice cream, chocolate, oil creams.
It is allowed to eat with LCD:
- White breadcrumbs, biscuits, crackers, yesterday's bread;
- Egg white as steam omelettes;
- Black rye bread;
- Low-fat meat (chicken, beef, veal, rabbit);
- Bananas, sweet pomegranate and sweet apples;
- Vegetarian soups;
- Fruit compotes;
- Mousses, puddings, marmalade, jelly and kissels;
- Mannoy, rice, oatmeal, buckwheat, millet;
- Green, black, herbal tea;
- Alkaline water (for example, Borjomi);
- Broth of dogrose, various juices;
- Limited amount of cheesy cheeses;
- Enriched with pectin vegetables – pumpkin, carrots and beets;
- Starchy vegetables – potatoes, cucumbers, Bulgarian pepper, zucchini.
- Iodine-containing seafood – shrimps, oysters, sea kale;
- Olive oil and vegetable oil (in small quantities);
- Boiled pasta;
- Low-fat fish;
- Low-fat cottage cheese, kefir, skim milk;
- Sugar is best replaced with xylitol or sorbitol, but consume no more than two tablespoons per day.
Herbal teas are allowed, but they should not be abused. It is important to remember that medicinal herbs are taken by courses. Their frequent use on a daily basis can seriously damage health. Take this drink only when necessary.
The consequences of a diet violation and the results of its compliance
Neglect of the rules of special food contributes to the appearance of colic and exacerbation of the disease, which can lead to surgery. Also, the development of complications such as:
- Mechanical jaundice;
- Perforation of the gallbladder;
- Necrosis of the gallbladder, peritonitis, abscesses;
- Duodenal ulcer.
Special nutrition with LCD normalizes the level of cholesterol concentration in the blood, prevents the appearance of new stones and improves the functioning of the intestine. In addition, the gentle nature of the diet allows the gallbladder and pancreas to function optimally, helps to lose excess pounds, promotes the growth of useful microflora and "dilutes" bile. Rich in vitamins and microelements, nutrition increases immunity, normalizes sleep and prevents exacerbation of the disease.
On dietary nutrition in cholelithiasis in the following video:
Strict adherence to diet with cholelithiasis will almost completely heal. As you managed to notice, the special diet is different. After some time in the absence of disease progression and positive tests, you can return to normal diet.
All these diets only relieve the pain. But they do not cure. People, with relief, begin to delay treatment to the doctor, thereby delaying the illness. Do not expect the stones themselves will not come out.
Crushing – the procedure is very expensive and quite unsafe, as it may seem. The stone is crushed into sharp fragments, which, advancing to the ducts, can damage them, so it is possible to reach the operating table. It is best to drink drugs like Ursosana, which dissolve these stones. And as for the diet, here comes the table number 1, which I adhere to for a long time. At first, nothing at all did not eat anything with fats, 2 weeks sat on crushed porridge (oatmeal, buckwheat, semolina on water), excluding lentil and pearl, which cause flatulence, boiled potatoes and pasta without anything. Plus crackers, compotes, herbal teas. Then slowly vegetable mashed potatoes began to eat, ground cottage cheese. I drank cholagogue and Odeston. And then, when the exacerbation has passed, it has become more or less normal to eat. And then the typical error of patients – we all are afraid of fat. It turns out that you can not give up fat completely, because when they do not enter the body, bile stops standing out and stagnating again. consequently, new stones are formed. Therefore, a salad with the addition of 5 grams of vegetable oil is mandatory. But animal fats do not need to be consumed, they are more difficult to digest and digested. And more – for the prevention of stone formation, it is necessary to eat often and fractionally and not to sit on lean diets, at the same time, do not consume too much fat.
Hey. I even did not know that there are such drugs for slimming, and it's very good to make them in syrups, pills, tablets.
And women also 3-4 times a week doing exercises?
Exercise for stretching is only for those who are professionally engaged in their body for example bodybuilders.
Kiwi used to be like a fairy fruit, now it is sold in every grocery store. Very good.