General physical training: for those who do not chase mass and relief

The correct training program will help you to get a good physical shape to mobilize the energy reserves of the body and increase resistance to stress. This article is about how to strengthen health through exercise. We will review the training programs, the "five pillars" of fitness and much more! Go.

Author: Mike Mahler

Some amateurs of iron sport strive to develop maximum strength and musculature; others are interested in the relief of muscles. But most people are "up to the bulb". When I am asked to consult in choosing a training program, I always ask the person about his goals. In 90% of cases, it all comes down to improving the physical form.

Many trainers, including me, are puzzled by this answer. He is too vague. We need specificity. After all, how else can you develop an individual training program – for example, to lose weight on 15 kg or to increase the result in deadlift for 25 kg?

The fact is that most people look at training a little easier. Often, fitness instructors believe that ordinary visitors to gyms should treat the training as seriously as possible. This is mistake.

We need to build on not how people should train, but on how they train and what goals they set for themselves. And most people have only one goal – to improve their health, bring themselves in shape and strengthen their health. To achieve this goal contributes to a comprehensive program of general physical fitness.

What is "general physical training"?

This question can be answered in different ways. For some people this is the ability to run a cross not less than 3 km. For others – squeeze 100 kg in bench press with the perfect technique.

Any of these answers may be correct, but let's look at fitness from the point of view of an ordinary person: a good physical form is a level of development of strength that allows you to perform routine tasks. That is, you should be able to transfer suitcases at the airport or throw hand luggage on the top shelf in the train.

Or you should have enough strength to carry the packages from the supermarket to the car. A trained person will not puff like a locomotive, climbing the stairs several floors.

For people who seriously engage in power sports, such indicators are not something outstanding. But this article is not aimed at serious "pumping", but on ordinary people who want to strengthen their body.

An effective training program will help you find a good physical shape to mobilize the energy reserves of the body and increase resistance to stress. Moreover, properly selected exercises contribute to the development of serotonin (the "happiness hormone") – as a result, your health will improve significantly.

So, we got a general idea of ​​what will be discussed in this article. Now let's look at five key elements of general physical training:

First of all, consider such an element as force. From the point of view of the modern way of life, the development of strength interests us for two reasons. First, to be able to pick up objects from the ground: heavy boxes, bottles of water, bags with food, etc.

Secondly, to lift items over your head: throw the bag on the top shelf in the train, put a heavy pot in the upper compartment of the sideboard, etc. If a person can not perform such simple things, then the quality of his life leaves much to be desired.

The two main exercises that develop strength in these areas are deadlift and dumbbell presses standing. Progress in these exercises demonstrates the development of the muscular strength of the whole organism.

Having mastered the technique of deadlift, you will learn how to properly lift objects from the ground. You will find out the width of the legs to lift the load from the waist. In addition, you can strengthen your back muscles.

In many people, the dorsal muscles are poorly developed, which is the cause of frequent pain. A person begins to avoid exercises on the back – and this is a big mistake. It is necessary to strengthen the muscles and develop strength, and not to indulge their weakness.

The deadlift is a pledge of a strong loin and strong back as a whole. Exercise teaches the body to work as a unit and involve the maximum amount of muscle fibers to resist the load. In addition, the deadlift thrust well develops the muscles adjacent to the hip joint. No fashionable exercises can be compared in effectiveness with the deadlift in terms of creating a strong back.

The draft can be made with any weighting: dumbbells, weights and even sandbags. However, from the point of view of complex development of force, the most effective deadlift with the bar is the most effective.

Beginners should start with an empty 20-kilogram (or lighter) neck. Experienced athletes can load on the bar weight more than 200 kg, with a gradual increase. This is the best projectile for the development of power.

Next, go to the bench press of standing dumbbells. If the bar is such an effective projectile, then why does standing press recommend performing with dumbbells? The fact is that for a bar press, you need either a power frame or a rack – so that in the initial position the neck is at the chest level.

Quality squats for squats cost a lot of money. This is a great sporting equipment for professional siloviki, but in ordinary fitness they are rarely used.

There is another way to "deliver" the bar to its original position – an exercise called lifting the bar to the chest. Of course, on light scales you can use the usual lifting of the bar to the biceps with a back grip. However, sooner or later the weight of burdening will increase; throw the bar on his chest in this way it will be hard (and traumatic).

For those who do not know what "lifting the bar to the chest", I will explain: this is an exercise in which it is necessary to lift the bar from one platform to the level of the racks by one quick movement. A very good exercise, but it requires good coordination and many years of practice.

Those who disagree with this statement usually use bad technique or, worse, teach the bad technique of others. Yes, experienced athletes or professional bodybuilders are able to learn the technique of any exercise in a short time. A normal fitness lover does not work out that way. In addition, injury is not part of the general physical fitness program.

Again, in order not to complicate things, we will use dumbbells. Moreover, beginners can start with a press of dumbbells with one hand. In this case, both arms are used to raise the projectile to shoulder level. So you can lift even a very heavy dumbbell.

We look further. If you are able to squeeze an 35-kilgorammovuyu dumbbell, then, of course, you have enough strength to take it on the chest with both hands.

Dumbbell wrestling with one hand allows you to get rid of the imbalance in the development of muscles – here the difference in strength between the right and left hand immediately becomes obvious. To maintain balance in the dumbbell bench press, the trunk muscles are used with one hand (and this is an additional plus).

Now supporters of minimalism will decide that for development of strength it is enough to have only two mandatory exercises in the arsenal, but . this is not so. In the long term, this approach does not work. Stand presses and deadlift are excellent exercises for developing strength. But they can not be limited to them.

Take, for example, baseball players – they are not only playing baseball to keep their form. In fitness everything is exactly the same: you should perform different exercises for the proportional development of muscles and prevention of injuries (which are unavoidable with an unbalanced training program). Fortunately, the list of recommended exercises is not too long.

You need to focus on five areas:

I usually call these directions "five pillars" of strength training. In order for the training program to be balanced, take one exercise from each group and perform them in two to three sets three times a week. For example, you can conduct complex training on all parts of the body on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays.

Looking at these "five pillars", men are most likely looking for barbell lifts to the biceps, and women – exercises for the buttocks. I can only say one thing – while I get paid for instructing in power training, you continue to wonder why the circumference of your biceps barely passed beyond 30 cm after many years of "bombing" your hands several times a week.

Doing a lot of isolating exercises is the wrong way. Serious results can provide only basic exercises. Men, your hands and so on receive a tremendous load in pressures, pull-ups and pulls; they grow from such exercises. Women, your quadriceps, hamstrings and buttocks are maximally involved in squats and deadlifts. Why do you need isolation exercises?

In strength training, performing basic exercises is the most effective technique. This is especially true for ordinary fitness enthusiasts who have not the slightest desire to spend their entire life in the gym.

Below is an example of a strength training program in the framework of general physical training:

  • Execute the A-1 approach, rest one minute, then execute the A-2 approach. Rest for one minute, then again start approaching A-1. Carry out the required number of approaches.

The above program is one of the options. You can limit, for example, two days of strength training (Monday and Thursday) or perform each exercise in three approaches. Or you can focus on the upper body on Monday-Thursday and at the bottom of Tuesday-Friday.

In any case, you should start from the indicated training program, if you have a goal to improve the overall physical form. It is necessary to do the program for four weeks, after which you should change the number of repetitions or choose other exercises.

Now let's look at an element of the general fitness program like cardio training: aerobic exercises are necessary for strengthening the heart, increasing lung volume and improving blood circulation, and for developing endurance – you do not want to be a guy who has great strength, but can not climb fifth floor without elevator.

There is a huge selection of cardio exercises. Preference should be given to the one that most likes. For many, the 30-minute session on the exercise bike seems to be a boring exercise.

That's why there is a skeptical attitude towards cardio-training, because this kind of physical activity is associated with something tedious and monotonous. But you can organize everything differently. If you like tennis, let it be your cardio exercise (three lessons per week will be enough). Swimming or walking is also an excellent option for cardio-therapy (similarly – three classes per week).

Unfortunately, life is arranged in such a way that we do not always get to do what we like. However, the choice of aerobic exercise is huge. Take, for example, athletic walking. Legendary athlete Steve Reeves, a great fan of sports walking, made his career at a time when all the bodybuilders could boast of a good physical shape.

Turn on the player's favorite music and go for an 30-minute walk. Control the distance – in the next lesson, your goal will be to go for a longer distance in a similar period of time. If you are confused by the classic (slightly ridiculous) style of athletic walking with big steps and sweeping movements of hands, you can use a waistcoat with weights.

Weighted 20-kilogram waistcoat will turn the usual walk into intensive cardio. Whatever option you choose, you need to increase the load gradually. It is also desirable to buy a pair of quality sneakers for walking.

If you prefer to perform cardio exercises in the room on the simulators, pay attention to the interval training. This type of physical activity – also known as "high-intensity cardio training" – not only strengthens the heart, but also provides effective fat burning along with time savings (less than twice as fast as conventional cardio training). Try this technique; in twenty minutes you will become her supporter.

The meaning is this: first a five-minute warm-up is held at a moderate pace, after which the pace is sharply accelerated for 30 seconds, and then slows down for 90 seconds. Intervals "acceleration-rest" need to be repeated ten times. Complete the training should be a five-minute hitch to normalize the heart rate.

When the body adapts to the load, begin to shorten the rest time in each interval – for example, after 30 seconds of acceleration, 50 seconds of a moderate pace follow. You should strive to ensure that over time the periods of acceleration and rest are equal – in 30 seconds.

There are other variants of interval training, including a rope or a cycle of exercises with own weight (push-ups, squats, jumping out of squat, jumping in place). Do not always do the same thing all the time! Change the exercises to make the workouts fun.

For example, on Tuesdays you can go to the pool, on Thursdays – go in for athletic walking, and on Saturdays – perform a cycle of intensive training at home. The most important thing is to have three cardio workouts a week. Then you are guaranteed improvement of the cardiovascular system and development of endurance.

There is also a large number of interesting training programs aimed at developing endurance and general strengthening of the body, such as the program 100 push-ups, 200 press and 200 sit-ups.

3. Mobility of joints, flexibility and balance

Then we have mobility of joints, flexibility and balance. In the elite division, many athletes work with weights over 300 kg in bench press, but can not reach the fingertips on their legs. In terms of general physical fitness, this situation is not normal.

Of course, no one requires stretching from you, like a circus acrobat, but you need to have a certain level of balance, mobility and flexibility. The ability to reach the toes of the toes is a simple but effective way to determine flexibility.

Outcome: if you can not reach your fingertips, slightly bending your knees, your muscles and joints are too tight. If you can not stand on one leg for thirty seconds, you need to develop a balance.

Finally, the ability to linger at the bottom of the deep squat (without a bar) for thirty seconds indicates a good mobility of the joints. These minimum standards of mobility, flexibility and balance are indicators of the general level of physical development of any person.

Some people need to work hard to learn how to comply with these standards. And others possess such innate flexibility that one can only envy. In any case, I advise you to include in the program of general physical training stretching exercises, as well as perform them in the morning after getting up from bed.

One of the best exercises for the development of mobility of joints are Hindu squats. Exercise improves leg flexibility and circulation.

It is recommended to begin the exercise with 25 repetitions. To get the most out of Hindu squatting, try to breathe deeply: an intense breath when climbing from the squat and exhalation when lowering down. Deep breathing contributes to the production of epinephrine – the "happiness hormone" – which strengthens the lungs and relieves stress.

There is another good exercise for improving blood circulation and developing flexibility – mahi weight. Take light weight with both hands; Take her back between her legs and perform a sweeping move forward with the projectile raised above her head. Do 25 reps for warming up and stretching muscles. If you do not have a weight, you can use a dumbbell.

Do these exercises regularly to have good flexibility. And it happens that a person gets up from bed, breakfasts (sitting), goes to work (sitting), and then spends the whole day in front of the computer (also sitting). Sounds familiar?

I often work at home, and my "way to the office" runs from the bedroom to the living room where the laptop is. As a result, I came to the conclusion that in the morning you need to drink a couple of glasses of water, walk the dog, and then perform several stretching exercises – then the whole day feels vigor and desire to work. I do not accept when a person sleeps eight hours in a row, wakes up, goes to work and there again sits all day in one place; you need to constantly move and do something.

Exercises for the development of mobility and aerobic exercise can be performed in the morning. With strength training a little different. As a rule, in the morning muscles and joints are slightly restrained – it is better to postpone the power load to a later time. Exercises for the development of mobility can also be performed immediately before the power trainings.

What about stretching? I would recommend doing stretching after power and aerobic training. Muscles will be warmed up, will become more flexible. The effectiveness of stretching will increase, and the risk of injury will be reduced. At the end of the article, examples of stretching exercises are given, which can be included in the general physical training program.

To develop balance, you need to stand on one leg (both on the right and on the left): at first, at least thirty seconds. Over time, the duration of the exercise should be increased, trying to reach one minute or more. After this, you can proceed to doing the exercise with your eyes closed: starting at thirty seconds and trying to reach ninety.

Undoubtedly, it is impossible to build a program of general physical training on strength training alone (without cardio exercises and exercises for the development of flexibility / mobility). We must focus not only on the strength of the muscles, but also on the normal work of the heart / joints. However, the physical aspect of health is only part of the equation. Let's move on to the next "pillar" of fitness, i.e. to nutrition.

Training will never work if a person does not eat well. Of course, even the most inveterate sweet tooth can maintain a normal body weight, if for half a day will be held in the gym. But between the "slender" and "healthy" you can not put an equal sign.

Random diet violations are allowed if there is a proper strength training program. In his remarkable book, "Cheater's Diet," Joel Marion writes that a one-off diet violation for a week helps increase the body's level of leptin, a hormone that regulates energy metabolism.

Great news – not only can you get away from the diet once a week, but you also need it! Remember, it's about one day, not all seven. The remaining six days we must follow the recommendations of Ori Hofmekler, the author of the book "Anti-estrogenic diet", to eat the lower links of the food chain.

This means that you should lean on fruits and vegetables with a low glycemic index: berries, tomatoes, oranges, apples, spinach, peppers, broccoli, cauliflower, etc. This means that we should get protein from beef and dairy products, beans, nuts, seeds.

And finally, we need to choose healthy sources of fat: buffalo milk, olive oil, avocado, almond paste, nuts and seeds. If you use such food, the effectiveness of the training program will significantly increase. Once a week you can eat anything, without any scruples, because the importance of our attitude to food is difficult to exaggerate.

And what about the number of meals? Five times a day, three times, once? There are many answers to this question. Some fitness instructors and experts in dietology are advised to eat five times a day in small portions. I can not agree with this point of view for two reasons.

First, too much time will be spent on cooking. Most of us have no time to go to the kitchen so often (just the thought of five meals a day can cause irritation). Manufacturers of sports nutrition know this well, so there is a huge selection of protein mixtures and bars available. But the use of products of questionable quality, which have undergone a complex technological treatment, carries a certain risk to health.

Secondly, the five-time diet is ineffective, as it does not allow a person to get enough: every time you have to get up from the table with a slight feeling of hunger. You will constantly think about food, looking forward to the next meal (which again will not bring you a feeling of fullness). Let's tell the truth – we all like to eat well (it's not about stuffing the belly to the dump, it's about the usual hunger-suppression).

In the books "Anti-estrogenic diet" and "Diet warrior" Ori Hofmekler writes that the secret of proper nutrition is to have one dense food intake per day. It's better if it's dinner (when all the problems and worries are left behind). After all, it's nice to come home after a hard day's work and have a good dinner.

But this does not mean that all day we must sit on a starvation diet – hardly anyone will be able to endure such a diet for a long time. On the contrary, during the day you need to organize regular snacks: cocktails, salads with nuts, fruits, vegetables – any products from the lower level of the food chain, which are easily absorbed by the body. The process of digestion takes a lot of energy, which can cause fatigue and apathy.

A heavy breakfast can cause a decline in efficiency. Tight dinner is a good option. if then you could take a nap for an hour or two. Only by experiment you will be able to determine the optimal diet for yourself. Someone used to eat more often, someone – less often.

Try to plan your day so that the most nutritious meal is in the evening, ideally after training. Dinner should be a few hours before bedtime. Not for the purpose of preventing overweight (this is a myth), but in order not to have problems with insomnia.

So, we came to the last "pillar" of the program of general physical training – recovery. (Just in time, because you will certainly want to relax after reading such a long article.) We live in a society of busy people. The more we are occupied, the higher our social status.

We despise laziness, although the percentage of obese people in our country is growing. Labor gives us a full life. But the ability to enjoy all of its joys directly depends on the body's recovery program. As the car requires repair and maintenance, so does our body need periodic rest.

The most important part of the recovery program is a full sleep. The problem of lack of sleep is widespread in our country. No wonder there are vending machines selling coffee at every corner. In the hope of deceiving nature, we steal a dream, using artificial stimulants – over time this leads to problems with the adrenal glands.

The importance of deep sleep is explained by several reasons: firstly, we see the dreams that are necessary for normal mental health and mental equilibrium; Secondly, in the body, anti-aging hormones are produced in large amounts (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, pregnenolone and growth hormone); thirdly, during sleep in the body, the processes of restoration and replenishment of the forces take place.

Lack of sleep literally speeds up the aging of the body (the less you sleep, the faster you age). Chronic lack of sleep adversely affects not only our health, but also the people who surround us, because they are driving our aggression and discontent.

One of the reasons for the unsatisfactory quality of sleep lies in the inability to deal with stress. The source of stress is not the events that occur in a person's life, but his attitude to these events. Our perception is to blame.

We must constantly work on ourselves to learn to overcome stress. The best thing for this is meditation. There are different methods of meditation. You can, for example, practice Qigong or Tai Chi. Or just walk around the city, watching your breath.

It is not necessary to sit in the lotus position and read mantras; I, for example, after training or before going to bed I go out to breathe fresh air, and also listen to calm music.

While music is playing, I take deep breaths through my nose. During such meditations, I almost always fall asleep, and when I wake up, I feel a rush of strength. Meditation is not a fad. Wise people have been practicing this method for many thousands of years. I recommend everyone to use meditation in the training program.

There is another effective component of the recovery program – massage. A weekly session of a good massage works wonders with our muscles, and also improves overall well-being. If it's expensive for you to visit the massage room every week, you can do it every two weeks. In extreme cases, you can go to the masseur once a month. If this option is too expensive for you, give up cable television and mobile communications . or find a job with a higher salary.

The quality of the massage depends on the specialist who does it; you may have to visit several massage rooms until you find your own masseur. A qualified specialist conducts a massage session taking into account the characteristics and wishes of a particular client.

The last element of the recovery program – which does not cost a penny – is deep breathing. As soon as you feel the build-up of stress, start breathing deeply. At the expense of five, take a breath through your nose, hold your breath for ten seconds, then count five to exhale. Try to breathe slowly and intensely, holding your breath for as long as possible.

As the famous bodybuilder Steve Reeves said, deep breathing increases the level of the hormone of happiness – epinephrine. A person gets high without external stimulants. In animals this is laid down at the level of instinct, they always breathe deeply.

Now, as I write these lines, my dog ​​Mona lay down on the floor and holds a "breathing therapy session"; breathing is performed, rather, by movement of the abdomen, and not of the thorax. Mona always breathes deeply. In stressful situations, a man restrains breathing. It is not right. The level of stress in the body only increases. You must always breathe deeply and freely.

So we reviewed the general physical training program briefly! If one of your friends ever expresses a desire to do fitness, let him / her read this article. And remind that under a recumbent stone water does not flow.

General physical training is not something complicated: the main thing is to know the measure. The basis of a balanced training program is "five pillars" of fitness. Rock the muscles, strengthen the heart and lungs, develop mobility, eat healthy food and do not forget to fully rest. It's easy to tell a fairy tale, but it's not easy to do something. Set a goal for yourself; and already today begin to move towards its achievement.

None of the "basic exercises" biceps you will not grow, even die on the elevator "troika". Biceps grow only from working on the biceps

Thanks for the program, I'll try. I liked the author's approach, I'm certainly one of those 90% who are interested in a good physical form, and not a loop on separate parts of the body.

The program of push-ups and sit-ups is best done in the same days as the exercises described above, or alternate? For example, p., Wed, Friday, complex and Tues, even., Sub. Push ups ?

In the picture under the heading of a typo, the "Physical Form"

Thank you! I was looking for just such a complex of exercises! Most of the articles on the Internet are devoted to mass and bodybuilding, you have painted all aspects of healthy physical training, thank you very much!

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