Diet in heart disease depends on the patient’s condition. If the heart disease is not accompanied by swelling and shortness of breath, food should approach the nutrition of a healthy person, that is, should be rational. However, against the background of rational nutrition in the diet for heart diseases in the compensation stage, the following restrictions are necessary.
1. Meat and fish should be given in a boiled form.
2. Limit fats, carbohydrates should not exceed the norm.
3. Include unloading days (apple, dairy, vegetable, berry). On fasting days, you need to reduce physical activity, perhaps even lie down in bed.
4. Limit the introduction of table salt to 5g per day and fluids – up to 1l per day.
5.Increase the introduction of vitamins, especially vitamin B1 – 3,5mg and vitamin C – 100mg.
6.Exclude substances that excite the nervous and cardiovascular systems (alcoholic beverages, strong coffee, tea, cocoa, hot snacks, salting).
7.Dislude from the diet for heart diseases foods rich in cholesterol (liver, kidneys, brains, lungs, meat, fish broths, pork, beef, mutton fats).
8.Dislude from the diet products that cause flatulence – legumes, grapes and grape juice, carbonated drinks.
7 Include in the diet for heart diseases products that promote bowel emptying (vegetables, fruits, lactic products, juices)
8. Food should be taken 5 once a day, do not overeat. The last meal for 3-4 hours before sleep, and before dinner is recommended a small rest.
All these requirements correspond to a diet that is prescribed for heart disease in the compensation stage.
In a diet with heart diseases with heart failure, products containing many lipotropic substances that prevent obesity of the liver (cottage cheese, buckwheat, oatmeal, low-fat meat and fish), salts of potassium, magnesium are introduced. Food in the diet with heart disease with heart failure prepare a sparing, diet regime 6 once a day.
With milk intolerance, it is recommended to prescribe a potassium diet, which normalizes vascular tone, water-salt metabolism, increases urine output. Kalevaya diet is described in detail in the section “Medical diets.”
Diet in heart diseases with heart failure should be carefully expanded, checking to see if there is swelling and shortness of breath.
Principles of building a diet for ischemic heart disease
At all stages of observation, in the process of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation patients with ischemic heart disease Dietotherapy is built in accordance with the following principles
Correspondence calorie diet to the energy needs of the body. Caloric content of the diet is calculated individually: depending on sex, age, level of physical activity and body weight. If the patient suffers from excessive body weight, the calorie reduction is shown no more than 40% (up to 1700-1400 kcal / day). Unloading days are not more often 1-2 once a week with caloric content up to 800-1000 kcal.
Control of the quantitative and qualitative composition of fat in the diet. Compliance with the correct ratio of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Restriction in the diet of dietary cholesterol (the degree of restriction depends on the type of hyperlipidemia). It is important to ensure the needs of the body in phospholipids, plant sterols, lipotropic factors.
Correspondence of the total amount of carbohydrates in the diet to the energy needs of the body. The ratio of total / refined carbohydrates is not less than 7: 1. With the testimony, insulinogenic refined carbohydrates are sharply restricted until they are completely eliminated.
Providing requirements for essential amino acids with a total protein content in the diet not exceeding 1,1 g / kg of ideal body weight, with the animal / vegetable protein ratio 1: 1.
Pathogenetic balance of the diet for vitamin composition, the content of micro- and macroelements, dietary fiber.
Observance of the correct technological processing of products and medical dishes (removal of extractive substances, the exclusion of fried, canned foods, spicy spices, table salt for culinary purposes).
Fractional power mode, including 4-6 meals. The last meal – for 2-3 h to sleep.
The method of differentiated application of dietary therapy for coronary heart disease
In the process of development of coronary heart disease, at different stages of its formation, metabolic disorders are significantly different, which necessitates the use of various dietary techniques.
With multifactorial primary and secondary prophylaxis, the use of a diet makes it possible to effectively affect the disturbed metabolism and significantly reduce the importance of such risk factors for coronary heart disease as hyperlipidemia, overweight, low glucose tolerance, and hypertension.
In acute and subacute stage of the disease, adequate diet therapy, being the background for drug therapy, helps restore the functional capacity of the myocardium, improve the course of repair processes in the necrosis zone, reduce hemodynamic disorders and hemocoagulation activity.
At the stage of rehabilitation of patients with coronary heart disease dietotherapy helps to increase the body’s resistance to stressful situations, corrects metabolic disorders.
In each specific case it is necessary to individualize the dietary recommendations taking into account the features of the course of the disease, its stage, and also taking into account the traditions in the patient’s diet.
Diet with atherosclerosis of the vessels of the heart and brain, hypertension
Indications: atherosclerosis of the vessels of the heart, brain, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive disease against the background of atherosclerosis.
Technology of preparation: meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, after grinding, boil. Prepare without salt, food podsalivayut with food.
Bread and flour products – wheat flour 1-2 varieties, rye, doctor’s, dry non-flavored biscuits, baked without salt.
Soups – cabbage soup, borsch, beetroot soup, vegetarian soups with potatoes and cereals, fruit, milk.
Meat, poultry, fish – various types of low-fat varieties, chunk or chopped, after boiling you can bake, sea kale, mussels.
Dairy products – milk and sour-milk products of low fat content, low-fat cottage cheese and dishes from it, low-fat, low-salted cheese, sour cream – in dishes.
Eggs – protein omelets, soft-boiled 2-3 pcs. in Week.
Cereals – buckwheat, oatmeal, millet in the form of crumbly and viscous cereals, casseroles. Limit rice, semolina, pasta.
Vegetables – cabbage of all kinds, carrots, zucchini, pumpkin, eggplants, potatoes, green peas in the form of puree or finely chopped. The greens – in the dishes.
Snacks – vinaigrettes and salads with vegetable oil, including sea kale and other seafood, boiled fish and meat, soaked herring, low-fat, low-fat cheese, low-fat sausage boiled, low-fat ham, salads from sweet fruits.
Fruits, berries, sweets – fruits and berries ripe in raw form, dried fruits, compotes, jellies, semisweet mousses. Jam, sugar, honey is limited.
Drinks – tea is not strong with lemon, milk, coffee is not strong natural and coffee drink, vegetable juices, fruit and berry, broth of dogrose and wheat bran.
Fats – cream and vegetable oils for cooking and meals.
Products made of butter and puff pastry, meat, fish and mushroom broths, beans, fatty meat and fish varieties, duck, goose, liver, kidneys, brains, smoked products, all types of canned food, salted and fatty cheese, radish, radish, sorrel, spinach , mushrooms, chocolate, cream products, ice cream, pepper, mustard, strong tea and coffee, cocoa, animal and cooking fats, alcoholic beverages.