People with hemorrhoids know very well how difficult it is to get rid of this ailment. Sometimes no medicine, no candles, no ointments help. But how many of us think about the fact that the true cause of the disease is malnutrition? That is why it is impossible to fight with manifestations of hemorrhoids, not observing a diet specially designed for such cases.
The role of diet in the therapy of hemorrhoids and anal fissures
The correct diet for anal fissures and hemorrhoids is very important, because the occurrence of these phenomena is directly related to the functioning of the colon – the terminal section of the gastrointestinal tract, where the undigested food remains.
Diet in the treatment of the disease performs the following functions:
- reduces the flow of blood to the perineal region,
- allows you to normalize the stool,
- strengthens the immune system and the body as a whole,
- Fighting obesity and reducing body weight.
Reducing the flow of blood to the region of the anus, and as a consequence, the swelling of the hemorrhoids – this is one of the most important tasks of the diet. It’s not a secret that some products can cause a similar effect. Therefore, they must be excluded from the patient’s menu.
Many believe that the opposite of constipation is diarrhea, with the disease is not dangerous. However, it is not. After all, a loose stool, especially if it happens several times a day, irritates the inflamed place, promotes the rapid multiplication of bacteria on it. In addition, the liquid stool, which comes into contact with the mucous membrane of the anal opening, leads to its inflammation and drying and the appearance of anal fissures and paroproctitis.
In addition, the diet for hemorrhoids should aim to strengthen immunity and the body as a whole. The diet should contain the necessary amount of vitamins and microelements for the body. This is important because it is necessary to achieve rapid healing of inflammation. It’s no secret that the inflammation of the hemorrhoidal nodes is often accompanied by bleeding. A similar phenomenon can also occur with a crack in the anus. And this means that the diet should be chosen so as to prevent the appearance of symptoms of anemia.
Finally, one of the causes of the disease is overweight. It should be borne in mind that in both men and women, fat deposits occur mainly in the lower part of the abdominal cavity. And this significantly increases the pressure on the intestine and worsens its blood circulation. Therefore, one of the purposes of a diet is to help a person lose weight, or at least not to gain extra pounds.
Thus, the strategic goal of the diet is to improve the patient’s condition and prevent the recurrence of the disease.
Types of diets with hemorrhoids
Diet for various types of disease – acute and chronic, has its own characteristics. In addition, a special category should include a diet, which should adhere to the patient who underwent surgery to remove the nodes. This diet is the most strict.
How to choose the best food
Picking the right diet can be quite difficult. Of course, the patient can come up with himself that he has and test the diet on himself. Thus, by trial and error, he can choose the optimal nutrition. Although this diet may not take into account the characteristics of the disease, as well as food allergies and food intolerance. Therefore, it is best to seek advice from a dietician, gastroenterologist, proctologist or therapist. If such an option does not exist, then it is necessary to adhere to the diet. It includes products with a predominance of dietary fiber of plant origin. The energy value of the diet is 2900-3600 kcal, the amount of plant proteins in it is 50-60 g, the same number of animal proteins, fats – 100-110 g (of which 30% of plant), carbohydrates 400-450. Salts must be consumed not more than 8-10 g per day.
The diet should contain enough iron, magnesium and potassium. Magnesium and potassium have a beneficial effect on intestinal contractions, and iron prevents the development of anemia caused by bleeding.
General principles of nutrition mean, first of all, fractional food. This means that you should abandon the traditional three-time meal-making system in the form of breakfast, lunch and dinner and replace it with 5-6 one-time meals. Of course, portions in this case should be reduced. This achieves a milder load on the gastrointestinal tract, the absence of its overvoltage. It is also desirable that food be taken at a strictly defined time every day. Breaks between meals should be approximately the same.
The last meal should be no later than 1,5-2 hours before going to bed, and it’s best to have supper for 3-4 hours before going to bed.
Food should be neither too hot nor too cold – both are too irritating to the intestinal wall. The optimum temperature is + 37-40 ° C.
Another important factor affecting the effectiveness of the diet, are the rules for food intake. As the heroes of the famous novel have said, chewing food carefully, you are helping society. And this is really so, thoroughly chewing food, a person helps, at least to himself and his health. After all, food on the run, in a hurry, swallowing huge chunks – this is also one of the reasons for irritation of the intestine and, as a consequence, the onset of the disease. Therefore, such bad habits should be eliminated.
Do not forget about drinking enough water. And it is desirable to use pure non-carbonated water, not tea, juices, or other drinks. This volume should be approximately 1,5-2 L per day. A sufficient amount of water makes it possible to moisturize the feces well and avoid the occurrence of constipation. It should be noted that lack of water can not only negate the entire positive effect of the diet, but also cause an opposite reaction, in particular, increased constipation. On the other hand, the use of water should be approached with caution to those people who suffer from kidney failure or cardiovascular diseases.
Consumption of salt, on the contrary, should be limited, since salt promotes the expansion of blood vessels.
The food should be balanced. For example, the consumption of even low-fat meat without vegetable side dishes, or with a garnish of pasta and potatoes can lead to a stool delay.
In the first place, this category includes products that provoke a rush of blood to the pelvic organs. These are all kinds of spices, including pepper and mustard, alcohol, smoked, fried and spicy dishes, pickles and marinades. Also banned are fatty kinds of meat – duck, goose, pork.
In addition, it is unacceptable to drink beverages that contain a large amount of gases, or promote fermentation – highly carbonated beverages, especially sweet, kvass, beer. Whole milk containing poorly digestible lactose should also be excluded from the diet.
It is also recommended to abandon foods containing starch and simple sugars, as they can also provoke fermentation in the intestine.
It is also not advisable to eat plants of the legume family – peas and beans because of their ability to cause severe flatulence.
Do not drink drinks that contain a lot of caffeine. These include coffee, cola and its analogs, as well as strong tea. Tea should not be discarded altogether, since the enzymes contained in it help to improve digestion, however, green tea or high-quality black tea with a not very strong degree of brewing should be preferred.
Most fruits are allowed, however, only mature fruits should be eaten. Perereznye or immature specimens should not be eaten.
Also it is undesirable to buy products from semi-finished products, with a lot of food additives.
The ban also includes mushrooms – these unconditionally delicious gifts of nature create too much strain even for a healthy gastrointestinal tract and are almost never fully digested.
What else is prohibited:
- saturated meat broths;
- refractory fats (lamb and lard);
- fat cottage cheese;
- buns, puffs and buns;
- pasta from the highest grade flour;
- mucous soups;
- canned food;
- fried eggs and hard-boiled eggs;
- cocoa and chocolate;
- confectionery products with cream;
- fast food, chips and fried croutons;
Consumption of berries and fruits should be limited:
In the acute form of the disease, you should not eat vegetables that contain too coarse fiber – white cabbage, turnip, radish and vegetables containing too little fiber, for example, potatoes (especially in the form of mashed potatoes). Do not use too sour greens, for example, sorrel.
What foods are recommended?
In the treatment of the disease, the primary task is to improve the peristalsis and work of the intestine, the formation of ductile stools. This task is well handled vegetable fiber, contained in vegetables and fruits.
Vegetable fiber also performs a number of other functions:
- promotes the removal of toxins and toxins,
- normalizes the level of cholesterol in the blood,
- maintains the optimal level of intestinal microflora.
However, it is necessary to avoid products that provoke excessive fermentation in the large intestine and cause flatulence.
Preferably soft fiber, which can be found in dried fruits – prunes, dried apricots.
Also the use of vegetable fiber does not mean that the patient should switch to a vegetarian diet. After all, the disease is characterized by heavy bleeding, in which much iron is lost. Its deficiency can be easily replenished only in products of animal origin – meat, fish and dairy products, which must be included in the diet in sufficient quantities. In addition to meat products, iron is also found in nuts and some green vegetables. However, in itself a high content of iron in foods – that’s not all. It is necessary that it is well absorbed. For the assimilation of iron should, in turn, take foods high in vitamin C. It is also useful to eat uneaten sunflower seeds (especially pumpkin seeds).
If a person is not used to adhering to a diet containing a large amount of vegetable fiber, then, of course, you need to move on to it gradually.
In some cases, the consumption of a large amount of natural fiber found in fruits and vegetables can cause the patient’s fermentation processes. In this case, the fiber can be replaced with wheat bran purchased at the pharmacy or store. Men need about 35 g bran a day for women, 25 for women. Too much wheat bran, however, you can not consume too, their maximum daily volume is 60. Regular consumption of bran can satisfy the body’s requirements for plant fiber in 75%. Bran can be added to any dish, or diluted with water and taken during meals.
Vegetables can be consumed in a large, but reasonable amount, in cooked or raw form. Also, vegetables can be cooked for a couple. Mostly vegetable should be a diet during the exacerbation. Vegetables, the consumption of which is most useful:
- cauliflower and broccoli,
It is very useful to eat with locks of sea kale – laminaria, although, strictly speaking, it does not apply to vegetables. It is recommended to add it to all vegetable salads.
You can eat and greens (parsley, green onions, dill), with the exception of its sharp varieties.
Onions and sweet peppers can be eaten in a thermally processed form and in moderate amounts.
Not recommended for eating vegetables containing a large number of essential oils – spinach, hot pepper, sorrel, as well as legumes, containing some digestive system not digestible. However, a small amount of green peas can be added to the dishes.
In general, a day is recommended to consume up to 400 g of vegetables and fruits.
Pasta, especially made from high-grade flour, is prone to cause stool and constipation. Therefore, their use should be limited. You can only eat a small amount of pasta from durum wheat.
Soups can be used as an excellent means to normalize the stool and a source of a sufficient amount of liquid. Soups are best prepared on vegetable broth or on a secondary meat or fish broth. Especially useful will be soup, borsch, beetroots, colds, soups with pearl barley, that is, those categories of first courses that contain a large amount of fiber. They are not recommended to put a large amount of potatoes (and it is better to do without it)
Fruits, like vegetables, are a source of vegetable fiber, as well as many vitamins, microelements and biologically active substances necessary for the body.
When a disease associated with frequent constipation, it is preferable to eat fresh fruits that have a mild, relaxing effect. This apricot, watermelon, plum, melon, peach, nectarine, banana, apples, persimmon. Also useful are dried fruits containing soft fiber – figs, apricots, dried apricots, prunes. They need to be consumed up to 10 pieces per day.
But when dealing with fruits, one should be careful, since immature or overripe fruits can cause severe diarrhea. Also, do not eat too acidic or too sweet fruit. Consumption of the following varieties of fruits and berries should be limited:
- Red currant,
- tangerines and oranges,
It is useful to combine berries and fruits with kefir or cottage cheese.
Meat and fish are sources of high quality protein, so they are needed by any organism. On the other hand, an excessive amount of protein in the menu increases the likelihood of constipation. Therefore, the percentage of animal proteins in the disease should be lower than in the usual diet.
But what sorts of meat and fish should I choose for food? Fat types of meat and fish are not recommended, because they create a big load on the intestines. Therefore, it is best to give up pork, you should carefully include beef and lamb in the diet. The most fatty varieties of meat are duck and goose. Therefore, the best types of meat and poultry such as veal, chicken breast and turkey are suitable. From fish it is best to choose pike-perch, hake, bream, carp, cod, pike.
An important factor is also the method of preparing meat products. They are best cooked steamed or baked in the oven, in foil, however, so that the surface does not form a crust annoying the intestines. Fried meat or fish should be excluded from the diet.
It should be remembered that any meat is more difficult to digest than fish. Therefore, it is undesirable to eat meat daily, enough to eat meat 2-3 times a week.
Chicken eggs soft-boiled or in the form of omelets can be consumed in small quantities (up to 2 pieces per day). Eggs hard-boiled or in the form of eggs are not recommended.
A large amount of fiber is found in porridges – buckwheat and oatmeal, barley and pearl barley. However, cereals from the processed grain (ground rice, semolina) are not suitable for feeding patients, since they contain too little fiber. Therefore, there is a great risk that such porridges will lead to constipation.
Fresh vegetable oils are useful at any time, but with the disease of the large intestine, their consumption as food becomes an urgent necessity. They have an enveloping effect, stimulate intestinal peristalsis and promote smooth passage of fecal masses through the anus. Preference should be given to flax and olive oil. Oils can be used in a pure form in the amount of several table spoons, and as a dressing for cereals and salads, instead of mayonnaise. To combat constipation, you can drink before eating a tablespoon of vegetable oil, diluted in kefir or any other sour milk product.
Nevertheless, consumption of vegetable oils is contraindicated in cholelithiasis.
Sour-milk products are very useful for nutrition in case of illness. They should pay special attention, since they contain many organic acids, as well as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, which help restore intestinal microflora. The list of useful fermented milk products includes:
- yoghurt (unsweetened and without fillers),
- fermented woman,
Sour-milk products should be consumed daily, including, and during an exacerbation. Especially it concerns natural products. Kefir is best to drink at night.
Whole milk is best excluded from the nutrition scheme. Low-fat cottage cheese and sour cream, and also butter can be used in small quantities. You can also prepare dishes from cottage cheese – puddings and casseroles. It is allowed to eat fresh cheese.
Drinks are suitable for mineral water with a high content of sulphates and magnesium, natural juices (plum, apricot, tomato, carrot, beet, pumpkin), broth of wild rose. Fruits, mild tea, coffee-substitutes will also suit. Of course, you should drink a lot of and simple, still water. But from soda water is best to give up. Many doctors advise drinking a glass of plain water on an empty stomach immediately after awakening.
Drinks containing caffeine – coffee, cola, strong tea, are excluded from use, since caffeine promotes stagnation of fecal masses.
You should also stop using alcoholic beverages. The whole point is that alcohol contributes:
- drawing fluid from the lumen of the intestine,
- blood thickening,
All this can not but affect negatively the patient’s condition. Although a glass of light wine or beer, drunk during a feast during the remission of the disease, is likely not to hurt.
Do not drink tea or water directly during meals, it is best to wait for some time after it ends, for example, half an hour. Cold drinks are best served before meals, and warm drinks after meals.
It is not necessary to exclude bread from the food scheme altogether. However, preference should be given to coarse-grained bread, bread from flour 2 grade, bread with bran, since it contains the most fiber. It is not necessary to consume products from refined white flour – white bread, buns. Fresh bread is also undesirable, it is best to eat yesterday’s bread.
Confectionery products in most cases contain a lot of sugar and other simple carbohydrates. Consequently, they provoke strong fermentation in the intestines and flatulence. Therefore, they are not suitable for nutrition in case of illness, and confectionery consumption should be limited. Especially strictly this prohibition should be observed during the exacerbation of the disease.
It is possible to use the following products from sweets:
- cookies (uneatable and unsweetened varieties).
The number of sweets should be limited for another reason. After all, they contribute to a set of excess weight, especially in people with sedentary lifestyles. And excess weight, as indicated above – one of the factors contributing to the development of the disease.
Fasting is not included in the main arsenal of treatment of the disease. Moreover, prolonged fasting with her is contraindicated. After a prolonged inactivity of the intestine can lead to persistent constipation after the end of the fasting period. Nevertheless, in a number of cases it can be used, but not more than within one day. Usually fasting is used during an exacerbation, or immediately after the operation to remove nodes. Nevertheless, even if the patient does not eat, he is shown a plentiful drink.
Also, unloading days can be used – for example, days with the use of only juices or fermented milk products. Such methods of therapy can sometimes be prescribed by doctors to patients who are overweight.
In the chronic form of the disease, the recommendations are not so strict. Sometimes the patient can give himself the opportunity to relax a little and use a little unwanted products, for example, sharp or smoked dishes. This can happen, for example, during a feast, when it is uncomfortable to refuse refreshments. In this case, you can carry with you a tablet of enzyme preparations, such as Creon or Festal, which could help to digest heavier food more easily.
It is also possible in moderate amounts, not more than once a week to eat the following foods from the banned list, of course, in moderate amounts:
- potatoes and dishes from it,
- semolina porridge,
- sweet pastry.
Thus, a diet in the disease does not imply any serious limitations and allows you to easily vary the composition of products.
Features of the diet after the operation to remove nodes
In the first day after the operation, one should refrain altogether from taking any food, limiting oneself to drinking a large amount (several liters) of water. This is necessary so that the patient does not have a chair, because the fecal masses can easily damage the surgical suture. However, on the second day, the patient is allowed to eat small portions, 5-6 once a day. Preference is given to the porridges, however, not liquid, but crumbly. Buckwheat and millet porridge are best. You can also use:
- dairy products,
- dried bread from wheat flour,
- lean meat,
- vegetables and fruits (except white cabbage, turnips, radishes and legumes, radishes, grapes, citrus fruits),
- vegetable oils.
Of great importance is also the cooking regime. You should consume only boiled or stewed dishes or those that were cooked for a couple. In the first few days after the operation, the dishes are recommended to grind further. Thus, it is best to make soufflé, meatballs and cutlets from meat, and from vegetables – mashed potatoes and salads. And fried foods should be completely eliminated until the body is fully restored after the operation. But even in this case, fried foods can only be consumed in very limited quantities.
In addition, in post-operative rehabilitation, the mode of eating is of great importance. Breaks between meals should be small, an average of 2,5 hours, and portions should be small. This will avoid overloading the digestive system.
It is also recommended to strengthen intestinal peristalsis to drink on an empty stomach an infusion of prunes, water with honey, broth of wild rose. These drinks should be consumed in a cold form.
In the first week after the operation, the menu is recommended to be limited to the following products:
- low-fat cottage cheese and yogurt,
- steam cutlets,
- vegetable soups.
Within a month after the operation, a strict ban on:
- Fruits and vegetables with coarse fibers (radish, cabbage, apples, citrus fruits);
- carbonated and caffeinated drinks (tea, coffee, kvass, cola, lemonades);
- vegetables containing irritating substances of the intestine (radish, onion, garlic);
- lamb, pork;
- seafood (except lean fish);
Features of the diet for exacerbation of the disease
With this condition, both constipation and diarrhea are equally dangerous. The diet in this case is in many respects similar to that used after the operation to remove the nodes. On the first day after an exacerbation it is best to starve. However, the patient should drink enough water.
On the second day you can start eating crumbly porridge. Buckwheat, barley or oat porridge are most suitable in this case. Porridge should be given in small portions, it should not be filled with butter.
Then, in the diet of the patient, you can gradually add fresh fruits and vegetables, soups-mashed potatoes on vegetable broth. On the third day, you can add sour-milk products, and then boiled meat and fish. Meat broths are banned in this period.
Also smoked and fried foods, spices, mayonnaise, ketchups are strictly forbidden. All these products can cause blood flow to the pelvic organs, and as a result, aggravate the bleeding characteristic of the period of exacerbation.
Below is a menu with a five-fold meal, made for patients with chronic disease, taking into account the above recommendations. Of course, this menu option can vary within a fairly wide range and be adjusted to take into account the patient’s addictions, food intolerance and other limitations.
The advantage of this diet is its low cost, as its basis is available vegetables and fruits, and meat and fish are used about once a day.