Alligator pear, forest oil, cow for the poor – amazing, but all this – names, invented by different peoples, to designate the same fruit.
The fruit of the Persian American – avocado, is known by various names for several millennia. Nowadays avocados are more accessible than in the days of ancient Aztecs, on the counter of any supermarket all year round there are fresh and delicious fruits.
Among the Indian tribes inhabiting the territory of South America, the use was found of wood, bark, and Persea foliage – they were used in construction, healing.
However, the most valuable gifts of the tree were its fruits – tasty and nutritious, able to satisfy hunger for a long time, to give strength and energy, for these qualities avocados are very popular these days.
Being a traditional product on the table of Mexicans, Brazilians, Spaniards and other peoples living in the hot tropics, the avocado is a part of various dishes: soups and sauces, salads and drinks, ice cream and other desserts.
Speaking about avocados, we can not fail to mention its nutritional value:
- The unique nutritional value of the fetus is a high content of fats – the main source of energy for the body;
- Fatty acids in avocado are of vegetable origin, and therefore have high bioavailability and are fully absorbed in the intestines, it is not worthwhile to fear for the figure of lovers of this guest from the tropics;
- The high content of vitamins A, E and C makes avocado a valuable source of antioxidants;
- Vitamins from group B, with which the fruit is rich, have a beneficial effect on the nervous system;
- The content of potassium, which is extremely necessary for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system, in avocados is only slightly inferior to bananas;
- Also worth noting is the extremely low carbohydrate content, in comparison with other fruits.
Table. Nutritional value of avocado fruits.
Or maybe you yourself would not mind trying your hand at cultivating this useful fruit at home?
Avocado on your windowsill: Is it easy to raise a guest from the hot tropics from the stone?
Surely, many thought about whether it is possible to grow Persian at home. Of course, it is easier to find an already grown tree for sale and grow it without worries and hassle, however, it is much more interesting to try your hand at tropical gardening and grow your own tree from the stone. It is not so difficult to do this, however, a number of important points should be taken into account:
- Avocado leaves, like its bone, contain Persin, a fungicidal toxin that can be a threat to pets and can cause allergic reactions in humans, if there are animals or small children in the house, the plant should be removed from the area of reach, or even replaced at all more secure;
- At home, the tree fructifies very rarely, but it lives for a long time and looks rather impressive;
- Avocados come from the subtropics, and therefore the young plant will need high humidity and a large amount of light, otherwise the Persian will not live long;
- If the experiment succeeds, there is a chance that even grandchildren will be able to taste the fruits of your labors – in natural conditions the persea survives to a hundred years.
How to grow avocado from a bone in the home
Step One: How to choose the stone for planting
To get the cherished germ, only freshly sown seeds should be used for planting. For the purpose of germination, the bone is extracted only from ripe fruits, if the fruit is not yet ripe (hard when pressed), it should be wrapped in paper and put in a dark warm place for two to three days.
There the fruit ripens, after which the bone will be ready for planting. Before germination, carefully examine the stone, it should not be damaged, dark spots, dents, a healthy strong bone almost always sprouts.
Step two: how to properly grow avocado from a stone
You can cultivate the avocado bone in several ways.
Option one: on the sides of the bones do 3 – 4 holes, insert wooden skewers or toothpicks in them, install the whole structure above the glass with water so that the bone is in the water no more than a third.
It is necessary to carefully monitor that the water level remains the same, as necessary add water. After a while on the bone a crack is formed, a bit later the root and stalk of the plant will appear. The germination process takes from 3 to 5 weeks.
Option two: the avocado bone is soaked for 40-50 minutes in warm water (no more than 45 ° C), after which it should be emptied of the peel.
Cleaned stone is planted in the ground with a wide end down, burying two-thirds. The soil should be periodically moistened, not allowing it to dry out.
You should have patience to proklyutsya germ may need up to a month and a half.
Step three: transplanting avocado seeds into the ground
Those who, when germinating, took advantage of the first option, there is yet another stage – a transplant into the ground.
After transplanting, the plant should be watered with prepared water.
For a young seedling, a small pot with a diameter of about 15 cm is sufficient, a year later the grown plant will need to be transplanted into a more spacious container.
Avocado does not tolerate stagnation of water, so it is necessary to pour a layer of drainage onto the bottom of the pot. The ground for avocado should be selected with a ph value of not lower than 7, tk. the acid soil will be fatal to the tree.
You can also add a pinch of lime, pounded egg shell or any other deoxidizer to the soil.
Caring for the avocado tree: creating an environment
Growing avocados in the home, it is necessary to create a favorable environment, although it is difficult to call it whimsical.
- Lighting. The tree needs to provide enough sunlight, the Perseus is very photophilous, especially this is important if you expect to get a crop. In the winter, it is more likely that the plant will need to lighten the phytolamp. Under poor lighting, the tree can stretch, in this case it should be pricked;
- Humidity. Since avocado is a guest from the tropics, high humidity is vital to it. At low humidity, the plant must be regularly irrigated with water from a spray gun. In response to the dryness of the air, as well as to insufficient lighting, excessive or too rare watering, the avocado can respond by dumping or twisting the leaves;
- Watering. The soil should be kept moist, avoiding both excessive moisture and the slightest drying-these factors are rather sensitive to these factors;
- Fertilizer. Avocado gratefully responds to top dressing with liquid mineral fertilizers. Can be used as usual for indoor flowers, and specially selected for tropical plants;
- Pruning. In order to help the plant form a lush, dense crown, pinch the apex and side shoots as necessary. If this is not done, the avocado will look "lanky", will have a long thin trunk and rare leaves.
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Diseases and pests
If your avocado looks unhealthy, you should carefully examine it for pests or diseases.
Phytophthora is a fungus that affects the root system of a plant and destroys it. When the phytophthora penetrates a part of the plant, ulcers form on its trunk or leaves. The sick avocado should be immediately isolated from the rest, since this disease is contagious. It is possible to stop the disease only with the timely detection of the disease and the removal of the infected site.
Spider mite, scab
They are the result of low humidity. The foliage of the avocado, attacked by these pests, begins to turn yellow and crumble. If the plant does not provide timely assistance, it may die. In order to get rid of pests, first of all you need to provide the necessary moisture, the plant should be treated with a soap solution, the highly affected parts should be better removed. You may need treatment with special insecticides.
It is expressed in the formation of whitish coating on the trunk of the tree, brown and greenish spots on the leaves of avocado. The sick plant withers, looks unhealthy. Treating avocado with a fungicide solution will help the plant to defeat mold.
Gathering the harvest?
In most cases Perseus lives and grows at home for many years, and is able to reach a very impressive size. However, it is very difficult to make a tree bear fruit at home.
For this avocado, it is necessary to provide conditions that are as close to natural as possible: temperature, humidity, the amount of sunlight obtained by the plant – everything matters.
For ovary fruit, cross-pollination is necessary, hence keeping a few Perseus trees in the house. Despite the fact that the avocado is capable of self-pollination, in practice this happens extremely rarely.
Maybe it is your tree that will be more compliant and will please the long-awaited harvest?
The article says that the avocado loves the light, but. Especially for those who decide to take up this great thing: the avocado loves the light. but not direct sunlight. There was business, planted avocados, everything grew even very well, the sprouting was gaining strength and . I had to go to another city . gave for a while to his girlfriend, together with her chose the most lit place in the apartment, and I quietly left. And the sun just burned my tree. Yes, they tried to save right after that. as they noticed such a mistake. but it was already out of time – the leaves were twisted and fell off, until only one trunk remained in the pot .
Natalia not in a hurry to part with your tree it can still be saved. I agree with you, but the avocado loves light and is afraid of direct sunlight – this was a big mistake. I already passed it, but I saved my tree easily. Removing the pot in a more favorable place, using the phytolamp created a favorable atmosphere for it, loosened the soil, fed fertilizers and a day later sprayed. My tree has come to life, new leaves have appeared and now it pleases every day.