Arterial pressure human depends on many factors and the physiological mechanisms of self-regulation in an overwhelming number of cases allow to level the effect of negative factors contributing to increased blood pressure. However, with prolonged and pronounced influence, the adaptive capacity of the cardiovascular system fails, which leads to the development of hypertension.
The diet in hypertension provides for the physiological norm of the intake of essential nutrients into the body and the creation of conditions for the normalization of blood circulation.
The main principles of a diet for hypertension are:
- Physiologically the full content of the protein component (85-90 g protein), 80 g fat and 350 / 400 g carbohydrates with energy value of the diet at the level of 2400-2500 kcal / day for patients with normal body weight.
- Restriction of table salt to 2,5-5 g / day. When preparing food, salt is not used, but added only to ready-made meals. To do this, it is sufficient to exclude obviously salted foods from the diet, especially gastronomic products (canned products, pickles, marinades, smoked products, sausages, cheeses). For those who are experiencing strong difficulties with lack of salt, it is recommended to replace the sodium chloride salts with potassium / magnesium chlorides. People with a mild form of hypertension can use a therapeutic salt with a reduced content of sodium to 65%, and in more severe cases, a salt with 35% sodium content.
- Elevated levels of vitamins A, Е, С, group B and minerals – potassium salts (up to 4-5 g), calcium, magnesium (up to 0,8-1,0 g), manganese (up to 30 mg), chromium (up to 0,3 mg), coenzyme Q (up to 200 mg), vitamin C (up to 500 mg), choline (up to 1 g). It is especially important to control the level of potassium in the diet. There are reliable data that an increased intake of potassium ions is extremely important for lowering the pressure, as potassium has protective effect against hypertension. Therefore, the diet should include fresh berries and vegetables (baked potatoes, currants, lingonberries, bananas, carrots, cabbage, radish, garlic, zucchini, tomatoes, pumpkin, beets, cucumbers, beans, oranges, watermelons, sea kale, melons) dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, prunes, figs), nuts (pine nuts, almonds, peanuts) that are rich in potassium.
- It is important not to allow in the diet and deficiency of magnesium, which has a pronounced preventive effect against vascular hypertension. Magnesium is found in large quantities in rice, bananas, avocado, sea kale, oatmeal, bran, nuts, yogurt, beans, prunes. The diet should be enriched with calcium ions, which takes part in the processes of intracellular / extracellular fluid distribution. In large quantities, calcium is found in dairy products, nuts, fish bones. The pronounced therapeutic-prophylactic effect renders folate (vitamin B group) with daily use of 350-400 mg. It normalizes the function of the vascular endothelium by reducing the levels homocysteine and reduces the risk of developing hypertension. Folate is rich in tomatoes, legumes, leafy vegetables, asparagus, cereals, Brussels sprouts, fruit.
- Moderate antihypertensive effects and vitamin-like substances carnitine, which is close in structure to amino acids. Contained in the liver, veal, beef, cream, sour cream, cottage cheese.
- The risk of developing hypertension is also associated with a deficiency of chromium and selenium in the diet. Selenium contains products such as seafood, liver ducks, turkeys, chicken, beef, beef and veal buds. The source of chromium is corn / sunflower oil, porridges (buckwheat, corn, pearl barley, millet), nuts, dried fruits, vegetables, cheese. In addition, products that reduce blood pressure, in contrast to drugs, are very mild.
- Restriction in the diet of saturated fats and ensuring a sufficient content of products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, of which synthesize prostaglandins, having an antihypertensive effect and which are capable of improving endothelial function, rheological blood indices. To do this, the diet should include fish oil, linseed / rapeseed / olive oil (at least 30 g / day), greasy marine fish (salmon, trout, herring, sardines), nuts and seeds.
- The most important component of the diet is the provision of the body with the necessary amount of free fluid, because with its lack in the body narrowing the lumen of the vessels. The daily volume of free liquid must be 1,2-1,5 l. It is forbidden to use carbonated drinks and sodium mineral waters, strong tea and black coffee.
- The diet under the increased pressure provides for the restriction of the use of alcoholic beverages: for women in the equivalent up to 20 g, for men – up to 40 g of ethyl alcohol. There are differences in views on the protective effect of small doses of alcohol on cardiovascular diseases. Undoubtedly, significant doses of strong alcohol are the cause of the development of hypertension.
- Fractional (4-5-one-time) food intake without overeating.
If arterial hypertension occurs in the background atherosclerosis, another diet is prescribed, which provides for a decrease in the diet of animal fat, exclusion of food intake cholesterol and digestible carbohydrates. At the same time, it is planned to increase in the diet products containing dietary fibers, polyunsaturated fatty acids (vegetable fats) and the proportion of plant proteins in relation to animals. The diet with hypertension provides for an increase in the content vitamins C и group B, microelements, lipotropic substances /linoleic acid.
The diet for hypertension provides for inclusion in the diet:
- Wheat / rye, whole-grain and with the addition of bread bran. It is allowed to eat homemade homemade cakes with the addition of bran and dry biscuits.
- Vegetarian soups with vegetables and well-boiled cereals, with the addition of garden greens without roasting.
- Low-fat varieties of red meat in boiled / baked form. And the meat of poultry, rabbit. Meat in any form of cooking should be pre-cooked, broth to merge, and is prepared in a new portion of water.
- Dishes from sea / river fish and seafood.
- Various seasonal vegetables in fresh form (potatoes, cabbage, carrots, beets, zucchini, pumpkin, eggplant) or in the form of vegetable stew. From snacks – sea kale, vinaigrettes, dressed with vegetable oil.
- Sour-milk products with low fat content and low-fat cottage cheese, sour cream (only in dishes).
- Chicken eggs soft-boiled – up to 3 pieces per week, dairy and tomato sauces on vegetable broth or with addition of sour cream.
- Cereals (barley, millet, buckwheat) and pasta in the form of cereals, casseroles with vegetables / cottage cheese.
- Butter / vegetable oils for cooking and ready meals.
- Fruits / berries in any form, as well as in compotes, jelly and jelly.
- From drinks – coffee drinks (coffee substitutes), broth of a dogrose, weak tea with milk, vegetable / berry juices.