General principles of nutrition for people with hypertension
Often it is enough to adjust the food so that blood pressure will return to normal.
With proper nutrition, the condition in some patients is stabilized to such an extent that the doctor can reduce the dose of prescribed medications.
In the diet of a patient with this pathology, reduce or exclude the use of such products:
- Salt is consumed no more than 6-8 g per day. With an excess of sodium chloride, the elimination of fluid from the body is delayed, which increases the volume of blood in the vessels. Most foods contain salt, so they can not be salted. If the taste seems insipid, the dish is flavored with lemon juice, herbs, and spicy spices.
- Strongly brewed tea (green, black), coffee, cocoa, drinks containing alcohol are the cause of vasospasm, which causes the heart to work more intensively. In addition, they excite the nervous system. The possibility of using these products is determined in each individual case.
- Animal fats – make the body produce cholesterol, clogging blood vessels and restricting the flow of blood to the heart and other internal organs.
- Easily assimilated, or fast carbohydrates (sugars) – cause obesity.
In the diet increase the content of such food:
- Vegetable origin (vegetables, fruits, cereals), because they are rich in dietary fiber (fiber), do not allow the absorption of harmful cholesterol and reduce its amount in the blood. Also, cellulose causes a feeling of satiety and prevents overeating.
- Products with magnesium and potassium – mineral substances that strengthen the heart muscle and increase its endurance.
- Products with vitamin C, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels. To maximize the content of ascorbic acid, reduce the time of heat treatment of the product or use it in its raw form.
Patients who suffer from hypertension or are prone to it, are prescribed a diet. The principles of the diet according to this table are the following:
- The daily frequency of meals is five to six times.
- The temperature of the dishes is as usual.
- Processing: meat and fish are first boiled, and only then fried or baked.
- Daily salt restriction – up to 8 g (according to 3-4 grams in dishes as seasoning).
- The volume of free liquid is 1200 ml (allow for liquid food – borscht, soups, drink).
- Energy value – from 2,3 to 2,6 thousand kcal.
- Dinner – in 19.00, or for 3 hours before going to bed.
A person suffering from high blood pressure must receive iodine, it can be obtained from pumpkin seeds
A person suffering from high blood pressure should not tolerate a deficiency of vitamins C, PP, B2, B6, rutin, quercetin, hesperidin. In addition to potassium and magnesium, the body must receive iodine. To avoid a heart attack, it is important to maintain a normal level of zinc in the body. It can be obtained from pumpkin seeds, enough 20 g per day.
To find out how many proteins, fats and carbohydrates are contained in a product, just look at the label. The same information is posted on the Internet.
Products that increase pressure
Patients with high blood pressure are prohibited or restricted:
- eggs – fried or cooked to a hard yolk;
- partially fish menu – fatty fish varieties (Caspian sprat, herring, mackerel, eel, halibut), caviar, and also cooked by the method of smoking, canning;
- the first dishes – broths, cooked from fish and meat, and also from mushrooms;
- vegetable stock – salted and sour;
- some vegetables and spicy herbs – onion, spinach, rare, radish, garlic;
- meat fatty – duck, goose, as well as liver, kidneys, other by-products, smoked products, canned products;
- grape juice;
- floury – fresh, puffed, baked pastry;
- milk products – fatty (above 40%) and salty kinds of cheese;
- animals and cooking fats;
- dishes with legumes, mushrooms.
Fish is a source of omega-acids. They are built into the structure of the cell membranes of the heart, which improves the electrophysiological properties of the organ, reduces the likelihood of ventricular fibrillation, eliminates inflammation. Meat recedes into the background.
When hypertension is necessary to consume a large number of fish
In the menu you can include such products and dishes:
- cereals in the form of cereals, casseroles;
- oil – vegetable, moderately – cow’s cream unsalted, melted;
- milk group – fermented (1,5%), kefir (1,0-1,8%), sour cream (10-15%), natural yoghurt low-fat (1-2%), lean cottage cheese (up to 5%);
- lean meat and sausages-chicken, rabbit, turkey, veal, pork, beef, limit the cooked sausage in the diet;
- drinking – slightly boiled tea, soft drinks, juices, kissels;
- low-fat breeds of fish – cod, navaga, pollock, hake, blue whiting, flounder, mollusks, cancerous;
- low-fat milk or fat-free and products from it – cheese-curd group, drinks (natural yoghurt, fermented milk, yogurt);
- vegetables – raw or thermally processed (baked, boiled, stewed), limit the use of cabbage and green peas, greens – as an additive to the main dishes;
- soups from fruits and vegetables, it is allowed to add cereals, sour cream, greens;
- bakery products – biscuit, biscuit biscuits, bread of wheat I and II sorts in the form of toast or yesterday;
- fruits, berries – ripe, frozen, dried or fresh;
- eggs – no more than one per day, with liquid yolk, in the form of omelettes, as an additive to other dishes –
- more than one a day, with liquid yolk, in the form of omelettes, as an additive to other dishes – borsch, salads.
When hypertension is recommended to lean on buckwheat, which used to only be used to treat high blood pressure. Groats contain rutin and quercetin, which purify the vessels. And it is better not to cook buckwheat, but steam it with boiling water for the night.
Make your menu simple, if you use the recommendations above. Here is an approximate menu for the week, so that the patient can easily navigate.
At night, it is recommended to drink tea with potassium. Kalina has an antihypertensive effect and cleans blood vessels. If you want ordinary tea, then it is better to drink it with lemon. Citrus is rich in vitamin C, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels.