Arterial hypertension is a widespread disease – currently in Russia it suffers about 40% of the adult population. Hypertension is a harbinger of heart attacks and strokes, which kills every sixth inhabitant of our planet. In our country, mortality from strokes remains one of the highest in the world.
Those who believe that it is possible to cope with the disease only with medicines, are mistaken. Treatment and prevention of exacerbations of hypertension require a certain diet.
With the processes of digestion the work of the entire cardiovascular system is closely related. Abundant food overflows the stomach, it can move the diaphragm and thereby obstruct the work of the heart. Overload creates and excess fluid. And if there is too much salt in the diet, then in the tissues of the body water is delayed, this helps increase blood pressure and sometimes leads to swelling.
Diets recommended for arterial hypertension should not allow the development of atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders and, if necessary, contribute to weight loss. For such diets is characterized by a reduced content of animal fats and carbohydrates, limiting cholesterol, salt and extractives.
At the same time, these diets are rich in vitamins, essential fatty acids, fiber, minerals and contain substances that contribute to the breakdown of fats. Food is recommended to be cooked in a crushed form by boiling or baking. Eating is carried out 5-6 once a day.
Foods and dishes recommended for hypertension:
- rye bread, wheat, cooked from flour 1-th and 2-th grades with the addition of bran, “Health”;
- meat of low-fat varieties (beef, veal, poultry) in boiled or baked form;
- jellied from boiled meat, chicken or turkey on vegetable broth;
- ham low-fat;
- fish of low-fat species, boiled or baked;
- dishes from seafood (squid, shrimp, mussels, scallops, sea kale, etc.);
- eggs boiled soft-boiled (not more than three pieces per week), egg whites, steamed;
- skimmed milk, lactic acid drinks of low fat content, low-fat cottage cheese, unsalted cheeses of low-fat varieties;
- vegetable oils (mostly unrefined);
- porridges crumbly, puddings and casseroles from oat, buckwheat, barley groats;
- vegetables in raw, boiled and baked form;
- borsch, soup, vegetable soups, vegetarian with cereals and potatoes, soups dairy, fruit;
- fresh fruits and berries, dried fruits, jelly, compotes, jellies, mousses;
- sauces on vegetable broth, gravy dairy, fruit, berry;
- citric acid, cinnamon, vanillin.
Products and dishes that are recommended in limited quantities:
- sour cream low-fat, butter;
- mushrooms, rutabaga, turnip, sorrel, spinach;
- tea is not strong, coffee-surrogate with the addition of skim milk, vegetable, fruit, berry juices, broth of wild rose.
Foods and dishes not recommended for arterial hypertension:
- fatty varieties, duck, goose, fried meat, by-products (brains, liver, kidneys);
- fatty breeds, salted, smoked fish, caviar, canned fish;
- smoked products, canned food, sausages;
- fatty cream, cheeses of salty fatty varieties, fat cottage cheese;
- animals and cooking fats;
- croup of semolina, rich meat, fish and mushroom broths;
- confectionery with cream, cream ice cream, chocolate;
- sauces, meat, fish, mushroom, pepper, mustard;
- strong tea, natural coffee, cocoa.
Sample diet menu for hypertension:
First breakfast: cream cheese – 120 g, oatmeal porridge – 200 g, wholemeal bread – 70 g, tea with skim milk addition – 200 ml.
Second breakfast: fresh apples – 200
Lunch: Vegetarian vegetable soup – 250 ml, boiled meat – 55 g, carrot puree – 150 g, wholemeal bread – 70 g, fresh apple compote – 200 ml.
Snack: fruit fresh – 150 g, rose hips – 200 ml.
Dinner: boiled fish – 85 g, boiled potatoes – 150 g, pilaf fruit – 90 g, wholemeal bread – 70 g, tea with the addition of skim milk – 200 ml.
At night: kefir fat-free – 200 ml.
First breakfast: freshly prepared fruit or vegetable juice – 200 ml, toast and curd fat-free with 1-2 h. Spoons of jam – 150 g, green or herbal tea – 150 ml, apple.
The second breakfast: fruit salad – 180 g, tea or mineral water – 200 ml.
Lunch: vegetable salad with olive oil – 200 g, stew or fish – 100 g, vegetable stew – 140 g, rye bread – 50 g, vegetable or fruit juice with pulp – 200 ml.
Afternoon snack: fruit fresh – 150 g, muesli – 50 g, mineral water – 200 ml. Dinner: vegetable salad on vegetable oil – 250 g,
natural yoghurt – 75 g, rye bread – 50. At night: kefir fat-free – 20 ml, apple. In the absence of the effect of dietary therapy, so-called special diets (fruit and vegetable, potassium, magnesium, hyponatric, etc.) are prescribed. Such diets are inferior, so they can only be used in the form of short cycles or replace unloading days.
The diet is prescribed for hypertension, accompanied by massive edema and circulatory insufficiency. Potassium diet helps to increase the amount of excreted urine, lower blood pressure, has an anti-inflammatory effect.
For this diet is characterized by a restriction of the energy value of nutrition, increasing the content of fluid in the diet, a sharp restriction of sodium, the complete exclusion of extractives and salt.
Food is prepared in the usual ways, without the addition of salt. Number of meals – up to six per day. In addition to the basic diet, the use of foods rich in potassium (cabbage, potatoes, raisins, dried apricots, prunes, dog-rose, apples, figs) is recommended.
First breakfast: salad of fresh cabbage – 150 g, buckwheat cereal cereal loose – 90 g, coarse bread with bran addition – 50 g, coffee with skim milk addition – 200 ml.
The second breakfast: freshly squeezed cabbage juice – 100 ml, prunes soaked – 80
Lunch: Vegetarian vegetable soup – 250 ml, rice with boiled meat – 70 g, wholemeal bread with addition of bran – 50 g, boar brew – 200 ml.
Afternoon snack: dried apricots – 80
Dinner: fish filling – 200 g, potato zrazes – 250 g, wholemeal bread with bran addition – 50 g, tea with skim milk addition – 200 ml.
At night: kefir fat-free – 200
Rice diet is a kind of potassium. It is prescribed for arterial hypertension, accompanied by circulatory insufficiency and massive edema. Promotes an increase in the amount of excreted urine, lowering blood pressure, has anti-inflammatory effect. The rice diet is characterized by a sharp decrease in protein and fat content, limiting the energy value of products, a significant limitation of sodium.
Daily set of products for rice diet: 50 g rice, 1,5 kg fresh fruit (fresh fruit can be replaced 240 g dried), 100 g sugar. The diet consists of rice porridge, cooked on water without salt, and fruit compote, which is recommended to drink 1 a glass of 6 once a day. Since the rice diet is inferior in its chemical composition, it is allowed to consume no more than 3-4 days.
Cottage cheese diet is used for arterial hypertension, accompanied by atherosclerosis and circulatory insufficiency. Daily set of products for curd diets: 600 g fresh fat-free cottage cheese, 50-60 ml of low-fat sour cream and 100 g of sugar. It is recommended to distribute the products on 5 receptions.
This diet has a pronounced diuretic effect due to the calcium salts contained in large quantities in curd. In addition, the amino acid methionine, which is also found in cottage cheese, contributes to the destruction and elimination of fat from the body.
Magnesium diet is recommended for arterial hypertension, accompanied by atherosclerosis.
This diet contributes to increasing the amount of excreted urine, reducing blood pressure, reducing blood cholesterol, has anti-inflammatory effect.
For the magnesium diet, low energy value is characteristic with its subsequent increase, restriction of the consumed liquid, exclusion from the diet of salt, introduction of a higher amount of magnesium into the diet. Number of meals – 6 once a day, the products are processed in the usual way, the dishes are prepared without the addition of salt.
In the diet are introduced products that are rich in magnesium (cereals: oatmeal, buckwheat, millet, bread, cooked from wholemeal flour, legumes, nuts, vegetables, greens).
First breakfast: porridge buckwheat crumbly – 150 g, wheat wheat bran – 50 g, tea with the addition of skim milk – 180 ml.
The second breakfast: carrot juice – 100 ml, broth from black currant dry – 100 ml, sugar – 5
Lunch: Vegetarian borscht with broth of wheat bran – 25 ml, rice pilaf with dried apricots – 90 g, wheat wheat bran – 50 g, rose hips – 200 ml, sugar – 5
Afternoon snack: apricot juice – 100 ml.
Dinner: souffle curd steam – 150 g, wheat wheat bran – 50 g, tea with the addition of skim milk – 180 ml.
At night: broth of dogrose – 100 ml, sugar – 5
First breakfast: freshly grated carrots with apples – 150 g, buckwheat porridge – 300 g, wheat bran bread – 50 g, tea with skim milk – 200 ml, sugar – 5
Second breakfast: prunes soaked – 100
Lunch: borsch vegetarian with broth from bran – 250 g, meat lean baked – 85 g, salad of grated white cabbage with dressing from lemon juice – 160 g, wheat wheat bran – 50 g, jelly from dried berries of black currant – 200 ml, sugar – 5
Afternoon snack: fresh apples – 150
Dinner: carrot-apple schnitzel – 230 g, souffle from cottage cheese – 150 g, wheat wheat bran – 50 g, tea with lemon – 200 ml, sugar – 5
At night: broth of dogrose – 200 ml, sugar – 5
Fruit and vegetable diet is recommended for arterial hypertension in patients who are overweight. This diet contributes to increasing the secretion of urine, lowering blood pressure, reducing body weight. For the fruit and vegetable diet is characterized by a reduced energy value of products, high content of potassium, a limited amount of liquid and sodium. Products processed in the usual way, the dishes are prepared without the addition of salt. Number of meals – 5 once a day. The products recommended for the fruit and vegetable diet: fruits, berries, vegetables in raw, boiled and baked form.
First breakfast: carrot-apple salad with vegetable oil – 150 g, broth of wild rose or blackcurrant berries – 200 ml, bread from coarse flour with addition of bran – 30
The second breakfast: carrot juice – 100 ml, vegetable puree – 150
Lunch: cranberry soup with crunches – 250 ml, vegetable salad with vegetable oil – 180 g, bread with whole-meal flour with bran addition – 50
Afternoon snack: grated vegetables (choice: carrots, beets, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini) – 150 g, nuts – 100 g, broth of wild rose or black currant berries – 200 ml, sugar – 5.
Dinner: vegetable vinaigrette with vegetable oil – 200 g, bread with wholemeal flour with bran addition – 50 g, compote of dried fruits – 200 ml.
Hyponodium diet is recommended for arterial hypertension complicated by atherosclerosis, and with symptomatic arterial hypertension.
This diet reduces the increased excitability of the central nervous system, improves the functional state of the kidneys, lowers blood pressure.
Hyponodium diet is characterized by an optimal energy value, a sufficient content of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. The diet reduces the number of simple carbohydrates, limited amount of extractives, salt, liquid, substances that have an exciting effect on the kidneys, nervous and cardiovascular systems. The diet is enriched with products containing vitamins, vegetable fiber, substances that break down fats. All dishes are prepared without the addition of salt, it is allowed to lightly brown meat and fish dishes.
The number of meals is 5-6 once a day. Recommended soups (on water or vegetable broth), meat and fish of low-fat varieties, various vegetables in raw, boiled, stewed, cereals, legumes, pasta from durum wheat, milk, dairy products, white sauces, fruits, berries. Excluded from the ration are rich meat, fish, mushroom broths, meat and fish of fatty varieties, smoked meats, marinades, pickles, strong tea, coffee, drinks containing alcohol, chocolate.
First breakfast: soufflé from baked meat – 100 g, oatmeal porridge – 300 g, wheat bread with bran – 50 g, tea – 200 ml, sugar – 5
Second breakfast: fresh fruit – 100
Lunch: vegetable soup on chicken broth – 250 ml, chicken stewed – 120 g, boiled boiled crumbly – 130 g, rye bread – 70 g, compote of fresh fruit – 200 ml, sugar – 5
Afternoon snack: sweet crusts – 25 g, broth of wild rose or black currant berries – 200 ml, sugar – 5
Dinner: fish filling – 200 g, carrot salad with prunes – 200 g, rye bread – 50 g, tea – 200 ml, sugar – 5 g.
At night: kefir fat-free – 200 ml.
Patients with arterial hypertension, suffering from excess weight and circulatory insufficiency, should, on the background of the basic diet 1-2 once a week, arrange unloading days. Unloading day is a special medical diet, a kind of switching day in the diet.
Unloading days lead to a steady decrease in weight, as urinary output increases, fat reserves in the body decrease, metabolism is normalized, the excretion of salts and wastes is accelerated, and the cardiovascular system is maximally discharged. Unloading days, depending on the prevalence of dietary substances in the diet are divided into:
- protein (meat, meat-vegetable, dairy, curd);
- carbohydrate (vegetable, fruit, rice-fruit, berry, sugar);
- fat (cream, sour, oil);
The use of diet as an important component of complex treatment of patients with essential hypertension is built taking into account the specific features of the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease.
The purpose of the diet is as follows:
- full compensation of the physiological needs of the organism in basic food substances (proteins, fats, carbohydrates), essential nutritional factors (essential amino acids, PUFA, vitamins, trace elements, etc.);
- restriction in the diet of intake of table salt to the optimum minimum value (2-3 g) with the delivery of it to the patient’s hands for salting ready meals. With high hypertension – a complete short-term exclusion of salt, taking into account 2-3 г its content in the products themselves;
- restriction of the content in the free liquid diet to 1-1,2 l per day, extractives;
- the achievement of conformity of energy intake with food energy expenditure.