Treatment of any diseases of the liver and pancreas almost always includes compliance with the diet. Both these important organs are closely connected and interact with each other. Problems with the liver will always affect the condition of the pancreas.
Diet in case of liver disease is necessary in order to relieve the burden from these organs and enable them to recover. On the other hand, the diet is aimed at maximum supply of nutrients and vitamins, for a speedy recovery.
Nutrition for liver diseases is carried out in small portions, the number of meals 5-6 per day. Dishes should be cooked, cooked for a couple or baked with a minimum amount of salt (no more than 8 grams per day). Vegetables and cereals in soups are well cooked, it is possible up to a stage of soup-mash.
From foodstuffs it is necessary to completely exclude:
- fried food;
- spicy dishes and seasonings (including horseradish, garlic, mustard, pepper, sorrel);
- smoked products;
- all broths (except vegetable);
- beans (bean broth too);
- vegetables, stimulating bile secretion – radish, spinach, radish, green onions, wild garlic;
- fatty meat, fat, duck, goose;
- mushrooms and mushroom broth;
- chocolate and all products from it;
- all fatty sweet creams and ice cream;
- products containing essential oils;
- fresh bread, muffin.
In the diet of the patient should be a lot of fluid (2-2,5 liters per day), fiber, proteins and pectins. In a properly composed diet, animal proteins are 60%, vegetable fats are 20%, the rest is carbohydrates. Carbohydrates should be presented by mono-, di- and polysaccharides. Disaccharide sucrose (sugar) used in combination with fruit purees, jelly, compotes and preserves. But it is more rational to receive a part of mono and disaccharides from fresh (sweet) fruits and honey, or replace sugar with sorbitol.
Recommended for use:
- milk fat-free products (yogurt, yoghurt, non-acid curd, milk, fermented baked milk);
- vegetarian soups with finely chopped or wiped vegetables and boiled rice, semolina or oatmeal;
- kritsa and turkey without skin;
- low-fat beef, rabbit;
- boiled vegetables (carrots, potatoes, zucchini, cauliflower, beetroot, pumpkin);
- juices, black tea with lemon, kissel, broth of wild rose.
- white bread (can be dried), dry uneaten cookies;
- crushed viscous porridges of rice, oatmeal, semolina and buckwheat groats, boiled vermicelli;
- soft ripe fruits and berries in a raw and shabby form;
- in ready meals you can add butter and vegetable oil.
Chronic forms of the disease and the stage of recovery
During chronic hepatitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, which proceeds without exacerbations, or acute cholecystitis and hepatitis, in the process of recovery we allow a more free diet.
The diet limits the consumption of animal fats, and the plant’s make up to 30%, proteins up to 55%. The amount of salt can be increased to 10-11 grams per day, and the liquid should be up to 2 l. To prevent the entry of lipids into the liver, the menu requires infiltration products. Contraindicated products containing nitrogenous substances, rich in cholesterol, purines, citric and oxalic acid.
Vegetables can be boiled, baked and raw. Beans only in the form of puree cooked from green peas. In sweets (jams, jelly, marmalade, compotes) instead of sugar, you can partially add glucitol (sorbitol). Fruits are allowed in any form – fresh, boiled and baked, except for fruits containing a large amount of organic acids.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis
In chronic pancreatitis, the diet is shown outside the stage of exacerbation. The purpose of the diet is to reduce the burden on the liver and gallbladder, normalize the function of the pancreas, prevent the accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes and pancreatic cells (fatty infiltration). Another goal of the diet is the maximum rest for the stomach – mechanical and chemical.
The main feature of this type of dietary nutrition is the minimum amount of sucrose disaccharide, increased intake of proteins, vitamins and infiltrates (lipotropic substances).
The menu restricts or excludes products containing cholesterol, refractory fats, essential oils, purino-containing substances and coarse fiber.
The diet contains little salt – up to 10g / day and provides 5-6 meals per day. The amount of liquid 1,3-1,5 l, animal protein 62-65%, and 15-20% vegetable fats, 15-20% carbohydrates.
This is a very tough diet, excluding even raw vegetables and fruits, confectionery, jams, juices with sugar, all kinds of snacks and broths. Fruits and vegetables, cooked or baked, from raw fruits are only sweet, mashed to the state of mashed potatoes without the addition of sugar. Compotes and kissels with a small amount of sugar substitute.
Recommended foods for a diet:
- meat of low-fat varieties (beef, veal, rabbit) and poultry (chicken, turkey) boiled or steamed, chopped or grinded;
- low-fat fish;
- wheat bread from flour I-II grade, preferably dried;
- 1-2 eggs per day in the form of a steam omelet;
- fresh low-fat cottage cheese, steam curd pudding;
- porridge on water or in half with milk (oatmeal, rice, semolina, buckwheat)
- It is allowed to use vegetarian cream soups with mashed vegetables, into which you can add cereals (oat, buckwheat, rice and semolina) and a little butter or sour cream;
- from drinks you can compote of dried fruits or fresh fruit, broth of wild rose, weak tea, jelly, fruit and berry juices without sugar with the addition of water;
- vegetables (carrots, potatoes, cauliflower, beets) in a shabby form, boiled or baked.
Nutrition is recommended for patients with acute cholecystitis and hepatitis, chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver with moderately expressed hepatic insufficiency, cholelithiasis, as well as with simultaneous lesion of the liver and bile ducts, stomach and intestines.
The food is cooked on water or steam, rubbed. Products that enhance the processes of fermentation and putrefaction in the intestine, sharply enhancing the excretory function of the stomach, pancreas, intensifying bile secretion and irritating liver are excluded.
When a liver disease is combined with an acute chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer, the food is given in a cleaned form.
What can you eat with liver disease?
Currently, modern medicine has significantly expanded the list of products that can be consumed daily for people who have various liver diseases. Despite this, it is important for such patients not to overburden this organ in order to avoid possible complications. The amount of fat during the course of treatment of patients should be severely limited.
In liver diseases, patients are allowed different products:
- Cereals in the form of cereals (not strongly boiled);
- Pasta should be consumed in limited quantities;
- Dairy and sour-milk products (low-fat cottage cheese, low-fat sour cream, fermented milk, milk, kefir, yogurt, etc.);
- Low-fat varieties of meat (veal, beef, turkey, chicken, rabbit, etc.);
- River and sea fish;
- Eggs, in the form of an omelet or in the composition of other dishes (chicken and quail);
- Vegetables and greens (should limit the amount of legumes and those vegetables that contain coarse fiber);
- Fruit (do not eat pear);
- Honey (it is an excellent substitute for sugar, but it should be consumed in limited quantities), etc.
Despite the fact that during treatment patients should limit the amount of sugar, gastroenterologists allow them some sweets:
Mousses (cooked from berries or fruits);
When passing any course of treatment, it is important for patients to maintain a normal water balance in the body.
When liver diseases should be given preference to the following drinks:
- Compotes from berries and dried fruits;
- Kiselys brewed from berries;
- Natural vegetable and fruit and berry juices;
People with liver disease should prepare the food in the following way:
- Cooking on steam;
- Bake in the oven;
- Eat in a leavened and raw form.
What can not be eaten with liver disease?
In case of problems with the liver, it is strictly forbidden to eat smoked, sharp, fatty and fried foods that can provoke an exacerbation of the disease.
Gastroenterologists forbid their patients to use the following products during the course of treatment:
- Fatty grades of meat (pork, lamb, etc.);
- Some varieties of poultry (especially it is not recommended to eat meat of waterfowl – ducks, geese, etc.);
- Broths (mushroom and meat);
- Cheeses, especially fatty varieties;
- Butter, smalets, margarine and culinary fat;
- Canned food (fish, meat, etc.);
- Smoked products (sausages, sausages, sausages, balyk, loin, etc.);
- Seasonings (pepper, vinegar, mustard, etc.);
- Some vegetables and herbs (radish, sorrel, radish, green and onion, garlic);
- Fresh pastries, as well as rye bread;
- Candy and chocolate;
- Any confectionery, which includes fat cream;
- Alcohol and alcohol-containing drinks;
- Coffee and coffee drinks;
- Sweet and carbonated drinks;
- Sour fruit juices;
- Bread (with some diseases it is allowed to use stale, or dried in the oven white bread).
Diet after liver surgery
During the postoperative treatment, patients with liver problems should completely eliminate the use of salt, sugar, spices and spices. The same ban is imposed on fatty, fried, sauerkraut and smoked products. Patients who underwent surgical treatment should not consume natural juices, since they are too concentrated. The daily volume of food should be divided into 5-6 parts and taken at a strictly prescribed time.
When undergoing rehabilitation, which aims to restore the liver, patients should limit their daily diet to the amount of carbohydrates.
To avoid possible complications in the postoperative period, patients should adhere to a sparing diet, which includes the following products:
- Bran (they need to be added to different dishes);
- Kashi (do not use corn and rice);
- Sukhari (white wheat bread can be dried in the oven);
- Milk and low-fat cottage cheese (it is better not to consume milk products);
- Low-fat varieties of meat and fish (it is better to use chicken or veal);
- Abundant drink (pure water, mineral water).
All the permitted products must be prepared as follows: boil, cook, steamed, baked or eaten raw. During the passage of postoperative rehabilitation, patients should consume vegetable fats, spices and sugar in limited quantities.