About iron deficiency anemia is said when there is a deficiency of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood (110 and less g / l).
Basic rules of therapeutic nutrition with low hemoglobin
The goal pursued by therapeutic nutrition in anemia is to provide the body with all nutrients, vitamins and trace elements, in particular, iron, which is necessary to increase the level of hemoglobin. This diet increases the defenses of the body, restores its functions and improves the patient’s quality of life.
The diet for iron deficiency anemia is physiologically complete, its caloric content is high, and the content of proteins, microelements and vitamins is increased. Carbohydrates remain at the standard level, and the fat content is somewhat reduced.
Daily content of nutrients, vitamins and microelements:
- proteins – 120g, of which at least 60% of proteins of animal origin;
- fats – 80-90, of which 30% of vegetable fats;
- carbohydrates – 300-350;
- vitamin A – 1mg;
- carotene – 8,5mg;
- vitamin B1 – 2mg;
- vitamin B6 – 4mg;
- nicotinic acid – 30mg;
- vitamin C – 200mg;
- sodium – 4;
- calcium – 1,4;
- magnesium – 0,6;
- phosphorus – 2,2;
- iron – 0,055.
The energy value of the diet is 3000-3500 kilocalories per day.
The food should be fractional: from 4 to 6 once a day. Frequent intake of small amounts of food stimulates the patient’s appetite (and in anemia it is usually weakened), allows the maximum assimilation of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements, as well as normalizes the digestive tract, which is important if the patient has co-morbidities. Fractional food allows the body to better perceive dishes and foods that are highly caloric.
The temperature of food should be standard, as in other diets (15-60 degrees Celsius). Too cold or hot food irritates the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, which has a negative effect on digestion and, in particular, on the assimilation of iron.
Any culinary processing of products (stewing, steaming, cooking or baking) is allowed, except frying. When frying, a large amount of fat is used, which is contraindicated in anemia, forming products of their oxidation, negatively affecting the human body as a whole, and especially – the digestive tract.
The intake of alcohol in medical nutrition with iron deficiency anemia is excluded. Ethyl alcohol disrupts the absorption of iron and other trace elements and adversely affects liver function, where hemoglobin breaks down and bilirubin is synthesized. And because during anemia the body also lacks hemoglobin, in the presence of the underlying disease it can lead to jaundice.
The use of free fluid in anemia is within the physiological norm (2-2,5 liters). Reducing the drinking norm leads to a thickening of the blood, which aggravates the hypoxic processes that occur with anemia. Table salt is used in the normal amount – 8-12g, and with reduced gastric secretion for the synthesis of hydrochloric acid, the intake of sodium chloride increases to 15g.
First of all, in the diet with iron deficiency anemia should contain an increased amount of proteins, which increase the digestibility of iron by the body and are necessary substances for the construction of hemoglobin.
Up to 2 / 3 parts from the consumed amount of proteins must have an animal origin.
It is important to introduce more often into the menu of the patient foods rich in trace elements, involved in blood formation (iron, cobalt, zinc, manganese). These micronutrients are found in many cereals, meat products, vegetables and greens.
Consumption of vitamins (group B, folic and nicotinic acid, vitamin C) should increase by 1,5-2 times. Ascorbic acid helps to assimilate the gland, and the other listed vitamins take part in the hematopoiesis. Vitamins in large quantities are found in vegetables, fruits and berries.
Calcium is necessary for the bone system, in addition, it regulates the work of the cardiovascular system and takes part in blood clotting. You can get calcium from dairy products, it makes sense to take into account that the intake of dairy and protein products is incompatible, since calcium makes it difficult to digest iron.
The list of products with iron deficiency anemia is quite extensive, the patient is recommended almost everything, if there are no specific restrictions for the reception of individual dishes:
- bread any, but preferably bran (source of B vitamins);
- rich soups and soups from them (contain extractive substances that stimulate appetite);
- meat of low-fat varieties, beef tongue, veal, beef, pork liver (predominantly) and beef, kidneys – iron source;
- salads from fresh vegetables, seasoned with vegetable oil – sources of vitamins;
- jellied fish or tongue;
- canned fish, any fish;
- low-fat poultry;
- cereals, especially buckwheat, barley, oatmeal – a source of iron;
- caviar red and black, any seafood;
- milk and lactic acid products, including cottage cheese and cheese;
- Smoked meat (in the absence of contraindications);
- any greens in large quantities – a source of folic acid;
- sauces: milk, egg, sour, tomato;
- Spices in an acceptable amount (they contain many trace elements, besides, they excite appetite);
- eggs in any form;
- honey – a source of microelements, jam, sugar, any sweets;
- currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, strawberries (lots of vitamin C);
- any fruit, especially apricots and peaches;
- butter and vegetable oils in dishes moderately (easily assimilated fats);
- juices, preferably with pulp, broth of dogrose, weak tea, broth of wheat and oatmeal;
- garnishes any;