The term “inflammation of the kidneys” refers to a group of kidney diseases of the inflammatory (autoimmune) nature – nephritis, proceeding with the defeat of various structures (tubules, cup-pelvis, glomeruli and vessels) of the kidneys. Inflammation of the kidney in adults (nephritis) is a collective concept, including diseases such as acute / chronic glomerulonephritis (are involved in the inflammatory process mainly glomerulus of the kidneys), acute / chronic pyelonephritis (the pathological process affects the pelvis and calyx) and interstitial nephritis (interstitial – interstitial tissue of the kidney is involved in the inflammatory process).
Diet with inflammation of the kidneys in adults is a mandatory and essential condition for their effective treatment.
The main diet for inflammation of the kidneys is aimed at shaking the kidneys, reducing swelling, improving the excretion of nitrogen metabolism from the body and normalization blood pressure.
The diet provides for the restriction of the protein component (up to 80 g, mainly due to meat / fish proteins) with the physiologically normal content of other nutritional nutrients (95-100 g fat and 420-450 g carbohydrates). The energy value of the ration varies within 2700-2950 kcal / day.
The main princes of building a diet with nephritis are:
- Food is prepared without salt, but it can be consumed in small amounts (3-6 g per day), depending on the severity of the symptoms and the level of kidney failure, which is provided for in the diet. So, in an acute period the salt is excluded completely, and for chronic nephritis, which proceeds without disturbance of renal function in the stage of remission, its use can be increased to 7-8 g per day. In the presence of severe arterial hypertension, its intake is reduced to 5
- Preference should be given not to meat / fish proteins, but to more readily digestible milk proteins and egg whites. The nutritional value of vegetable proteins is much lower. To reduce extractive substances, meat and fish must undergo a two-stage degree of technological processing – first boiled, and then baked or stewed.
- From the diet, foods that contain large amounts of essential oils – fresh onion and garlic, basil, dill, parsley and oxalic acid – fresh spinach and sorrel are excluded from the diet.
- Obligatory products that have a pronounced diuretic effect – watermelon, green salads, pumpkin, cucumbers, beets, zucchini, raisins, dried apricots, fresh apricots, prunes.
- Mandatory additional inclusion in the diet of tablets vitamin-mineral complex.
- The use of free liquid is limited to 1,0 l. It is desirable to track daily diuresis and the amount of fluid used should not exceed diuresis in the past 24 hours and at 300 ml.
- Power 5 is single, the weight of the daily ration should be within 2,4-, 2,8 kg.
- Caffeine-containing foods and drinks are excluded (tea, coffee, chocolate, cocoa, cola), alcoholic beverages, spicy and salty, dishes, irritating kidneys, sodium mineral waters.
With a heavy current of jade or the presence of a pronounced renal failure in the chronic form of the disease, another diet is prescribed. Its feature is the preferential inclusion in the diet of plant products, complete absence of salt, a sharp restriction of proteins (up to 20 g / day). The amount of fluid consumed depends on the diuresis rate for the past day.
The diet is prescribed for a short period (not more than 3 weeks) and as the azotemia and acute process decrease, the patient is transferred to a diet where the amount of protein is increased to 40 g and the fluid intake within 1-1,2 l.
- Preparation of soups on non-concentrated vegetable broth with inclusion of well-brewed cereals, vegetables, vermicelli, seasoned with butter, low-fat sour cream with greenery.
- Restriction of salt, diet should include salt-free bread of home baking and other flour products without salt. Prisalivat a small amount of salt (3-5 g / day) allowed only ready-made meals.
- The second dishes are prepared from dietary meat (chicken and turkey without skin, beef, lamb), pre-boiled, and then frying or baking. Fish is also used in low-fat varieties, boiled and then baked. For a variety of tastes, you can use sour cream, milk, tomato, any vegetable sauce, sweet gravies with the addition of permitted spicy herbs.
- As a side dish, it is allowed to use various cereals and pasta cooked on the water from which you can cook cutlets with vegetables, puddings, casseroles with vermicelli and cottage cheese, pasta with jam and dried fruits.
- Also in the diet, you need to include vegetables (except celery, fresh onions, radish, radish, garlic), which can be cooked in a variety of ways – bake, cook, stew, and prepare salads from fresh vegetables, seasoning them with vegetable oil and adding dried herbs (dill, cumin).
- From dairy products in the diet should be present curdled milk, milk, yogurt, cream, cottage cheese and dishes based on it with the addition of apples, carrots. Sour cream in a limited amount in the prepared meals is added lean.
- If you reduce the protein from meat / fish / cottage cheese, you can eat chicken eggs soft-boiled or in the form of an omelet, but not more than 2 pieces per day.
- You can eat ripe fruits and berries in any form – baked, mashed potatoes, jelly, kissels, compotes, jam. As desserts you can eat fruit ice cream, jams, honey, sweets (except chocolate). From drinks – freshly prepared juices, tea with lemon, broth of a dogrose, not strong coffee.