About 10% of the population of developed, economically well-off countries is obese. This is not surprising, because enthusiasm for fast food and a sedentary lifestyle lead to the appearance of excess body weight. In some cases, you can quickly get rid of extra pounds if you do sports and eat right. However, sometimes obesity becomes a serious threat not only to health, but also to life.
Obesity is considered a pathological condition in which the body weight of a person exceeds normal values. The last stage of this condition is morbid obesity.
The main sign of morbid obesity is the inability to get rid of extra pounds in the usual ways, for example, compliance with diet and increased physical activity. To return the normal weight in this case it is possible only with the help of a surgical operation.
Morbid obesity leads to irreversible consequences not only for physical, but also for psychological health. After all, excess weight is the cause of numerous complexes and social disadaptation, the inability to lead a normal lifestyle. Therefore, such obesity is considered a serious disease, which requires long-term treatment and rehabilitation.
Experts believe that the main factors provoking morbid obesity are the following:
- infectious diseases that caused metabolic disorders;
- pathology of the adrenal glands;
- genetic predisposition;
- traumatic lesion of the pituitary gland, caused, including by tumors;
- pathological processes affecting the thyroid and sex glands.
Thus, most often morbid obesity is caused by endocrine pathologies, due to which the metabolism is disrupted. There is an imbalance between the energy entering the body in the form of food and its consumption. As a result, the body begins to "store" fat tissue, which is stored in the form of extra pounds.
There are several types of morbid obesity:
- Alimanno-constitutional. It develops due to the fact that a person uses more food than necessary to maintain his life. To this type of obesity can lead and hormonal failure during pregnancy or menopause.
- Cerebral. In this case, excess weight appears due to damage to the brain structures responsible for the feeling of saturation.
- Endocrine. It arises because of endocrine pathologies, for example, in diabetes mellitus or Cushing's syndrome.
- Medicamentous. Obesity in this case is caused by long-term intake of medications that either stimulate appetite, or affect fat metabolism.
Important! Morbid obesity is a serious pathology, which can only be combated if the causes that lead to the appearance of excess weight are known. Fasting, taking medications for weight loss and uncontrolled physical activity can cause health as much harm as a few dozen extra pounds. Therefore, the fight against excess weight should be conducted under the supervision of specialists.
The following signs indicate that excess weight has become a serious problem:
- problems with movement, restriction of physical activity;
- dyspnea, which occurs even with minor loads;
- the appearance of diseases that are associated with excessive body weight, while increasing the risk of cancer, which are caused by a change in the hormonal background;
- pain in the joints and spine;
- constant drowsiness, fatigue and irritability;
- swelling of the extremities;
- increased sweating.
To determine the presence of obesity, a criterion such as body mass index (BMI) was developed. This figure is calculated by the following formula: the weight in kilograms should be divided by the height in meters, squared.
BMI is a fairly conventional indicator. It depends not only on the body weight, but also on the ratio of fat and muscle tissue in the body.
For example, athletes BMI may be elevated, but this indicates that the body has a lot of dense and heavy muscle tissue. Therefore, usually additional calculations are required that take into account not only the weight, but also the body volumes.
However, BMI still allows you to estimate approximately whether a person is at risk for obesity.
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Morbid obesity is said in case if BMI exceeds 40. In this case, immediate intervention of specialists is required, because excess fatty tissue becomes a threat to life. With an index exceeding 30, you should reconsider your lifestyle and take measures to reduce weight. The norm for women is the BMI from 19 to 25, and for men – 20-25.
Prevention of obesity through nutrition
Like any other disease, obesity is easier to prevent than cure. Therefore, it is important to observe the principles of proper nutrition. When drawing up a diet, you should take into account not only your taste preferences, but also your lifestyle. If a person works in the office, he needs to eat fewer calories than a miner or surgeon.
Do not get involved in fast food: dieticians do not recommend eating fast food more often 1 times a week. You can not often drink carbonated drinks that contain a large amount of sugar, which is quickly absorbed and stored in the form of fat stores.
For the prevention of obesity should refuse snacks. Often, most calories come not with the main dishes, but with "food rubbish", which is used throughout the day. It's about crackers, chips, cookies and sweets that do not contain valuable nutrients, but they are quite high in calories. As snacks you can use fruits, such as kiwi or apples.
People who have a labile nervous system and are subject to stress are also susceptible to obesity: they "seize" negative experiences, gradually gaining extra pounds.
The main principle of a diet for obesity is the creation of a diet in which the amount of calories delivered to the body must be less than the energy expenditure. As a result, there is a deficit, replenished by the body due to splitting of adipose tissue.
Experts recommend for obesity to use no more than 1500-1600 kcal per day.
Food should be healthy and healthy. You should not allow a lot of fatty foods, salty, baked, as well as food rich in sugar.
It is important to reduce the amount of servings, while increasing the number of meals. Thanks to this, a person will not feel hungry, and the incoming food will quickly turn into energy. In addition, this principle of nutrition allows you to "unload" the gastrointestinal tract and gradually reduce the volume of the stomach.
When extra pounds start to threaten life, you need to urgently reduce weight. Modern medicine offers several ways to get rid of this problem.
Such operations allow once and for all to solve the problem of excess weight. Operations are divided into 2 type. After the first type of intervention, the volume of the stomach decreases, so that the patient simply can not consume large portions of food.
The second type of surgery is aimed at reducing the absorption and absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Operations can be performed as a classical method, that is, through a cut in the wall of the abdominal cavity, and through small punctures. The second option is preferable, since after such an intervention both the rehabilitation period and the risk of complications decrease.
Gastric banding is an establishment at the entrance to the stomach of the ring, which does not allow the patient to consume large amounts of food for 1 reception. After the intervention weight loss can be up to 50%. However, in recent years, banding has been almost completely abandoned. This is associated with a large number of complications after surgery and the need to periodically regulate the volume of the ring, which causes patients considerable inconvenience.
During surgery, the surgeon removes part of the stomach, reducing its volume. As a rule, the so-called hormone-producing zone, which produces the hormone of hunger, is removed. After surgery, a person loses the ability to eat large portions of food and quickly becomes saturated.
A few years after the intervention, the stomach may increase in volume, not reaching the same size. The operation is fairly simple to perform and rarely causes complications, so it is often used in morbid obesity.
Stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract by electrical impulses
The device called gastric stimulant was developed in 2000 year for getting rid of excess weight. The device stimulates the walls of the stomach with electrical impulses, causing them to contract. As a result of such exposure, the feeling of hunger decreases, and the patient gradually loses excess kilograms. At the same time, the patient can control the operation of the device with the help of a sensor, which is built into the skin.
Obesity is not a cosmetic problem, but a serious pathology. To cope with it will help an integrated approach: lifestyle change, diet and revision of their eating habits.
All the same, the main thing in my opinion is to use less fluid, and there will be no swelling, but spices to edema.
I could not stand it on one water. Tried a diet, but I was only up until the evening. Although feel.
Slacker diets here are given, I was hoping to find here something like abc, ad and similar diets From the summer I.
A good drug, most importantly – do not overdo it with a dosage, which seems to have been a couple of times.