Negatives or negative repetition (sets) is an effective method of increasing the intensity of training, increasing muscle mass and strength. Negative repetitions are also effective in stagnation in training.
This method consists in the fact that during the exercise, the trainee practically excludes the positive phase of repetition (lifting of gravity) and leaves only the negative (lowering of gravity). For example, performing a popular basic exercise bench press by the method of negatives, you independently perform only a slow lowering of the bar to your chest, and with the help of your partner carry out its ascent.
The use of the method of negatives in training can significantly increase working weight, since in the negative phase, muscles are able to develop a much greater effort. The main condition for using the technique of negative repetitions is the help of a partner who helps you to raise weight, and you in turn spend less energy on positive things and put yourself in a negative phase.
In some exercises, the negative can be done without the help of a partner, independently. These are all exercises that are performed with one hand or foot. For example, lifting dumbbells to the biceps. The positive phase of the exercise (lifting the dumbbell to the top point) is done with both hands, and the negative one (lowering) is done by one.
The method of negatives without the help of a partner can also be used in flexion and extension of legs and bench press.
In pull-ups, you can stand on a high stand, so that the chin is above the crossbar, then, with your legs crossed, slowly lower into the hanging place, then again stand on the stand and repeat all the actions to perform the next negative repetition. In push-ups on bars, the same technique is used.
Positive are called exercises that cause a shortening of the length of the muscles, and negative exercises are accompanied by stretching the muscles.
When lifting a large weight, your muscles are contracted, while they are shortened. With a slow lowering of the weight, your muscles again very strongly strain under the influence of gravity, but at the same time, their stretching increases (they lengthen). The musculature receives a tremendous stress from such an unnatural position, the muscle fibers are torn. As a result, the mechanism of healing of damaged muscles is activated, which leads to an increase in muscle growth. It turns out that by focusing on the implementation of the negative phase of the exercise, you spur your muscles to growth.
Negative repetitions very effectively affect your muscles, giving them the maximum load. And after doing negative repetitions for muscle recovery, you will need much more time.
Despite the benefits that you receive from the use of negative repetitions, it is not recommended to take them as the basis of your training, as they do not involve the positive phase of the training that you also need. To apply negative repetitions is necessary in the case when you have no progress for a long time and you feel that the muscles do not get an "explosive" load. Negatives will certainly wake them up and remind them of what a real load is!
You need to start the exercises with the weight that is your maximum, since negative repetitions with your working weight while tightening the negative phase for a few seconds will not bring any effect. The maximum is calculated from the position of maximum weight, which you can perform one repetition (once) without support. To this maximum, you need to add another 5% of the weight, that is, for example, if you put the maximum amount of 100 kg, then start with the weight in 105 kg.
The first negative repetition attempt is to execute for 8 seconds. If you do it in 3 seconds, the weight is too large. The negative phase should go 4-8 seconds.
To perform negative repetitions, athletes should have sufficient experience, have a solid base, since negatives present great stress for elbows and shoulders.
If you just started working with negatives, then it is better to perform them once every few weeks. With more frequent use of negative repetitions, there will be a drop in efficiency and the adaptation of muscles to such a load.
When doing negatives, you push out weight in a traditional manner, and lower it at a slower pace. Of course, this technique requires the maximum working weight that you raise with the training partner. Lowering the same weight is done only by yourself, as slowly as possible.
Negatives in the number of 2-3 approaches should be performed in the first exercise. Tighten the negative phase to 4-8 seconds. Try to perform as many repetitions as you have enough strength, since the amount is not important here.
Attention: perform negatives only in the simulators!