What are the benefits of cardiovascular exercise? Which of them will be the best choice for aerobic training? The article presents a detailed analysis of aerobic loads with examples and clear instructions. Know more!
Author: David Robson
To remove stubborn adipose tissue and bring the body into the optimal shape, you need at least some aerobic activity. The choice of exercises for cardio training is great, as is the choice of techniques that allow them to adapt to individual fitness goals. It is no wonder that it is easy to get confused in the variety of cardio training, and if you want to lose weight, dry out or show muscle relief, unnecessary knowledge will not interfere.
The question is not only what exercise aerobic training has the maximum efficiency. It is necessary to understand whether there is an ideal algorithm for fat burning with cardio-loading, and if so, how does it look?
Let's start with the basics. The nature of aerobic activity involves the use of fatty acids as the main source of fuel; carbohydrates and protein are consumed to a lesser extent. The conclusion is that if you are determined to lose weight, you need some amount of aerobic load as air.
What type of aerobic work is optimal for weight loss and drying is an open topic for discussion. In general, any cyclic exercise that is intense enough to stress the cardiovascular and respiratory system and force the body to use oxygen as a fuel to treat the energy level for a long time (15-20 minutes and longer) applies to aerobic activity in general. As a rule, aerobic exercises are performed with moderate intensity, although it is proved that during the high-intensity training more fat is burned.
Aerobic exercises include:
. and numerous modifications of these types of activity. Combining these exercises is that they involve the largest muscle arrays. The purpose of this article is to find the best aerobic techniques for weight loss and drying, and to explain how these techniques are effective.
In aerobic exercise, fats and carbohydrates in the presence of oxygen are used for the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main source of energy for all cells.
It should be borne in mind that fat is the most effective fuel for aerobic activity. The reserves of fatty tissue in the body are greater than the reserves of carbohydrates and protein. Burn fat in the presence of oxygen is easier and more profitable, and therefore fat plays the role of the main violin in the energy supply of aerobic activity, which lasts longer than explosive anaerobic work with the utilization of glycogen.
It turns out that during the aerobic work at medium revs you can spend more fat reserves. Mean intensity should be understood as the load at the level of 50-75% of the maximum heart rate (MCHSS), or within the notorious aerobic fat burning threshold. But will such a strategy be the most productive in the long term? Some researchers believe that no.
There is reason to believe that aerobic exercises at the level of MCHSS 75% and higher give a greater total energy expenditure, which ultimately leads to more tangible loss of fat tissue. (MCHSS is easy to calculate: you need to subtract your age from 220).
While the exercises are carried out within the aerobic threshold, that is, using oxygen, and do not become inherently anaerobic (with the transition to carbohydrate sources of fuel), increasing the intensity of training is only beneficial.
The more calories are consumed, the less likely that they will settle in the adipose tissue. During low-intensity aerobic work, the body does not spend a lot of fat, but cardio-loads at high speeds increase the total energy consumption. Although the percentage consumption of fatty calories may be lower, the total amount of utilized fats is incommensurably higher, which means that eventually the fatty tissue will become much smaller.
Of course, this does not mean that low-intensity loads are useless. They will also find use, and we will definitely talk about this. But if the task is to burn the maximum fat for a minimum period of time, high-intensity aerobic activity is beyond competition. Let's move on to the benefits of intense cardio compared to working at low revs.
For all types of aerobic activity, approximately the same effect on the body is typical, but high-intensity and low-intensity loads (although both options are performed within the so-called aerobic threshold) have certain features arising from their function.
To select the intensity needed to realize the potential of a particular type of aerobic exercise, it is important to determine the upper and lower threshold of the heart rate. The lower limit is at the level of 55% MWSS. The upper limit of the range is 80% MWSS. Use online calculators to find out these figures, or just take your age off 220, and then multiply the result by 0,55 and 0,80, respectively.
Any aerobic exercise, regardless of intensity:
Aerobic activity of low and medium intensity (50-75% MHSS) is good because:
High-intensity aerobic activity (70-85% MWSS):
Having determined the intensity of the cardio load (based on current training goals), you can proceed to the selection of aerobic exercises. Some of them are by default high-intensity, while others can be performed at low and moderate speeds. Some exercises are suitable for specific sports tasks, while others are more focused on reducing the percentage of fat tissue and improving the figure.
The key moment in choosing the optimal type of aerobic activity is to find an effective exercise that you like and that you can perform regularly.
Once walking was considered an ideal aerobic exercise for fat burning and health promotion, but today it is considered one of the least effective types of cardio-loading.
Although it is perfect for beginners, obese people and those who recover from trauma, walking will not be the best choice for drying and improving functional training, as its intensity is significantly inferior to other types of cardio. It is believed that the lower the intensity of work, the fewer calories burned per unit of time (it is also believed that 15 minutes of cycling consumes more calories than 45 minutes of walking at an average pace).
Moreover, an increased level of metabolism persists only for one to two hours after a walk, but after a high-intensity cardio-therapy, the metabolism is accelerated for 24 hours or even longer.
Walking is appropriate for the following purposes:
An example of a good walk schedule for beginners:
A more intense kind of cardio-loading than walking, not running a sprint, which refers to anaerobic exercises, is an effective, albeit rather difficult method of burning fat and increasing the endurance of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
The main advantage of running for weight loss in a sufficiently high intensity, which is necessary for burning more calories, and a longer subsequent increase in the level of basal metabolism.
Jogging is well suited for jogging because it assumes a relatively high aerobic intensity, but does not exceed the anaerobic threshold, after which carbohydrates become the main source of energy. Running, like walking, involves all the muscles of the lower body, only to a much greater extent.
Specifically, hip flexors, rear surface musculature, quadriceps, calf and soleus muscles (leg muscles) are involved in running, and this turns the jog into an excellent workout for the lower body. The muscles of the hands also participate in the process, which gives an additional lipolytic effect.
Running can be used for the following purposes:
Training plan for beginners:
The bike uses the same muscles as running, but it has a weighty advantage – a low load on the joints, which makes riding a bicycle the ideal exercise for almost everyone (except for people with certain injuries).
You can twist the pedals like on an exercise bike (the preferred option for those who want to say goodbye to fat reserves, since nothing will be distracting you on the simulator), and on ordinary roads.
Any of the options will suit almost everyone, regardless of training purposes. The speed or degree of resistance can be changed based on preferences in the intensity level. The bicycle fits perfectly into the VIIT paradigm (later this explanation is given a similar explanation), since from the lowest to the maximum intensity one can switch literally in fractions of a second. Bodybuilders riding a bicycle makes it possible to improve the drawing of the front quadriceps and achieve a clear relief before the competition.
A bicycle as an aerobic activity can be particularly useful in the following situations:
Training program for beginner cyclists:
Rowing the simulator is an excellent training for all muscle groups, and not just an excellent high-intensity load for cutting fat tissue. It could be called an ideal exercise, which studies all the main muscle arrays, in intensity exceeds walking, but does not give such a load to the joints, like running. In addition, energy consumption during rowing is greater than in any other popular aerobic exercise (about 840 calories per hour).
As an aerobic load, the rowing is useful for the following reasons:
Like rowing, swimming generates excellent training incentives for all muscle groups and, at the same time, burns a ton of calories. In this case, swimming can be attributed to safe exercises, because the body does not undergo axial weight loads in water, which minimizes the risk of injuries.
Swimming by popular freestyle is suitable for most people, but if you can, use a combination of styles to redistribute the load between muscle groups. This will also help to change the intensity and use more energy.
Swimming is an excellent aerobic activity for:
In jumps with a rope, the load on the joints is very high, but with proper application, the exercise allows an excellent aerobic exercise. It can also improve the relief of the gastrocnemius muscles and musculature of the shoulder girdle, as it actively recruits these muscle groups. Being one of the heaviest aerobic loads, jumping rope requires enormous skills, strength, focus and patience.
Few use this kind of aerobic activity, although jumping rope allows you to consume even more energy (more than 1000 calories) than rowing. The best exercise is suitable for short interval training, since long shock loads on the joints of the lower extremities can lead to injury.
Having mastered jumps with a skipping rope, you can use them for:
High-intensity interval training (VIIT) is considered one of the newest and most effective methods for losing weight. As many know from experience, VITC involves intense aerobic exercise, performed for a period of time less than with more traditional cardio training.
As the name implies, the VIIT combines high-speed work with extremely intensive intervals, which give the maximum lipolytic effect, and increases the level of basic metabolism by more than 24 hours after training.
Standard aerobic training (also useful in terms of fat burning) translates the body into a state of conservation of energy, in which the rate of metabolic processes is maintained at a stable level. This means that the body adapts to the load and tries to save calories. With the help of VIIT, the problem of saving energy can be solved, since the intensity of the load varies every minute.
Here is an example of a typical VIIT workout:
Using an exercise bike as an aerobic exercise, pedal at a moderate and high tempo (75-80% MChS) for two minutes. Then sharpen the revolutions so that the pulse rate increases markedly (for 90% MChSS). Work at the limit from 30 seconds to 1 minutes. Rotate the intervals for a total of 30 minutes. Running, rowing or swimming can also be used in the context of WIT.
VIIT is an ideal method for:
As with any kind of training, with aerobic exercises you can not hurry and run ahead of the locomotive. Start with minimal loads, especially if there is excess weight, or you are in unimportant physical form. Walking will become an ideal aerobic activity for beginners, since the load is much lower than in any other form of cardio training, and the shock load on the joints is relatively small.
Training off the bat can lead to injuries and burnout. It is equally important to enter every training session smoothly (if a high-intensity load is planned) to warm up the muscles and prepare the joints for the forthcoming work.
Although the concept of the fat burning threshold has already been discredited, it is still important to stay within the established range of heart rate to ensure the body works at full power. Using the formula above, you can determine the lower and upper limits of the heart rate range and correctly plan the training session. If possible, try working at the upper boundary to get the best result. Working below the set heart rate range will have very little effect, and training beyond the upper limit may result in injury.
Cardio-loads should always remain safe, while attempts to work for wear can have the opposite effect. Fat burning and other beneficial effects manifest themselves to the full extent, while the duration of the training session does not exceed 45-60 minutes (this duration is considered optimal for people in good physical shape).
Exceeding this limit can lead to chronic injuries (the nature of the damage depends on the type of cardioadload chosen) and the loss of muscle mass, which ultimately slows the metabolism and hampers the burning of fats. When combined with strength exercises (aerobic exercise combined with strength training is the best way to improve physical fitness), the cardio volume must be carefully controlled to prevent overtraining.
To get the most out of any aerobic exercise program, you need to plan its intensity, time and duration to get enough training effect. The values of these variables vary depending on the level of training and the planned training goals.
In the standard program of aerobic training (for people with an average level of RPC), the intensity should be in the range from 70 to 85% MFSS, the time is from 45 minutes to an hour, and the frequency is four times a week. Less trained people need to reduce the load.
Each aerobic exercise is accompanied by a significant loss of fluid with sweat and breathing, so it is important to drink water before, during (depending on the duration) and after training. Aerobic training without sufficient fluid intake (especially in the heat) can lead to dehydration and a drop in performance, so keep an eye on the hydration all the time.
To be in good shape, you need aerobic training, but different people need different types of training and different training techniques. To get the maximum result, it is important to choose the type of aerobic activity that is ideal for the goals and the initial level of preparation.
We hope that the article helped you to understand the advantages of various types of aerobic activity and various training concepts.